Mt lasut 1998-polinices-pmbc

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Published on December 13, 2010

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Phuket Marine Biological Center Special Publication 78(2):285-296. (1998) 285GENUS POLINICES MONTFORT 1810 (GASTROPODA: NATICIDAE) FROM NORTHERN PENINSULAR MINAHASA (SULAWESI, INDONESIA) Markus T. LasutLaboratory of Marine Sciences, Faculty of Fisheries & Marine Sciences Uniuersity of Sam Ratulangi, Fahultas Perikanan Unsrat. Jl. Kampus Bahu 95115 Maruado, Indonesia ABSTRACTA total of 65 specimens of the genus Polinices Montfort, 1810 were collected from Decem-ber 1996 to February 1997 in intertidal areas at Bunaken, Tiwoho, and Likupang, North-ern Sulawesi. Four species were identified: Polinices (Mctmmilla) melanostoma (Gmelin,I79l);P.(M.)sebae(R6cluz,L844);P.(Polinices)flemingianus (R6cluz,1844);P(P)turnidus(Swainson, 1840). One species, (referred to as P. (P.) sp. 1) could not be identified. Thespecies are described, illustrated, and keys provided for the identification. INTRODLICTION MATERIALS AND METHODSPolinices Montfort, 1810 (family Naticida: The specimens were collected from Decem-Prosobranchia, Mesogastropoda) is one of ber 1996 to February 1997 in intertidal ar-the24 naticid genera recognized world-wide eas at three localities: Bunaken (1), Tiwoho(Abbott & Dance 1990). It was originally de- (2) and Likupang (3) (Fig. 1). Live and deadscribed by Linnaeus in the Systema Natu- shells were collected upon encounter. Liverae 1758 (Kabat 1990a). Polinicids are com- specimens were fixed in 70 7o alcohol. Eachmon throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific. specimen was measured using vernier calli-They are sand-dwellers of the intertidal re- pers to the nearest 0.05 mm. Indices weregion and leave wide tracks in the sand when calculated and summarized (Tab. 1 and Fig.they move below the surface (Cernohorsky 2). Most indices are expressed as percent-1971; Kabat 1996). They belong to the group age oftotal shell length (TSL) and denotedof shellboringpredators (Kabat 1990b). One by the suffix I, eg WBI = yy3715l . 100. Clas-of the species,P. didyma, is edible and of com- sifications of species are in accordance withmercial value in Thailand (Nateewathana Cernohorsky (1971) and Kilburn (1976). The1995). material examined is deposited in the Labo- The distribution of naticids in the tropi- ratory of Marine Sciences, Faculty of Fish-cal Indo-Pacific has been recorded by sev- eries and Marine Sciences, the Universityeral authors (Cernohorsky 1971; Kilburn of Sam Ratulangi, Indonesia.1976; Bussarawit 1995) including the Indo-nesian Archipelago (Roberts et al. 7982; SYSTEMATIC ACCOUNTDharma 1988;Latama & Nessa 1994;Litaay1994; Boneka et aI. 1995). Superfamily Naticacea The present paper is a contribution to Family Naticidae Forbes, 1838studies on biodiversity ofintertidal flats in Naticidae (Moon shells) are characterized byNorthern Sulawesi. Available descriptions small or moderate-size shells, globular orare summarised in the text and compared flattened in shape, smooth and glossy. Um-with material collected in the present study bilicus open or closed, sometimes with anareas. In general, the naticids do not present internal rib. Operculum thick and calcare-taxonomic problems, but one species did not ous or thin and corneous. Aperture large.frt any of the existing descriptions and may Carnivorous sand-dwellers which lay eggsrepresent a variety of Polinices tumidus, or in acollarof sand and mucus (Dance 1976;is an undescribed species. Fish & Fish 1989;Abbott & Dance 1990).

