Published on March 9, 2014
In The Name Of Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful.
Group Members Mohammad Abu Bakr Mohammad Ali Jibran Mohammad Awais Riaz Hassan Abdullah Khan Mirza Shahab Ud Din
Introduction • Pakistan came into existence on 14th of August, 1947. An estimate of 7 million Muslims migrated to Pakistan. The population of Pakistan lies around 18 crores. • The total population of Pakistan is composed of people of different cultures, ethnicities’ and heritages. • Pakistan was divided into four major provinces under the constitution of 1973. This taken into consideration implies on the fact that there are different languages spoken in Pakistan. • The provinces named Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, KPK, & Gilgit-Baltistan. Each province has its own Language.
LANGUAGES The major Languages spoken in Pakistan are: • Urdu • Punjabi • Pashto • Sindhi • Balochi • Balti & Gilgiti
Urdu • The National Language: –Origin –Books & Poets –Mughals Reign By M. Abu Bakr
• About 8% of total population of Pakistan speaks Urdu. • Origin of Urdu language can traced to the advent of Islam in the subcontinent. • The first poetry in Urdu was by the Persian poet Amir Khusro (1253–1325) • The first Urdu book "Woh Majlis" was written in 1728. • The first time the word "Urdu" was used was by Sirajuddin Ali khan Arzoo in 1741.
URDU • It began to take shape in what is now continued to develop under the Mughal Empire (1526–1858). The Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir (1658-1707) spoke Urdu fluently as did his descendants. • At the end of 18th century, Urdu had taken place of Persian as the language of Muslim culture in India.
Punjabi • Main Points: –History –World Ranking –Poets –Dialects of Punjabi. By Mirza Shah
PUNJABI • The l ar gest l anguage spoken i n Paki st an i s Punj abi , ar ound 60% of t he t ot al popul at i on. • Ther e ar e 88 m l l i on nat i ve speaker s of i t he Punj abi l anguage, w ch m hi akes i t appr oxi m el y t he 10t h m w del y spoken at ost i l anguage i n t he w l d. or • I t i s an anci ent l anguage, exact t r ace of i t s or i gi ns i s unknow but exper t s bel i eve n t hat i t goes as ol d as 2500 BC .
PUNJABI • Punj abi i s descended f r om : – Pr ocr i t • Vedi c per i od (1700 B.C ) – Pal i (O d Per si an) & A l pabhr am sha • A shoka per i od (273 B.C - 232 B.C ) – H ndvi , Lahor i and M t ani i ul • M i mper i od (711 A.D - 1857 A.D usl ) • Punj abi l i t er at ur e w pr i nci pal l y spi r i t ual as i n nat ur e and has had a ver y r i ch or al t r adi t i on. • G ener al l y B aba Far i d ud D n G -Shakr i s know i anj n t o be t he f i r st Punj abi poet .
Dialects of Punjabi • Namely: – Majhi – It is spoken in cities located in the heart of Punjabi i.e. Lahore, Gujranwala, Narowal etc. – Shahpuri – It is mainly spoken in the Western and North Western parts of Punjab. – Pothowari – It is spoken in the Northern Punjab, the areas of Murree hills and plains around Rawalpindi. – Hindko – A different dialect of Punjabi, It is spoken in the North-Western Punjab and the Southern KPK and also in the area of Murree. – Dhani – It is spoken mainly in the Chakwal District. – Saraiki – Its different more than any other dialect of Punjabi. It is spoken all over Punjab but majority speakers are in South.
Pashto • Main Points: –History –Poets –Dialects of Pashto. By Hassan Abdullah
PASHTO Pashto is the first language of about 10% of the total population mainly located in KPK. Before the arrival of Muslims in the Sub-continent Pashto was lettered in Kharoshti script. Although Pashto was influenced by many foreign languages like Turkish, Pali and Sanskrit, but these influences did not make any substantial change in it’s basically Islamic Character. The first Pashto poet Amir Karore was born between 8th and 15th century AD, also born during this period were notable poets like Sher Shah Suri and Bayazid Ansari.
PASHTO Tappa is the oldest poem in Pashto poetic form. Among Famous Pashto poets are: Khushal Khan Khattak (1613–1689) Rehman Baba (1633–1708) & Abdul Hameed Baba (1651–1732) . Ahmed Shah Abdali, founder of modern Afghanistan is one of the leading Pashto poets. Peshawar is the biggest Pashto speaking city . There are two major dialect patterns. – Pakhto - Which is the Northern variety. – The softer Pashto spoken in the Southern Areas.
Sindhi • Main Points: –History –Poets –Dialects of Sindhi. By Ali Jibra
SINDHI A t ot al of 12% of t ot al popul at i on of Paki st an speaks Si ndhi , m l y l ocat ed i n ost Si ndh. I t i s bel i eved t he Si ndhi w bor n even as bef or e Sanskr i t w ch i s gener al l y hel d t o hi be t he m anci ent I ndi an Language, peopl e ost l i vi ng of bot h si des of t he r i ver I ndus as ear l y as B 2000 spoke Si ndhi . C Si ndhi i s t he f i r st l anguage i n sout h A a si t he hol y Q an w t r ansl at ed i nt o. ur as
SINDHI • Shah Abdu Latif Bhatai is admittedly the greatest poet Sindhi had so far produced. • Sachal Sarmast is another great Sindhi poet who composed in almost the same age. • The major dialects of Sindhi are: – – – – – – Sireli Vicholi Lari Thari Lasi Kachhi
Balochi • Main Points: –History –Poets –Dialects of Balochi. By Awais Ria
BALOCHI The 10% of the population of Pakistan that speaks Balochi are located in Baluchistan. Among these 10% also included are the dialects of Pashto. It is believed that the language was brought to its present location in a series of migrations from the Kurdistan region of northeastern Iraq and northwestern Iran. Since Balochis did not know the art of writing and they had no script, therefore it is difficult to trace the origin of Balochi language. Linguistics believe that Balochi belongs to the family of Aryan languages.
BALOCHI Balochi being a very poetic and rich language has a certain degree of affinity to Persian and Urdu. There are different dialects of Balochi language. Namely: – Rakhshani – Kethran Rakhshani further has four sub-dialects: Sarhaddi Makrani Qalati Chagai Kharani
Balti & Others The language spoken in the areas of Baltistan is called Balti, an archaic dialect of Tibetan language. Gigliti and Shina is widely spoken in the area of GilgitBaltistan Province. There are also other languages spoken Namely: • Punyali • Astori • Gurezi • Drasi • Chilasi • Brokpa By Awais Ria
Conclusion Except the main four languages there are also more than 300 dialects of different languages currently spoken in country being distinctly different from each other, as Pakistani society is largely multilingual, multi-ethnic and multicultural.
Bibliography Bibliography www.cotf.edu/earthinfo/sasia en.wikipedia.org Pakistan Studies for Intermediate Classes
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