Multidimensional crop improvement to increase overall productivity in mixed crop-livestock systems and to support intensification of livestock

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Published on March 11, 2014

Author: ILRI

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Presented by Michael Blummel, Purvi Mehta and Iain A. Wright at the Norman Borlaug Centenary Dialogue, Chennai, India, 13-15 March 2014

Multidimensional crop improvement to increase overall productivity in mixed crop-livestock systems and to support intensification of livestock Michael Blümmel, Purvi Mehta and Iain A. Wright Norman Borlaug Centenary Dialogue, Chennai, India 13-15 March 2014

Topics 2  Importance of crop residues as feed resource: contribution, demand, monetary value  What differences/quality increments in crop residue fodder quality matter, and why  Exploitable variation in fodder traits in existing cultivars  Targeted genetic enhancement in fodder traits  Feed and intensification of dairy production

Dual-purpose crops: demand, value and exploiting existing variations 3

4 Key feed sources in India: 2003 and 2020 Feed Resource % Crop Residues Planted fodder crops 2003 2020 44.2 69.0 34.1 ? Greens (F/F/CPR/WL) 17.8 <10 Concentrates 3.9 7.3 (summarized from NIANP, 2005 and Ramachandra et al., 2007)

Sorghum stover trading in Hyderabad 5

Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Ju Jul Aug Sep Oc Nov 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Sorghum grain Sorghum stover 3.4 6.5 Month of trading IndianRupeeperkg Yearly mean 2004 to 2005 Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Ju Jul Aug Sep Oc Nov 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Sorghum stover Sorghum grain 6.2 10.2 Yearly mean 2008 to 2009 Month of trading Comparisions of average cost of dry sorghum stover traded in Hyderabad and average of cost of sorghum grain in Andhra Pradesh 2005 to 2005 and 2008 to 2009 Changes in grain: stover value in sorghum traded in Hyderabad from 2004 to 2009

Type and cost of sorghum stover traded monthly 2004-2005 in Hyderabad, India Stover type Price IR / kg DM Andhra 3.52b Andhra Hybrid 3.15cd Ballary Hybrid 3.54b Raichur 3.89a Rayalaseema 3.23c Telangana (Local Y) 3.06d 7Blümmel and Parthasarathy, 2006

Relation between digestibility and price of sorghum stover 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.2 y = -4.9 + 0.17x; R2 = 0.75; P = 0.03 Stover in vitro digestibility (%) Stoverprice(IR/kgDM) Premium Stover “Raichur” Low Cost Stover “Local Yellow” Blümmel and Parthasarathy, 2006

9 Large scale rice straw trading in Bihar, India Chopping and retailing of rice straw in Bihar, India

Price: quality relation estimates in rice straw traded monthly in Kolkata from 2008 to 2009 37.0 37.5 38.0 38.5 39.0 39.5 40.0 40.5 41.0 41.5 42.0 2.75 3.00 3.25 3.50 3.75 4.00 4.25 Best (n=81) Good (n=260) Medium/low (n=273) In vitro digestibility of rice straw (%) PriceofricestrawatKolkatatraders from2008-2009(IndianRupees/kg) Teufel et al., 2010

Ingredients % Sorghum stover 50 Bran/husks/hulls 18 Oilcakes 18 Molasses 8 Grains 4 Minerals, vitamins, urea 2 Feed block manufacturing: supplementation, densification Courtesy: Miracle Fodder and Feeds PVT LTD

Comparisons of higher and lower quality sorghum stover based complete feed blocks in dairy buffalo Block High (52% dig) Block Low (47% dig) CP 17.2 % 17.1% ME (MJ/kg) 8.46 MJ/kg 7.37 MJ/kg DMI 19.7 kg/d 18.0 kg/d DMI per kg LW 3.6 % 3.3 % Milk Potential 16.6 kg/d 11.8 kg/d Anandan et al. (2009a)