286 Tlopical Marine Mollusc Programme (TMMP) SULAWESI 124"40E 125. E Sulawesi s:s_El ((--Y-t r #^ D -) ( r--ts J ./ t- G L{ Yor? Banda s"" | ).ryt 6lly"i"n-. Java SeaFigure 1. Sampling localities: 1) Bunaken, 2)Tiwoho,3) Likupang. Figure 2. Counts and measurements (see Tab. 1).Key to subfarnilies of the family Naticidae(adapted from Kilburn 1976) the umbilical callus; parietal callus promi-1. Operculum calcareous. Naticinae ..... ... .. . nent, funicle (rib present within the umbili-1. Operculum corneous ....,......2 cus) coalesced with umbilical callus (Cerno-2. Shell of typical naticoid form; smooth or horsky 1971). The type genus of the sub- with only faint sculpture; soft part re- family Polinicinae is the genus of the type tractile...... ........Polinicinae species (original designation) Polinices albus2. Aperture large to enormous, shell often Montfort, 1810 (Kabat 1990a). auriform, usually spirally lirate; soft parts not completely retractile. . . Sininae Key to subgenera of genus Polinices (adapted from Kilburn 1976)Subfamily Polinicinae Gray, 7847Operculum corneous; soft parts proportion- 1. Oblong-ovate, spire low; columella longally large, but retractile; shell smooth (Cer- and almost straight, callus narroq usu-nohorsky 197 1; Kilburn 1976). ally dark, reflected over the narrow slit- like umbilicus; funicle w eak. ..Mq.mmillaGenus Polinices Montfort, 1810 2. Globular to ovate-conical, umbilicus usu-Polinices Montfort, 1810. Cernohorsky 1971: ally open, sometimes more or less closed1 91. by a callus pad; columella callus not re-Polinices Montfort, 1810. Kilburn 1976:855. flected. Umbilicus closed or forming thePolinices Montfort, 1810. Kabat 1990: 16. merest chink.. . . . . . . ..........Polinlces s. str. Operculum corneous; shell and radula ba- Subgenus Mammilla Schumacher, 1817sically similar to that of Nq.tica (Cerno- M ammillq, Schumache r, 78L7 . Cernohorskyhorsky 1971; Kilburn 1976). Shell moderate 1971: size, inflated, solid, porcellaneous and M ammilla Schumache r, 1817 . Kilburn 1976:smooth apart from irregular growth striae; 860.sutures indistinct and adpressed; aperturesemi-ovate, smooth within; umbilicus broad Shell small to moderate in size, thin-and deep, partly or completely covered by shelled, oblong-ovate with low conical spire,

Phuh,et Marine Biological Center Special Publication 78(2):285-296. (1998) 287Table 1. Definitions of counts, measurements and indices.TSL Total Shell Length Measured from the top ofapex to the distal end ofthe shell.WBI Width of the Body whorl Index Measured across the body whorl; as an index of width.HBI Height of the Body whorl Index Measured from the dorsal to the ventral part of the body; as an index of thickness.SLI Spire Length Index Measured from the apex to the end ofthe spire.BLI Shoulder Length Index Measured from rear canal to the top of the apex.CLI Columella Length Index Measured from the anterior to the posterior of the columella.ULI Length of the Umbilical callus Index Measured from the anterior to the posterior of the umbilical callus.thin and smooth or sculptured with fine spi- Poliniees (Marnmilla) nLel&nostonxo (Gmelin,ral striae; whorls small, separated by adpres- 1791). Kilburn 1976: 865.sed sutures, body whorl large. Columella cal- Polinice s (M amntilla) nLel&no stonxus (Gme-lus usually brown, narrow, partially reflected lin, 1791). Roberts et a|.7982:62-63, pl. 17,over the slit-like umbilicus ; funicle indistinct fig.5 (shell).or absent; externally often with fine spiral Polinices nLela,nostomus (Gmelin, 1791).striae, and usually marked with brown. Dharma 1988:67, pl. 19, fig. 9 (shell).Operculum is corneous (Cernohorsky 1971; Polinices nlelqnostomus (Gmelin, 179I).Kilburn 1976). Abbott & Dance 1990: 104 (figure of shells). Mammilla nlel&nostomo (Gmelin). DanceKey to species of subgenus Mammilla L992:77 (shell).