Mr Zaka 28 11 07

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Information about Mr Zaka 28 11 07

Published on May 8, 2008

Author: Miranda


Slide1:  COMPLUSORY LICENSING Focus on public Health Sector Speaker Mohammed Zaka-ur-Rehman CEO Schazoo Zaka (Pvt.) Ltd. The Schazoo Laboratories (Pvt) Ltd. Zaka Healthcare Ltd. Chairman WTO committee of PPMA. Standing Committee IPR LCCI. Former Chairman PPMA. Slide2:  “WTO Patent Rules & Access to Medicines: The Pressure Mounts” “Public outage over the exorbitant prices of HIV/AIDS drugs in Africa is focusing public attention on the harmful role of global patent rules in blocking poor people’s access to vital medicines.” Source: Oxfam, June 2001 Slide3:  Developed Countries Products & Process are patentable Patent life – 17 Years Software & Entertainment Industry is already protected by Patent Laws Strangle hold of Multinational Companies on Pharma Industry Prices of generic substitutes much lower than branded products Govt. measures to promote generic industry Generic Pharma growth Double than Branded Generic Pharma becomes an Industry Conditions prior to WTO Slide4:  Examples of price differentials between generic and brand products Belgium Italy Spain Germany France Canada UK US 20% 20% + 25% 25% - 30% 25% - 35% 40% - 50% 80% + 50% - 90% Source: IMS, Pharma Strategy Group Conditions prior to WTO Slide5:  Average Price per Prescription for Brand Name is approximately Three Times Generic Drugs (data from US) Source: IGPA Conference 2001, 25-27 June 2001, Cannes, France Conditions prior to WTO Slide6:  Conditions prior to WTO USA Brand Price Increases are above CPI, Generic Prices Shrink Less Source: IMS, Pharma Strategy Group Slide7:  Developing Countries Process are patentable for 7-10 years No Product Patents In countries with Strong National Pharma Industry, the share of national Pharma industry flourished Agriculture sector, mostly dominated by multinational companies No large scale industry in software & entertainment sector Prices of generic substitutes much lower than branded products Conditions prior to WTO Slide8:  Govt. measures to promote Generics-USA Hatch-Waxman Reforms to Facilitate Generic Industry …. is Necessary to... Maximise Consumer benefits at a Time When Drug Prices Are Rising. Expand Access to Generic Pharmaceuticals Increase opportunities to Lower Drug Costs Continue to stimulate R&D that will positively impact Patient Care/Disease Management Encouraging the Use of Generics- U.S. Perspective Slide9:  Govt. measures to promote Generics-USA Opportunities to Enhance Hatch-Waxman expand Bolar Maintain Incentives for Challenging or Circumventing Patents and Encourage Product Launch Maintain ability to Litigate Prior to launch, thereby limiting risks to generic companies Limit damages to generic companies’ Profits Create significant penalty for inappropriate listing of patents Provide forum to challenge listing of patents Limit brand exclusivities Provide for Ability of Generics to Use Labelling of Brands Regardless of Patent Status when Safety is an Issue Create regulatory mechanism for Generic Biologics Encouraging the Use of Generics- U.S. Perspective Slide10:  CHANGES DUE TO WTO Developed Countries Patent life extension from 17 to 20 Years to encourage R&D New Indication & Pediatric patent extension No price impact since rules are already being followed Health sector already developed: Insurance + Health Services Importance of new molecules: New molecules dominates the market Slide11:  CHANGES DUE TO WTO Developing Countries Product Patent vs. Process Patient Huge price impact since prices were lower due to the presence of generics Health sector not developed: No Insurance + Health Services, In Philippines & S. Africa 80% population being covered by health services whereas in developing countries only 10% are covered Slide12:  CHANGES DUE TO WTO Developing Countries Importance of generic industry to increase access and lower the prices in developing countries National Companies have less R&D budget because of lack of Govt. Support No National Company could launch new molecule, Multinationals will enjoy the monopoly with increased prices Slide13:  In poor countries drugs are largest household and second largest public expenditure for health 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Pharmaceutical spending, as % of total health spending Source: IGPA Conference 2001, 25-27 June 2001, Cannes, France Developed countries (7 - 20%) Transitional countries (15 - 30%) Developing countries (24 - 66 %) Slide14:  Percent of new prescriptions, U.S. National strategies for generics: 1. Supportive legislation & regulation 2. Reliable quality assurance 3. Professional, public acceptance 4. Economic incentives Access Source: IGPA Conference 2001, 25-27 June 2001, Cannes, France Building a large generic market takes time - and requires a combination of strategies Slide15:  Compulsory licensing International examples Slide16:  Compulsory licensing International examples Slide17:  Compulsory licensing International examples Slide18:  Compulsory licensing International examples Slide19:  Compulsory licensing International examples Slide20:  The patent holder refuses to grant a license to a third party on reasonable commercial terms and conditions: or Where patent has not been exploited in manner, which contributes to the promotion of technological innovation and to the transfer and dissemination of technology. Powers Of Controller In Granting Compulsory Licenses On request, made to the Controller after the expiration of a period of four years from the date of filing of the patent application, or three years from the date of the grant of the patent, whichever might result from the exercise of the rights conferred by the patent, for example, failure to work. Section 58(1) c Section 58(1) d Section 59(1) Compulsory Licenses in Pakistan patent Ordinance 2000 Amended 2002 Pakistani Patent Rules 2003:  Pakistani Patent Rules 2003 According Rule 44 For the purpose of this ordinance the patentee shall be entitled to a payment up to three percent remuneration by the licensee, on the basis of total sales of that chemical product taking into consideration its trade price, under clause (iii) of sub-section (3) of section 59. Subject to the sub-section (1) of section 59, none or insufficient exploitation of a patent in case of a chemical product intended for use in agriculture or medicines shall be determined on the basis of healthcare requirements of Pakistan and monopolization of the market against the public interest. Provided, that the patent holder does not make available the subject patented product, in sufficient quantities , so as to meet the requirement of the licensee (s). The licensee (s) shall be at liberty to import or procure the said chemical product from anywhere. Implementation of compulsory licensing in Pakistan:  Implementation of compulsory licensing in Pakistan ? Slide23:  Recommendations

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