Published on January 1, 2008
MTBE and TBA Remediation Using Activated Carbon and BioRemedy®: MTBE and TBA Remediation Using Activated Carbon and BioRemedy® Calgon Carbon Corporation Ward Rogers, Manager Environmental Sales and Kim Thompson, Market Manager Activated Carbon Definition: Activated Carbon Definition Activated carbon is a mixture of graphite platelets which are randomly organized and which contain aliphatic dislocations This structure enables activated carbon to exhibit the strongest physical adsorption forces of any material known to mankind What is Biological Activated Carbon: What is Biological Activated Carbon It is the Biological Process working in the cracks, crevices and macropores of the GAC Bacteria live in the Cracks and Crevices Bacteria live in the man-made pores created by reagglomeration (Bituminous Coal) Bacteria live in the macropores inherent in the Activated Carbon MTBE / TBA: MTBE / TBA MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether) is a fuel oxygenate, octane enhancer and facilitator for cleaner burning fuels Very water soluble, low adsorbability and slow biodegradability in natural enviroment TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) is a natural degradation byproduct of MTBE More water soluble than MTBE therefore less adsorbable MTBE Background: MTBE Background MTBE Introduced to meet requirements of 1990 Clean Air Act Primarily reformulated gasoline programs (RFG) (1995) Over 85% of “RFG” contains MTBE … about 11% by volume High production period: 1994 – 2002\ Geographical concentration About 20+ states were in the “RFG” / Oxyfuels programs MTBE use more prevailant in California(40%) and the Northeast Contamination concerns 35% of community water systems may have been contaminated Release locations: California, Northeast, TX/LA, MI/WI/IN MTBE Background: MTBE Background Regulatory Issues Increasing occurance in drinking water supplies: taste & odor issues and potential carcinogen 11 states have baned or limited MTBE usage MTBE to be phased out 2003 – 2005 The gasoline additive methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a regulated drinking water contaminant in California, with a primary maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 13 micrograms per liter (µg/L), effective May 2000, that addresses health concerns California’s public health goal is also 13 µg/L, a secondary MCL of 5 µg/L, effective January 1999, that addresses concerns about taste and odor New York has a state groundwater cleanup guideline of 10 ppb Treatment Technology Options: Treatment Technology Options Air Stripping Commonly used technology MTBE and TBA are difficult to air strip due to relatively high water solubility Carbon Adsorption Established technology Relatively low capacities for MTBE and ever lower for TBA Advanced Oxidation Process Limited experience for fuel oxygenates May develop oxidation byproducts Resins Limited experience costly BioRemedy®: BioRemedy® Microbes have been isolated from nature that specifically degrade MTBE/TBA Activated Carbon has been proven to be an excellent bio support media What Happens to the Organics and Microbes: What Happens to the Organics and Microbes The Oxygenates should degrade to water, carbon dioxide and growth of microbes As the microbe population increases, aged microbes will die off as DOC – decay organic content DOC will be in the form of fumic or fulvic acids Parameters For BioGAC: Parameters For BioGAC Economic Analysis(Highly dependent on water chemistry): Economic Analysis (Highly dependent on water chemistry) Activated Carbon* $1.86 - $4.31 / 1,000 gal. treated UV / Peroxide Advanced Oxidation* $0.76 - $10.64 / 1,000 gal. treated Ozone / Peroxide Advanced Oxidation* $1.52 – $11.02 / 1,000 gal. treated BioRemedy® $1.10 - $1.89 / 1,000 gal. treated *Costs based on 2003 Water Research Study by the University of Missouri BioRemedy® Economic Analysis: BioRemedy® Economic Analysis The capital costs are very similar to GAC systems, however the operating costs are significantly lower than all competing technologies. CASE STUDIES: CASE STUDIES Hampton Bays – Case Study: Hampton Bays – Case Study Result of Inoculation & Biodegradation Development BioRemedy® BioGAC system at Hampton Bays, NY Approximately 3000 gallons of oxygenated gasoline leaked in Hampton Bays, NY via a retail gas station over a 7 year time frame Several Interim Remedial Measures (IRM’s) were instituted by the NYSDEC – one of which is a 65 gpm exsitu treatment system utilizing BioRemedy® Slide20: Influent 65 gpm 60 oF GAC1 10000 # GAC 1 Effluent GAC 2 Effluent Stripper 1 Effluent Stripper 2 Efluent GAC2 10000 # BioGAC inoculation began 8 days after system start up Hampton Bays Case Study: Hampton Bays Case Study Hampton Bays Case Study: Hampton Bays Case Study Hampton Bays Case Study: Hampton Bays Case Study Hampton Bays Case Study: Hampton Bays Case Study Hampton Bays Case Study: Hampton Bays Case Study Hampton Bays Case Study: Hampton Bays Case Study Fuel Terminal Remediation in California: Fuel Terminal Remediation in California Northern California Retail Site: Northern California Retail Site Southern California Retail Site: Southern California Retail Site Citations: Citations Sutherland, et. al. “Treatment of MTBE by air stripping, carbon adsorption, and advanced oxidation: technical and economic comparison for five groundwaters” University of Missouri, Water Research, Elsevier Ltd. 2003 California MTBE Research Partnership, “Treatment Technologies for Removal of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) from Drinking Water: Air Stripping, Advanced Oxidation Processes, Granular Activated Carbon, and Synthetic Resin Sorbents” Second Edition, Feb. 2000.