(adapted from Kilburn 1976) See also Annex.Mammilla from Northern Peninsular Mina- Material examined.: Dead shells of 5 speci-hasa have whitish shells with rows of brown mens, locality: 7,2,3.spots or streaks, or zoned with dark and light Description: Shape oblong-ovate (Fig. 3Abrown; columella without a white basal spot. & B), width about 76Vo andthickness about 57 7o of TSL, surface sculptured by distinct1. Operculum dark reddish-brown, com- grornth lines and very fine spiral striae, frag- pletely filling aperture. Body whorl with ile, inside aperture glossy with macroscopic diffuse zones of dark and light spiral. Apex pointed (Fig. 3D). Colour white brown........ .....melo,nostonl& to cream, ornamented with a broad, brown-2. Operculum pale yellow or brownish- ish zone adjacent to suture containing ir- orange,occupying more than 213 length regular maculation and dots, the brownish of the aperture; umbilicus entered by a zone transparent inside aperture. Funicle reddish-brown band; body whorl with weak (Fig. 3C). Callus dark brown and thick, well-defined brown spots and streaks; folded on umbilicus without completely cov- spire lower, body whorl wider........ .sebo,e ering it (Fig. 3C); a prominent, curved dark brown zone extending from the center ofthePolinice s (Mammilla) nLelanostonxo (Gmelin, umbilicus to the base (Fig. 3C, BZ). Spire1791) (Fig. 3A-D;Tab. 2) moderately high (Fig. 3D). Aperture wide and oblong-ovate (Fig. 3A). Umbilicus withPolinices (Mammillq.) meldnostonxus (Gme- a narrow and deep groove, umbilical calluslin, 1791). Cernohorsky 7971: 197, figs. 62- straight (Fig. 3C). Columella stained light65 (radula, operculum and shells). brown in inner part (FiS. 3C),length (CLI)

288 Tropical Marine Mollusc Programme (TMMP)Table 2. Indices, number of specimens (n), means,standard deviation (SD), and ranges of selectedmeasurements (in 7o) of Polinices (Mamrnilla)melanostoma (Gmelin, 1791) from Northern Pe-ninsular Minahasa.WBI 5 75.83 2.84 73.13-80.59HBI 5 50.84 t.43 48.44-52.08SLI 5 20.88 0.92 r9.4t-2r.86BLI 5 30.76 0.80 29.53-3t.77CLI 5 75.94 2.14 73.22-78.22ULI 5 26.03 3.77 20.49-31.00about 76 Vo of TSL. Remarks: P. (M.) melanostomo (Black- /7--qmouth moon) is characterised by a bodywhorl with diffuse zones of dark and lightbrown, the parietal callus is dark brown, m- Ethick, and folded on umbilicus without com-pletely covering it. Cernohorsky (1971) foundspecimens 25-55 mm in height, and he statesthat this species is similar to P. maurus inshape but more solid. Figure 3. Polinices (Mammilla) melanostoma. A, Distribution and ecology: Fiji Islands, Ja- shape, aperture, ventral view. B, dorsal view C,pan, Hawaii, Indian Seas to Natal. In clean inner lip enlarged. D, spire, apex, lateral view.coral or weedy sand ofoffshore islands, fine BZ, brownish zone. Scale bar: 10 mm.muddy, fine and coarse sand near seagrass(Cymodocea) (Cernohorsky 1971; Kilburn white or cream, ornamented with brownishI976). This species has also been recorded dots. Funicle weak (Fig. aC). Callus darkby Roberts et q.l. (1982) from Jakarta Bay, brown and narrow folded over umbilicusPulau Seribu (Indonesia) in sand of the in- (Fig. aC). Spire conical and short (Fig. aD).tertidal zone. Aperture wide, ear-shaped, shining inside Gig. aA). Umbilicus entered by a brownishPolinice s (M qmmilla) seb ae (R6cluz, 7844) band (Fig. 4C,BZ) with a narrow and deep(Fig.4A-D;Tab. 3) groove, umbilical callus straight. Columella in inner part white and elongately concave,Polinices (Marnmilla) sebae (R6cluz, L844). length (CLI) about 78 7o of TSL (Fig. aC).Kilburn 1976:861, fig. 17d (shell). Remarks: P. (M.) seboe (Sebas moon) isPolinices sebae (R6cluz,1844). Dharma 1988: characterised by being ear-shaped and67,pL.19, fig. 10 (shell). glossy inside the wide aperture. KilburnPoliruices sebae (R6ciuz, 7844). Abbot & (1976) states that the operculum, which oc-Dance 1990: 102 (figure of shells). cupies over 2/3 of the aperture, is translu-See also Annex. cent brownish-orange. The name sebae has been misapplied by nineteenth-century au-Material examined: Dead shells of 2 speci- thors. Kilburn (op. cit.) used an illustrationmens;locality: 1,3. from Souleyet as type-figure of sebae. Description: Shape oblong-concave (Fig. Distribution and ecology:The species is4A-B), width about72To andthickness about common in the Indo-Pacific (Phitippines to47 7o of TSL. Apex pointed (Fig. 4D). Colour East Africa and Natal), and is found in soft

