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Published on October 12, 2007

Author: Gulkund

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  原子模式 量子力學原理 圖示吸引力、排斥力與最終的能量平衡距離與結合能量 離子、共價、金屬、氫、van der Waals鍵結 展示各種鍵結的材料 第二章 原子結構與原子間鍵結 Fe原子在Cu基板上原子像(IBM):  Fe原子在Cu基板上原子像(IBM) CO原子在Pt基板上原子像(IBM):  CO原子在Pt基板上原子像(IBM) Xe原子在Ni基板上原子像(IBM):  Xe原子在Ni基板上原子像(IBM) 基本觀念(一) :  基本觀念(一) 原子結構 電荷:1.60 x 10-19 C 中子 重量1.67 x 10-27 kg (p, n),9.11 x 10-31 kg (e) 基本觀念(二) :  基本觀念(二) 尺寸 原子序:Z,鈽(94,Pu) 同位素:Z,N 原子質量單位:A= 12.00000 for C12 Slide8:  1. Name the two atomic models cited, and note the differences between them. 2.. Describe the important quantum-mechanical principle that relates to electron energies. 3. (a) Name the four electron quantum numbers. (b) For a specific electron, note what each of its quantum numbers determines. 4. Slide9:  . 4. Write a definition of the Pauli exclusion principle. 5. Write the general characteristics of the elements that are arrayed in each column of the periodic table. 6. Write the equation that relates energy and force. Slide10:  7. 7. (a) Schematically plot attractive, repulsive, and net energies versus interatomic separation for two atoms or ions. (b) Now note on this plot the equilibrium separation and the bonding energy. 8. (a) Briefly describe ionic, covalent, metallic, hydrogen, and van der Waal's bonds. (b) Now note what materials exhibit each of these bonding types. Slide11:  9. Given the chemical formula for a material, be able to cite what bonding type(s) is (are) possible. 10. Given the electronegativities of two elements, compute the percent ionic character of the bond that forms between them. 11. Define what is meant by the term "molecule". J.J. Thomson:  J.J. Thomson Cathode Ray Tube:  Cathode Ray Tube Max Planck (1858-1947) :  Max Planck (1858-1947) Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck :  Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck The Nobel Prize in Physics 1918 "in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta" Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937):  Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937):  Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908 "for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances" Niels Henrik David Bohr:  Niels Henrik David Bohr Niels Henrik David Bohr:  Niels Henrik David Bohr The Nobel Prize in Physics 1922 "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them" Prince Louisde Broglie (1892-1987) :  Prince Louisde Broglie (1892-1987) Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie :  Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie The Nobel Prize in Physics 1929 "for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons" Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961):  Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961) Erwin Schrödinger:  Erwin Schrödinger The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933 "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory" WERNER HEISENBERG (1901 - 1976):  WERNER HEISENBERG (1901 - 1976) Werner Karl Heisenberg :  Werner Karl Heisenberg The Nobel Prize in Physics 1932 "for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen" 電子組態(electron configuration) :  電子組態(electron configuration) 電子能態(energy state) 最低能態(ground state) Pauli互斥原理(Pauli exclusion principle) 電子組態:原子結構,電子能態佔據的方式 Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958):  Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958) Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958:  Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958 The Nobel Prize in Physics 1945 "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle" 電子組態 :  電子組態 價電子(valence electron) 穩定電子組態(stable electron configuration) 混合spn 軌域(hybrid spn orbital),n = 1,2,3 量子數 :  量子數 主要(principal, n)量子數:K, L, M, N, O:距離 次(subshell, l)量子數:s,p,d,f, 1 to n:形狀 磁(magnetic, m)量子數:-(l-1) to +(l-1) 自旋(spin, s)量子數:-1/2, +1/2 1s:  1s 2py:  2py 3s:  3s 3py:  3py 3dxz:  3dxz 4py:  4py 4dxz:  4dxz Slide45:  Li(3):1s22s1 Na(11):1s22s22p63s1 K(19):1s22s22p63s23p64s1 Sc(21):1s22s22p63s23p63d14s2 Zn(30):1s22s22p63s23p63d104s2 Kr(36):1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p6 鍵結力與能量 :  鍵結力與能量 吸引力、排斥力,淨力 吸引能、排斥能,淨能 鍵結能 力、能量與原子間距離曲線:  力、能量與原子間距離曲線 鍵結能大:熔點高 室溫:固體、液體、氣體 力與原子間距離曲線:剛硬度 能量與原子間距離曲線:熱膨脹 Slide53:  離子鍵:存在於緊鄰而帶相反電荷離子之庫倫原子間鍵結 NaCl, MgO 庫倫靜電力 EA = -A/r, ER = B/rn (n~8) Non-directional 3-8 eV/atom Slide54:  晶質與非晶質 Slide62:  共價鍵:緊鄰原子共享電子之原子間鍵結 diamond, Si, Ge, GaAs, InSb, SiC, H2, Cl2, F2, CH4, H2O, HNO3, HF 特定方向, 8-N’ 鍵 強 (diamond) 或弱 (Bi) 高分子材料 Slide65:  離子與共價鍵 週期表中相對位置,陰電性 距離愈遠,陰電性差愈大,離子鍵性愈強 % 離子鍵性 = {1-exp[-(0.25)(XA-XB)2]} x 100 Slide67:  金屬鍵:在金屬固體中所有原子共享不限於局部價電子之原子間鍵 電子海, 電子雲,黏膠 離子核心. 不具方向性 0.7 eV/atom for Hg, 8.8 eV/atom for W 良導體,延展性好 Johannes Diderik Van der Waals (1837 – 1923):  Johannes Diderik Van der Waals (1837 – 1923) Johannes Diderik van der Waals :  Johannes Diderik van der Waals The Nobel Prize in Physics 1910 "for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids" Slide76:  水:獨特的外形與構成賦予水近乎魔術般的力量(米老鼠、熊寶寶) 令人清新有勁的古董(數十億年) 最神奇、多變的物質 氫鍵:如磁鐵相吸 Slide77:  驚人的溶解力:第一溶劑,溶解地表上下所有物質 酸雨、灌溉 水分子間強大吸引力:毛細現象 微血管 2%:口渴,7%:脫水死亡 Slide83:  The 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates". Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC, 波色-愛因斯坦冷凝物) Slide84:  Eric A. Cornell (39),Wolfgang Ketterle(43),Carl E. Wieman(50) Slide85:  Bose-Einstein condensate Slide86:  1995, Cornell and Wieman a pure condensate of about 2 000 rubidium atoms at 20 nK (nanokelvin), Ketterle:sodium atoms. The condensates he managed to produce contained more atoms and could therefore be used to investigate the phenomenon further. Slide87:  ``I hoped that one day this might happen, but I was really thinking along the lines of 20 years later and not six,'' said Cornell. Wieman said: ``I discovered that I'm not nearly as excited about winning the prize as I was about seeing the Bose-Einstein condensate for the first time.'' Slide88:  20 microns in diameter cooled the atoms to a temperature 300 times lower than has ever been achieved in other scientific laboratories. RT: 1,000 miles per hour 3 feet per hour

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