MRKT409_Ch07

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Published on January 13, 2009

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Global Marketing Management, 4e : Chapter 7 Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1 Global Marketing Management, 4e Chapter 7 Global Segmentation and Positioning Chapter Overview : Chapter 7 Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2 Chapter Overview 1. Reasons for International Market Segmentation 2. International Market Segmentation Approaches 3. Segmentation Scenarios 4. Bases for Country Segmentation 5. International Positioning Strategies 6. Global, Foreign, and Local Consumer Culture Positioning Appendix Introduction : Chapter 7 Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 Introduction Variation in customer needs is the primary motive for market segmentation. Most companies will identify and target the most attractive market segments that they can effectively serve. In global marketing, market segmentation becomes especially critical because of wide divergence in cross-border consumer needs and lifestyles. Once the management has chosen its target segments, management needs to determine a competitive positioning strategy for its products. 1. Reasons for International Market Segmentation : Chapter 7 Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 4 1. Reasons for International Market Segmentation Segments ideally should possess the following set of properties: Identifiable Sizable Accessible Stable Responsive Actionable 1. Reasons for International Market Segmentation : Chapter 7 Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 5 1. Reasons for International Market Segmentation Country Screening Global Market Research Entry Decisions Positioning Strategy Resource Allocation Marketing Mix Policy Balance between standardization and customization 1. Reasons for International Market Segmentation : Chapter 7 Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 6 1. Reasons for International Market Segmentation 1. Reasons for International Market Segmentation : Chapter 7 Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 7 1. Reasons for International Market Segmentation 2. International Market Segmentation Approaches : Chapter 7 Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 8 2. International Market Segmentation Approaches International segmentation procedures: Country-ad-segments or aggregate segmentation Disaggregate international consumer segmentation Two-stage international segmentation The standard country segmentation procedure classifies prospect countries on a single dimension (e.g., per capita GNP) or on a set of multiple socioeconomic, political, and cultural criteria available from secondary data sources. When there are numerous country traits, use smaller set of dimensions using data reduction techniques such as factor analysis. 2. International Market Segmentation Approaches : Chapter 7 Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 9 2. International Market Segmentation Approaches 3. Segmentation Scenarios : Chapter 7 Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 10 3. Segmentation Scenarios Universal or global segments Regional segments Unique (diverse) segments 4. Bases for Country Segmentation : Chapter 7 Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11 4. Bases for Country Segmentation Demographics Demographics variables are among the most popular criteria. Socioeconomic Variables Caveats in using per capita income as an economic development indicator: Monetization of transactions within a country Gray and Black Market sections of the economy Income disparities Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) criteria Socioeconomic Strata (SES) Analysis Human development index (HDI) classification 4. Bases for Country Segmentation : Chapter 7 Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12 4. Bases for Country Segmentation Behavior-Based Segmentation Lifestyles Global Values Segments; the survey investigated 1000 consumers in 35 countries (source: Robert Starch Worldwide): Strivers (23 percent) Devouts (22 percent) Altruists (18 percent) Intimates (15 percent) Fun Seekers (12 percent) Creatives (10 percent) 4. Bases for Country Segmentation : Chapter 7 Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13 4. Bases for Country Segmentation 4. Bases for Country Segmentation : Chapter 7 Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 14 4. Bases for Country Segmentation 5. International Positioning Strategies : Chapter 7 Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 15 5. International Positioning Strategies The formulation of a positioning strategy (local or global) includes the following steps: 1. Identify the relevant set of competing products or brands. 2. Determine current perceptions held by consumers about your product/brand and the competition. 3. Develop possible positioning themes. 4. Screen the positioning alternatives and select the most appealing one. 5. Develop a marketing mix strategy. 6. Over time, monitor the effectiveness of your positioning strategy and if needed, conduct an audit. 5. International Positioning Strategies : Chapter 7 Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 16 5. International Positioning Strategies Uniform vs. Localized Positioning Strategies Universal Positioning Appeals Positioning themes: Specific product features/attributes Product benefit, solutions for problems user category user application heritage lifestyle 6. Global, Foreign, and Local Consumer Culture Positioning : Chapter 7 Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 17 6. Global, Foreign, and Local Consumer Culture Positioning Global consumer culture positioning (GCCP) Brand as a symbol of a given global consumer culture Local consumer culture positioning (LCCP) Brand as an intrinsic part of the local culture. Foreign consumer culture positioning (FCCP) Brand mystique built around a specific foreign culture Appendix: Segmentation Tools : Chapter 7 Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 18 Appendix: Segmentation Tools Segmentation techniques and tools: Cluster Analysis: Collection of statistical procedures for dividing objects into groups (clusters). The grouping is done in such a manner that members belonging to the same group are very similar to one another but quite distinct from members of other groups. Regression Analysis: In regression, one assumes that there exists a relationship between a response variable, Y, and one or more so-called predictor variables, X1, X2 and so on. Appendix: Segmentation Tools : Chapter 7 Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 19 Appendix: Segmentation Tools For each of the parameter estimates, the regression analysis will also produce standard error. The higher the R2 value, the better the ability of the regression model to predict the data. Appendix: Segmentation Tools : Chapter 7 Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 20 Appendix: Segmentation Tools Appendix: Segmentation Tools : Chapter 7 Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 21 Appendix: Segmentation Tools

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