Phulzet Marine Biological Center Special Publication 18(2):285-296. (1998) 289 Table S.Indices, number of specimens (n), means, standard deviation (SD), and ranges of selected measurements (in Vo) of Polinices (Mammilla) melanostornoides (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833) from Northern Peninsular Minahasa. mm WBI 2 7t.66 0.39 7t.27-72.05 HBI 2 41.44 0.01 41.43-41.45 SLI 2 27.42 0.26 2r.16-2t.69 BLI 2 26.23 r.r7 25.06-27.39 CLI 2 78.02 0.29 77.73-78.3r ULI 2 30.93 0.64 30.29-31.57 (,l-- 1. Spire axis bisecting anterior end ofcolu- ld mella........ Eo .....................2 1. Vertical axis of the shells offset well to the left of the siphonal fasciole; a deep anterior umbilical groove present in all adult specimens........... ....flemingianus 2. Umbilicus completely covered by a heavyFigure 4. Polinices (Marnmilla) sebae. A, shape, callus in all specimens........... .tumidusaperture, ventral view. B, dorsal view. C, inner 2. Umbilicus forms a minute chink or a deeplip enlarged. D, spire, apex, lateral view. BZ, groove (broader in adult specimens), um-brownish zone. Scale bar: 10 mm. lti::l ::11: ::1::T :: il:i:;;;;;;; iand coarse sand areas among Cymodoceaand small corals, and between Cymodocea Polinices (Polinice s) flemingian us (R6c]ruz,in deep water (Kilburn 1976;Abbott & Dance 184a) (Fig. 5A-D; Tab. 4)1990). Polinices (Polinices) flemingiana (R6cluz,Subgenus Poliruices s. str. 1844). Cernohorsky 1971: 193, figs.46,51-Polinices s. str. Cernohorsky L971:772. 53 (shell, radula, operculum).Polinices s. str. Kilburn 1976: 856. Poliruices flerningianus (R6cluz). Dance 1976:Shell heavy, solid, pyriform to pyriform- 101 [= P. uirginea Philippi, P. jukesi Reeve]ovate, ovate-conical with an oblique, straight figure of shell.Iabium and heavy labial callus, which more Polinices flemingianus (R6cluz, 1844). Abbottor less covers the umbilicus, leaving at most & Dance 1990: 105 (figure of shells).a narrow fissure; parietal region not differ- See also Annex.entiated from the rest of the labium, com-monly uniform white, yellow or orange (Cer- Material examined: Dead shells of 1-5 speci-nohorsky 1971; Kilburn 1976). mens; locality: 7,2,3. Description: Shape globose (Fig. 5A-B),Key to species of subgenus Polinices width about 78 Vo and thickness about 57 Vo of TSL. Apex slightly pointed (FiS. 5C). CoI-Polinices from Northern Peninsular Mina- our white to cream, glossy. Funicle relativelyhasa have shells small to large, pyriform- inconspicuous (Fig. 5D). Callus coalescingovate, porcelaineous-white in colour; oper- with funicle, deposit extends to spire (Fig.culum is corneous, light brown in colour. 5D). Spire short (Fig. 5C).Aperture wide and

290 Tlopical Marine Mollusc Progrannme (TMMP)Table 4. Indices, number of specimens (n), means,standard deviation (SD), and ranges ofselectedmeasurements (in 7a) of Polinices (Polinices)flemingianus (R6cluz, 1844) from Northern Pe-ninsular Minahasa. X n mean (mmWBI 15 78.19 10.20 49.07-9r.70HBI 15 56.95 6.59 36.43-67.80SLI 15 26.9t 5.17 t4.87-37.50BLI 15 45.93 6.88 26.39-54.40CLI 15 67.64 8.02 39.03-71.30ULI 15 24.79 3.22 17.29-28.8 z^..isemi-ovate (Fig.5A). Umbilicus narrow (Fig. /5D); umbilical groove deep and present inall specimens (juveniles-adults); umbilical lar ccallus slightly concave. Columella white incolour, length (CLI) about 62 7a of TSL (Fig.5D) Remarks: P (P.) flemingianus (Flernings Figure 5. Polinices (Polinices) flemingianus. A,moon) is characterised by the aperture elon- shape, aperture, ventral view. B, dorsal view. C,gated obliquely and vertical axis ofthe shell spire, apex, lateral view. D, inner lip enlarged.offset well to the left of the siphonal fasciole. Scale bar: 10 mm.This species is similar to P. tumidus (Swain-son, 1840), but differs in some features Polinices mammilla (Linnaeus, 1758). Kabat(Cernohorsky 1971) as mentioned above. 