Multimedia And Contiguity Principles Casey Susan

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Information about Multimedia And Contiguity Principles Casey Susan

Published on February 17, 2009

Author: casey1

Source: slideshare.net

Description

My Multimedia and Contiguity Principles Presentation.

BY CASEY SUSAN ED TECH 513 FEBRUARY, 2009 Principles of Multimedia and Contiguity in an E-Learning Environment

Presentation Overview In this presentation you will become familiar with two e-learning principles. Both principles emphasize the need to streamline effective use of working memory (without overload) to create deeper learning. The Multimedia Principle The Contiguity Principle Additionally, you will participate in an assessment activity at the closure of this presentation.

In this presentation you will become familiar with two e-learning principles.

Both principles emphasize the need to streamline effective use of working memory (without overload) to create deeper learning.

The Multimedia Principle

The Contiguity Principle

Additionally, you will participate in an assessment activity at the closure of this presentation.

Instructional Objectives At then end of this presentation you will be able to: Correctly identify an example of The Multimedia Principle. Observe and discuss in a group an example of The Contiguity Principle. Demonstrate understanding of both principles through a series of questions.

At then end of this presentation you will be able to:

Correctly identify an example of The Multimedia Principle.

Observe and discuss in a group an example of The Contiguity Principle.

Demonstrate understanding of both principles through a series of questions.

The Multimedia Principle The Multimedia Principle states that e-learning courses should consist of both words and graphics rather than just words. A multimedia presentation consists of any presentation that simultaneously includes: still images/graphics or animated graphics Pictures, charts, graphs, movie files, etc. readable or audible text Written text or spoken audio files

The Multimedia Principle states that e-learning courses should consist of both words and graphics rather than just words.

A multimedia presentation consists of any presentation that simultaneously includes:

still images/graphics or animated graphics

Pictures, charts, graphs, movie files, etc.

readable or audible text

Written text or spoken audio files

Graphics for Learning There are six levels of graphics than can enhance a learning event and give more in-depth instruction. Types: Decorative Representational Relational Organizational Transformational Interpretive It is best if learning visuals incorporate the last four levels rather than the first two in order to create opportunities for deeper understanding.

There are six levels of graphics than can enhance a learning event and give more in-depth instruction.

Types:

Decorative

Representational

Relational

Organizational

Transformational

Interpretive

It is best if learning visuals incorporate the last four levels rather than the first two in order to create opportunities for deeper understanding.

Graphic Types In-Depth Decorative-used just for decorative purposes. Representational-demonstrates characteristics. Relational-demonstrates quantifiable relationships between two or more items. (i.e. Graph) Organizational-depicts relationships in an organized format. (Diagrams, Matrices, etc.) Transformational-show changes occurring in a timeframe. (Videos, Still frame time lapse, etc.) Interpretive- illustrates imperceptible associations such as wind and weather patterns, water currents, etc.

Decorative-used just for decorative purposes.

Representational-demonstrates characteristics.

Relational-demonstrates quantifiable relationships between two or more items. (i.e. Graph)

Organizational-depicts relationships in an organized format. (Diagrams, Matrices, etc.)

Transformational-show changes occurring in a timeframe. (Videos, Still frame time lapse, etc.)

Interpretive- illustrates imperceptible associations such as wind and weather patterns, water currents, etc.

Effective Use of Graphics

The Multimedia Principle in Action Example and Non-Example using readable text and static graphics: Which is an example of the Multimedia Principle in Action? To add using number strings simply find two or more numbers that add up to a landmark number (or as close as possible) and draw a line connecting the two numbers. Write the sum where they connect. Continue this with the remaining numbers until you come up with a total sum for the equation. Write the total sum for the equation. Use landmark numbers to show your work using lines. Make sure you keep track of your adding to get the final sum.

Example and Non-Example using readable text and static graphics:

Which is an example of the Multimedia Principle in Action?

To add using number strings simply find two or more numbers that add up to a landmark number (or as close as possible) and draw a line connecting the two numbers. Write the sum where they connect. Continue this with the remaining numbers until you come up with a total sum for the equation. Write the total sum for the equation.

Use landmark numbers to show your work using lines. Make sure you keep track of your adding to get the final sum.