Stover digestibility and grain yield in new sorghum cultivars release-tested in India between 2002 and 2008 34 37 40 43 46 49 52 55 58 61 64 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 Kharif: y = 1473 + 44.2x; r = 0.17; P=0.05 Rabi: y = 9208 -132x; r = -0.47; P < 0.0001 Stover in vitro organic digestibility (%) Grainyield(kg/ha) Blümmel et al. 2010

Straw in vitro organic matter digestibility and grain yield in 437 cultivars from IRRI 32.5 35.0 37.5 40.0 42.5 45.0 47.5 50.0 52.5 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 AROMATICS HYBRIDS INDICA NPT Released varieties y = 10 650 - 103.7x; r= - 0.19 P=<0.0001 Straw in vitro organic matter digestibility (%) Grainyield(kg/ha) Source: Blümmel et al. 2007

Blümmel et al., unpublished

Blümmel et al., unpublished

Dual-purpose crops: targeted genetic enhancement

Response of stover in vitro digestibility to 2 cycles of selection Digestibility % Grain Yield kg/ha Stover yield kg/ha Original 43.6 2 669 3 095 H1 44.5 2 596 3 460 L1 42.1 2 592 2 889 H2 45.8 2 564 3 168 L2 42.0 2 408 2 731 Choudhary et al (in preparation )

Mode of inheritance of some key traits in pearl millet stover Trait Parent Crosses High Low H x H H x L L x L N % 0.85 0.72 0.84 0.80 0.73 Digest. % 43.3 40.3 43.7 42.2 40.3 Choudhary et al (2010)

Berhanu et al 2013

Blümmel at al., unpublished Effect of introgression of different stay green QTL’s on stover digestibity of a Rabi sorghum background

23 Qualitative trait prediction in plant breeding based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) Non-evasive c. 200 samples/d >30 traits Physico-chemical c. 60 000 US $ Calibration Validation NIRS equations sharable across compatible instruments At current: ILRI

Key findings: dual-purpose crops targeted genetic enhancement Generally more expensive and longer term than exploiting variations in existing dual–purpose cultivars Conventional plant breeding can increase for example digestibility by 3 to 5 percent units  Several trait improvements feasible for example stay green effects on fodder quality and water use efficiency Need for more conceptually designed proof-of-concept research, for example to determine ceiling values

Key elements of intensification: relativity of feed requirements and implications

Feed allocation, methane production and natural resource utilization India: Livestock and milk in 2005-06 Milch animals Total animals Milk yield x 103 kg/d Cross Bred 8 216 28 391 6.44 Local 28 370 155 805 1.97 Buffalo 33 137 101 253 4.40 Overall herd mean 3.61 l/d

Actual average across herd milk yields (3.61 kg/d) and scenario-dependent ME requirements for total milk production (81.8 million t/y) in India in 2005 ME required (MJ x 109) Milk (kg/d) Maintenance Production Total 3.61 (05/06) 1247.6 573.9 1821.5 6 (Scenario 1) 749.9 573.9 1323.8 9 (Scenario 2) 499.9 573.9 1073.8 12 (Scenario 3) 374.9 573.9 948.8 15 (Scenario 4) 299.9 573.9 873.9

Effect of increasing average daily milk yields on overall methane emissions from dairy in India 0 3 6 9 12 15 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Daily milk yield per animal (liter) Methaneproduced(Tg) current herd average milk yield of 3.61 l/d (Blϋmmel et al. 2009)

(2005-06) 2020 2020 (fixed LP Milk (million tons) 91.8 172 172 yield/day (kg) 3.6 5.24 6.76 Numbers (000) 69759 89920 * 69759 Metabolizable energy requirements (MJ x 109) Maintenance 1247.64 1608.22 1247.6 Production 573.94 1075.00 1075.00 total 1821.58 2683.22 23266.6 Feed Req.( m tons) 247.50 364.57 315.6 * Calculated based on CAGR Livestock revolution: Impact on energy and feed requirements

Findings: key elements of intensification Important to realize that feed demand is context specific  Increasing per animal productivity and decreasing numbers of animals will have multiple beneficial effects  Reallocations of currently available feed resources in India could probably raise per animal productivity to 10 to 12 kg of milk per day

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