1990: 16, figs. 3A-B (shells). Distribution and ecology: The species is Polinices tumidus (Swainson, 1840). Abbottmoderately common throughout Japan to & Dance 1990: 102 l= P. pyriformisR6chul,Australia and Fiji Islands. Cernohorsky figure of shell.(1971) found that this species is less fre- See also Annex.quently encountered than P. tumidus, aI-though they share that species habitat. Material examined: Live shells of 17 speci-Clean sand, intertidal and shallow water mens; locality: I,2,3.(Abbott & Dance 1990). Description: Operculum corneous, light brown in colour with a dark brown zone ad-Polinices (Polinices) tumidus (Swainson, joining the columellar edge. Shape pyriform-1840) (Fig. 6A-E;Tab. 5) ovate, unornamented, width about 72Vo and thickness about 52 Vo of TSL (Fig. 6.4.-8).Polinices (Polinices) tumidus (Swainson, Apex slightly pointed (Fig. 6D). Colour1840). Cernohorsky 197 l: 791,figs. 45 (shell), porcellaneous-white, occasionally with dark47 (radula),48 (operculum),49 & 50 (shells). striae or ill defined spots at suture. FuniclePolinices (Polinices) tumidus (Swainson, strong (Fis. 6C). Callus heavy, thick, and1840). Kilburn 1976:856, fig. 15 [shelis: nar- fused with umbilical callus (Fig. 6 C). Spirerow form (ponderosa) and broad form high (Fig. 6D), protoconch minute. Aperturefuestalis) l. wide and semi-ovate (Fig. 6,4). UmbilicusPolinices tumidus (Swainson, 1840). Roberts completely covered by a healy callus (no um-et. al. 1982:62 - 63, pl. 17 , frg. 7 (shell). bilicus) orform a minute chink (Fig. 6C). Colu-Polinices tumidus (Swainson, 1840). Dharma mella in inner lip slightly thickened basally,1988: 67, pl. 19, fig.12 (shell l. lengbh (CLI) about 56 Vo of TSL (Fig. 6C).

Phulzet Marine Biological Center Special Publication 78(2):285-296. (1998) 291 Table 5. Indices, number of specimens (n), means, standard deviation (SD), and ranges of selected measurements (in Vo) of Polinices (Polinices) turnidus (Swainson, 1840) from Northern Penin- sular Minahasa. mm) 4.64 11.90-31. WBI r7 72.It 3.60 63.26-77.7 HBI 17 51.98 2.65 47.34-55.40 SLI t7 30.29 2.80 25.17-35.60 BLI t7 51.29 I.79 48.32-54.50 CLI I7 55.96 3.39 50.46-62.18 ffi ULI 17 throughout the tropical Indo-Pacifrc, includ- ing the area of the present study. It is known from Hawaii, south-west through Polynesia, Melanesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, and Japan to Madagascar and Natal. In South Africa and Mozambique, this species inhabits various types of habitat: SandyFigure 6. Polinices (Polinices) tumidus. A, shape, banks ofdrainage channels, on top ofsandaperture, ventral view. B, dorsal view. C, inner banks, sand flats near Cymodocea andgravellip enlarged. D, spire, apex, Iateral view. Scale (Kilburn 1976).bar: 10 mm. Polinices (Polinices) species 1 (Fig. 7A-E;Tab.6) Remarks: P. (P.) tumidus (Pear-shapedmoon) is characterised by the umbilicus be- Material examined: Live shells of 26 speci-ing completely covered by a callus. Kjlburn mens; locality: 7,2,3.