Best Use of the Multimedia Principle In order to create a more effective lesson in which a student becomes an active participant in their learning. To create deeper mental connections between words and pictures in a lesson activity. To offer beginners powerful first experiences in their new material. Novices benefit from multimedia activities.

In order to create a more effective lesson in which a student becomes an active participant in their learning.

To create deeper mental connections between words and pictures in a lesson activity.

To offer beginners powerful first experiences in their new material. Novices benefit from multimedia activities.

The contiguity principle The Contiguity Principle states that words should be closely linked to images or graphics in order to facilitate a more learner focused lesson. There are two sections of the Contiguity Principle: Printed Words Spoken Words

The Contiguity Principle states that words should be closely linked to images or graphics in order to facilitate a more learner focused lesson.

There are two sections of the Contiguity Principle:

Printed Words

Spoken Words

Contiguity Principle Segment 1 The position of printed text needs to be located closely to related graphics. Non-Examples include the following: In a scrolling window text and subsequent graphic are split. Feedback from a practice or question is located on a different screen. Graphic in one window and related text in another window. Directions to an exercise are separated from the application which they reference. Legends located away from graphic elements. Text always located separately from all graphics in one central location on the screen. (Text always on top/bottom).

The position of printed text needs to be located closely to related graphics.

Non-Examples include the following:

In a scrolling window text and subsequent graphic are split.

Feedback from a practice or question is located on a different screen.

Graphic in one window and related text in another window.

Directions to an exercise are separated from the application which they reference.

Legends located away from graphic elements.

Text always located separately from all graphics in one central location on the screen. (Text always on top/bottom).

Example of Contiguity Principle 1 Notice the proximity of the directions to the hyperlink. This is an example of one from a series of still graphics designed to assist users in accessing information.

Contiguity Principle Segment 2 Narration and Graphics should be synchronized similarly to printed text and graphics. Non-Examples include the following: Icons that identify graphics and narration separately. Graphics and Narration are presented separately in a presentation.

Narration and Graphics should be synchronized similarly to printed text and graphics.

Non-Examples include the following:

Icons that identify graphics and narration separately.

Graphics and Narration are presented separately in a presentation.

Example of Contiguity Principle 2 Watch this short tutorial and look for synchronized audio and screen visuals. Creating a Class in SuccessNet In your group discuss the following: How well does the narration synchronize with the text and processes? How would this tutorial be different if the narration was separated from the graphic?

Watch this short tutorial and look for synchronized audio and screen visuals.

Creating a Class in SuccessNet

In your group discuss the following:

How well does the narration synchronize with the text and processes?

How would this tutorial be different if the narration was separated from the graphic?

Assessment Questions Which principle identifies the need to use both words and graphics instead of just words alone? A: Contiguity Principle B: Generally Accepted Accounting Principles C: Multimedia Principle D: Pareto’s Principle Answer: C: Multimedia Principle

Which principle identifies the need to use both words and graphics instead of just words alone?

A: Contiguity Principle

B: Generally Accepted Accounting Principles

C: Multimedia Principle

D: Pareto’s Principle

Answer: C: Multimedia Principle

Assessment Questions Which principle identifies the need to place words and text in close proximity or synchronously? A: Contiguity Principle B: Generally Accepted Accounting Principles C: Multimedia Principle D: Pareto’s Principle Answer: A: Contiguity Principle

Which principle identifies the need to place words and text in close proximity or synchronously?

A: Contiguity Principle

B: Generally Accepted Accounting Principles

C: Multimedia Principle

D: Pareto’s Principle

Answer: A: Contiguity Principle

Assessment Questions An effective use of graphics in a learning scenario might be to demonstrate the steps in using a mathematical algorithm. True or False? Answer: True

An effective use of graphics in a learning scenario might be to demonstrate the steps in using a mathematical algorithm. True or False?

Answer: True

Assessment Questions It is better to have one separate location for graphics and one for sound in an e-learning scenario? Answer: False. It is better to have sound and graphics together working simultaneously.

It is better to have one separate location for graphics and one for sound in an e-learning scenario?

Answer: False. It is better to have sound and graphics together working simultaneously.

Reference and More Information Colvin Clark, R., & Mayer, R. (2008). E-Learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumersand designers of multimedia learning .San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.

Colvin Clark, R., & Mayer, R. (2008). E-Learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumersand designers of multimedia learning .San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.

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