Published on July 14, 2013
MAKING SENSE OF CELL DIFFERENTIATION AND ORGANISATION IGCSE Biology 1.1 Life Processes Cell differentiation and organisation Brought to you by MrExham.com Image © Depositphotos.com/[julos #4371007]
• Can you explain the organisation of an organism using the following terms: organelles, cells, tissues, organs and organ systems?
• Multicellular organisms begin life as a single fertilised egg cell called a . • It then divides over and over again by Zygote Embryo
• As the developing embryo grows, cells become specialised to carry out particular roles. • This is called and is controlled by genes. • As all cells have the same genes, some must be switched on and some switched off for this to work.
• Here are a few examples of specialised cells that you will meet throughout the IGCSE Biology course. • They will be mentioned briefly here as they will be explained fully in each relevant section. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Zephyris http://www.flickr.com/photos/andrea_scauri/
• Very long cell for carrying impulses around the body along its axon. • Insulated by a myelin sheath to make the signal travel quicker
• Sperm cells have a tail for swimming. • The head contains the genes from the father in the nucleus. • The acrosome digests its way into the egg for fertilisation.
• This cell is found in the leaves of plants. • It is packed full of chloroplasts for photosynthesis. • It is a regular shape in order to pack many into the leaf. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Zephyris
• This carries the water up the stem of a plant. • It is dead, hollow and strengthened in order to do this. http://www.flickr.com/photos/andrea_scauri/
• Each cell has many organelles inside it’s cytoplasm to help it carry out its function. • Cells with a similar function are grouped together in . • A collection of similar tissues carrying out a particular function is called an . • In animals, jobs are usually carried out by several different organs working together. This is called an .
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