(1976) described two typical forms of the Description: Operculum corneous, lightshell (narrow form p onderoso Philippi, 1849 brown in colour, with a dark brown zoneand broad formuestalis Philippi 1851-) found adjoining the columellar edge. Shape pyri-in Natal and Mozambique. Specimens from form-ovate, unornamented, width about 76the present study area could be identical to Vo and thickness about 55 7o of TSL (Fig. 7Athe form uestalis. & B). Apex (Fig. 7D) pointed. Colour white The name of this species, whether tumi- to cream, porcellaneous, shining. Funicledus (Cernohorsky 1971; Kilburn 1976) or more or less strong (Fig. 7C). Callus heavymammilla (Kabat 1990a), has been dis- and thick (FiS. 7C). Spire high (Fig. 7D).cussed by Kabat (1990a). He concluded that Aperture semi-ovate (Fig. 7A). Umbilicusmammilla has been used repeatedly over the forms a deep groove, wide at the anterioryears whereas tumidus was rarely (if ever) part, present in all specimens (juveniles/used between its description and 1971-. Sec- adults), umbilical callus straight or slightlyondly, based on analysis ofthe original de- concave (Fig. 7C). Coiumella thick, white inscription, cited figures, and type material, colour,length (CLI) about 58 7o ofTSL (Fig.he concluded that mamntillq. is a senior 7C).synonym of tumidus. However, I follow Remarks: This species is quite similar toKilburn (1976) and maintain the name P. (P.) tumidus, but differs in the umbilicustumidus- forming a minute chink or a deep groove in Distribution and ecology:This species is P.(P.) sp. 1 against the umbilicus being com-one of the most common intertidal naticids pletely covered by a heavy callus (no um-

292 Tlopical Marine Mollusc Programm.e (TMMP)Table 6. Indices, numbers of specimens (n),means, standard deviations (SD), and ranges ofselected measurements (in 7o) of Polinices(Polinices) sp. (species 1) from Northern Penin-sular Minahasa. x n mean ( mm) %WBI 26 75.78 2.63 67.91-80.13HBI 26 54.56 2.49 48.34-60.00SLI 26 29.09 2.08 25.77-35.25BLI 26 50.01 L.1t 45.99-52.25CLI 26 57.58 2.24 53.94-61.30ULI 26 18.91 2.29 12.50-25.80bilicus) or forming a minute chink;inP. (P.)sp. 1 the umbilical callus is straight or con-cave. Distribution and ecology: Clean sand inintertidal region. DISCUSSION Figure 7. Polinices (Polinices) sp. (species 1). A,Marincovich (1977) cited in Kabat (1990a) shape, aperture, ventral view. B, dorsal view. C,divided the family Naticidae into four sub- inner lip enlarged. D, spire, apex, lateral view.families: 1) Naticinae, 2) Polinicinae, 3) Scale bar: 10 mm.Sininae, and 4) Ampullospirinae. He statedthat Naticinae (Natica, Naticarius, Cryp-tonaticq.) are mostly tropical species with rnoides and P. (M.) simiuel. Kilburn (1976)calcareous opercula, and ofben have multi- listed 14 species in 5 subgenera from south-coloured shells. Polinicinae (Polinices, ern Africa and Mozambique [P. (P .) tumidus,Euspira, Neueritq.) are widespread, usually P. (N.) peselephanti, P. (N.) albumen, P. (G.)with monochromatic shells. Sininae (Sinum, didyma, P.(M.) priamus, P.(M.) sebae, P. (M.)Eunaticina) are tropical species, low spired syrphetodes, P. (M.) simiae, P. (M.) melano-to auriform with striated shells. TheAmpul- stoma, P. (8.) lemaitrei P. (8.) psilus, P. (8.)lospirinae (Amauropsis, Globulario) are a similis, P. (8.) blaizensis and P. (8.) napusl.mostly extinct assemblage of high spired Bussarawit (1995) found 2 species in 2shells with tabulate or canaliculate whorls. subgenera from Surin and Le-Pae Islands, The genus Polinices encompasses 5 Andaman Sea,Thailand tP. (P.) tumidus andsubgenera: Polinices, Mamrnilla, Euspira, P. (G) didyma).In the Indonesian archi-GIos saulax and N eu erito (Cernohorsky 197 1, pelago, Roberts et al. (1982) recorded 4 spe-Kilburn 7976). Separation into subgenera is cies in 2 subgenera from North-West Javabased on shape, columella, callus, and um- lP. (M.) mela.rlostomo, P. (M.) mant matus, P.bilicus. In addition, characters ofaperture, (M.) simiae and P. (P.) tumidusl. In thecolour, funicle, spire and apex are included present study, I found 4 species and 1 uni-in the present study (Figs.3-7). dentified species in 2 subgenera (Figs. 3-7). The genus Polinices is common in the The unidentifred species (Fig. 7) is most simi-tropical Indo-Pacific region. Cernohorsky lar to P (P.) tumidus and they co-occur in(1971) recorded 8 species in 3 subgeneralP. the present study area.(P.) tumidus, P. (P.) flemingianus, P. (P.) Most of the present species are deadaurantiu s, P. (N.) alb umen, P . (M. ) nlcturus, shells; only two species were found a1ive.P. (M.) melanostoma, P. (M.) melanosto- This may be related to the method of sam-

Phulzet Marine Biological Center Special Publication L8(2):288-296. (1998) 293pling which was conducted in the intertidal DANIDA for the opportunity to present thisarea of the sandy beaches. Species repre- paper at the Eighth ConferenceAilorkshopsented by dead shells probably inhabit the of the TMMP in Hua Hin, Thailand.lower area of the beaches (Cernohorskv1971; Kilburn 1976). ANNEX Synonyms of northern peninsular Mina- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS hasas species o/PolinicesI wish to express my gratitude to Prof A.J.Kohn (Dept. of Zoology, University ofWash- Synonyms of identified species of genusington, USA) for introducing me to the Polinice s are listed alphabetically accordingnaticids.I am grateful to Prof R.N. Kilburn to specific names. The second column shows(Natal Museum, SouthAfrica) and ProfA.R. the generic status designated by individualKabat (National Museum ofNatural History, authors. The third column gives referencesSmithsonian Institution, USA) for their kind to publications where the combination ofassistance with photocopies of various es- species and genus has been applied (I havesential references, Dr L.J. Lumingas for his selected the references, preferably the old-assistance in identification and discussion. est, where a given combination has beenI am much indebted to the Tropical Marine used). The last column gives reference to theMollusc Programme (TMMP) sponsored by source of information in previous columns.Polini ce s (M ammilla) melano s to ma (Gmelin, 1 7 9 1 )aethiopissae 7lmelanochila not designated Natica Philippi,1850 Kilburn 1976melanostoma not designated Nerita Gmelin, rzgl Cernohorsky 1971- not designated Natica Bianconi 1849 Kilburn 1926 not designated Natica Philippi 1852 Cernohorsky 1971 not designated Notica Gmelin 1855 Cernohorskv 1971 not designated Natica Von Martens 1879 Kilburn 1971 not designated Notico Sowerby 1897 Kilburn 1976 not designated Natico Lamarck 1953 Cernohorsky 1971 not designated Natica Gohar & Eisawy 1976 Kilburn 1976 not designated Polinices Kaicher 1956 Cernohorsky 1971 not designated Polynices Paes de Franca 1960 Kilburn 1976o!dc not designated Natica R6cluz 1851 Cernohorsky 1791 not designated Mammilla Habe & Kosuge 1967 Cernohorsky 1791 not designated Polinices R6cluz 1851 Kilburn 1976opacum not designated Uber Hedley, 1924 Cernohorsky 1971putdmen not designated Mamilla Mtirch, 1852 Cernohorsky 1971 not designated Polinices M0rch, 1852 Roberts et al. I9B2succineoides not designated Natica Reeve, 1855 Cernohorsky 1971 not designated Polinices Reeve,1855 Roberts et al.1982zondtd not designated Polinices Phillippi. 1852 Kilburn 1976Polinice s (M ammilla) seb ae (R6.chtz, 7844)mammillorissebae not designated Natica R6cbaz, LB44 Kilburn 1976 not designated Natica Souleyet 1852 Kilburn 1976 not designated Notico Sowerby 1897 Kilburn 1976 not designated Uber HedIev 1924 Kilburn 1976 not designated Polynices Barnard 1963 Kilburn 1976zanzebarica not designated Natica F,6c1uz, 1844 Kilburn 1976 not designated Natica Philippi 1852 Kilburn 1976 not designated Natica Reeve 1855 Kilburn 1976- not designated Natica Von Martens 1879 Kilburn 1976- not designated Natica Sowerbv 1883 Kilburn 1976

294 Tlopical Marine Mollusc Programme (TMMP)Polinices (Polinices) fl emingianus (R6cluz, 1844)Speciesffiated Natica R6chlz, 1844 Cernohorsky, 1971 - not desigrrated Natica R6cluz, 1852 Cernohorsky, 1971 - not designated Natica Reeve, 1855 Cernohorsky, 1971 - not designated Natica Sowerby, 1883 Cernohorsky, 1971 - not designated Polinices Kaicher, 1956 Cernohorsky, 1971flemingianum not designated Uber Hedley,1924 Cernohorsky, 1971jukesii not designated Natica Reeve, 1855 Cernohorsky, 1971uirginea not desigaated Nollca Philippi, 1852 Cernohorsky, 1971Polinices (Polinices) tumidus (Swainson, 1840)ffiaLed, Marnma Chemnitz, 1781 Cernohorsky 1971 - not designated Natica Rumphius 1851 Cernohorsky 1971 - not designated Polinices R6cluz 1851 Roberts et al. 1982cygnea not designated Natica Philppi, 1852 Cernohorsky 1971 not designated Polinices Philppi,1852 Roberts et al. 1982mamilla not designated Polynices Paes da Franca 1960 Kilburn 1976 not designated Natica Sowerby 1883 Cernohorsky 1971 not designated Natica Bosc 1801 Kabat 1990 Polinices Polinices Ladd 1934 Cernohorsky 1971rnammilla not designated Albula Roding 1798 Kabat 1990 not designated Von Martens 1879 Kilburn 1976 not designated Natrca Sowerby 1892 Kilburn 1976 not designated No.tica Linnaeus 1855 Cernohorskv 1971 not designated Nerita Linnaeus 1758 Kabat 1990 not designated Nerita Linnaeus 1764 Kabat 1990 not designated Polynices Barnard 1963 Kilburn 1976 not desigrrated Albula Riiding 1798 Cernohorsky 1971porderoro not designated Nalica Philippi, 1849 Kilburn 1976pyrifonnis not designated Natica R6chtz 7844 Kilburn 1976 not designated Polynices Habe & Kosuge 1967 Cernohorsky 1971 not designated Polinices R6cluz 1844 Roberts et al. 1982ht.m.i.d.o. not designated Mamillaria Swainson,1840 Cernohorsky 1971 not desienated Mamillaria Chemnitz, 1981 Kilburn 1976 REFERENCES Dorling Kinddersky, London, p. 77.Abbott, R.T. & S.P. Dance. 1990. Compendium of Dharma, B. 1988. Siput dan kerang Indonesia I Seashells. American Malacologists Inc., Mel- (Indonesian shells). P. T. Sarana Graha, Ja- bourne, Florida. 102 pp. karta, 111 pp.Boneka, F.8., B. Soeroto & K. Puluhulawa. 1995. Fish, J.D. & S. Fish. 1989. A students guide to Gastropod shells used by hermit crabs on the seashore. Unwin Hyman Ltd., London, Bunaken Island, Sulawesi, Indonesia. - 190 pp. Phuket Marine Biological Center Special Pub- Kabat,A.R. 1990a. Species of Naticidae (Mollusca: lication L5:767-770. Gastropoda) described by Linnaeus in theBussarawit, S. 1995. Molluscs from the marine Systerna Naturae (1758). - Zoological Journal national parks: Surin and Le-Pae Islands, ofthe Linnean Society 100: 1-25. Andaman Sea, Thailand. - Phuket Marine Bio- Kabat, A.R. 1990b. Predatory ecology of naticid logical Center Special Publication l5: 119-725. gastropoda with a review of shell boring pre-Cernohorsky, W.O. 1971. The family Naticidae dation. - Malacologia 32 (1): 155-193. (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Fiji islands. - Kabat, A.R. 1996. Biogeography of the genera of Record of theAuckland Institute and Museum Naticidae (Gastropoda) in the Indo-Pacific. - 8:169-208. American Malacological Bull etin L2 (1-2) : 29 -3 5.Dance, S.P. 1976. The encyclopedia of shells. Kilburn, R.N. 1976. A revision of the Naticidae of Blandford Press, 101 pp. southern Africa and Mozambique (Mollusca).Dance, S.P. 1992. Shells. Eyewitness handbooks. - Annals of the Natal Museum 22 (3): 829-884.

Phuleet Marine Biological Center Special Publication 1B(2):285-296. (1998) 295Latama, G. & M.N. Nessa. 1994. Gastropod dis- tribution and abundance around Kodingareng Keke Island, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. - Phuket Marine Biological Center Special Pub- lication 13: 163-165.Litaay, M. 1994. Gastropods encountered on a reef flat at Samalona Island, South-West Sulawesi, Indonesia. - Phuket Marine Biological Center Special Publication 13: 157-158.Nateewathana, A. 1995. Taxonomic account of commercial and edible molluscs, excluding cephalopods, of Thailand. - Phuket Marine Biological Center Special Publication 15: 93- 116.Roberts, D., S. Soemodihardjo &W. Kastoro. 1982. Shallow water marine molluscs of north-west Java. Lembaga Oseanologi Nasional, Lem- baga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia, Jakarta, 143 pp./SSN 0858-3633

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