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Moving Toward Modernity

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Information about Moving Toward Modernity

Published on January 12, 2009

Author: bradleybergey

Source: slideshare.net

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Moving towards Modernity 20 th Century World History B. Bergey, 2008

The Long View Ancient 700 BCE – 500 CE Modern 1500 CE - Present Middle Ages Medieval Ancient Greece Ancient Rome Renaissance Scientific Revolution (late 1600s-1700s)

Ancient Greece

Ancient Rome

Renaissance

Scientific Revolution (late 1600s-1700s)

Modern Era defined by Rationality & Logic Optimism & Progress Individualism

Rationality & Logic

Optimism & Progress

Individualism

Rationality & Logic Newton , Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy , 1684 New mathematical model of the universe, “portraying it as a materialistic world of mindless bodies coursing in regular motions according to inflexible laws of nature.” Scientific method: Inductive empiricism Expanded to form new disciplines: Social Sciences, whose focus it was to improve the society, politics and ethics.

Newton , Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy , 1684

New mathematical model of the universe, “portraying it as a materialistic world of mindless bodies coursing in regular motions according to inflexible laws of nature.”

Scientific method: Inductive empiricism

Expanded to form new disciplines: Social Sciences, whose focus it was to improve the society, politics and ethics.

Optimism & Progress Optimism about change Kant (1784) calls it the age of enlightenment No more fear of change; change was progress; progress was good. Progress: belief that humans were advancing in a continuous process of improvement, that in a constantly improving world, the future would always be better Looking to the future, not to the past

Optimism about change

Kant (1784) calls it the age of enlightenment

No more fear of change; change was progress; progress was good.

Progress: belief that humans were advancing in a continuous process of improvement, that in a constantly improving world, the future would always be better

Looking to the future, not to the past

Optimism & Progress Voltaire : Humans, by nature, our good; the ills of society corrupt

Voltaire : Humans, by nature, our good; the ills of society corrupt

Optimism & Progress Locke : All humans have natural rights that no one can legitimately violate Promoted and articulated the framework of democratic, just governments

Locke : All humans have natural rights that no one can legitimately violate

Promoted and articulated the framework of democratic, just governments

Individualism Classical Liberalism : social betterment though the liberation of individual potential. Believed: Individual is the basic unit of society Pressed for more personal freedom Capitalism : Adam Smith Ideal: A society of autonomous citizens in which the pursuit of rational self-interest brought about the good for all.

Classical Liberalism : social betterment though the liberation of individual potential.

Believed: Individual is the basic unit of society

Pressed for more personal freedom

Capitalism : Adam Smith

Ideal: A society of autonomous citizens in which the pursuit of rational self-interest brought about the good for all.

Individualism The ideas of classical liberalism (social and economic individualism) and other enlightenment principles are spread throughout Europe after Napoleon.

The ideas of classical liberalism (social and economic individualism) and other enlightenment principles are spread throughout Europe after Napoleon.

Industrialization Dramatically altered social patterns Rapid urbanization: Move from agriculture for cities Many joined industrial working class Poor working conditions Large supply of workers kept wages low Especially women and children Fostered violence and crime Opportunities for some Created a professional, affluent middle-class, called bourgeoisie Greater social mobility Some safety nets (Start of public education & Social welfare programs)

Dramatically altered social patterns

Rapid urbanization: Move from agriculture for cities

Many joined industrial working class

Poor working conditions

Large supply of workers kept wages low

Especially women and children

Fostered violence and crime

Opportunities for some

Created a professional, affluent middle-class, called bourgeoisie

Greater social mobility

Some safety nets (Start of public education & Social welfare programs)

Industrialization

Industrialization Spurred colonization : European imperial powers seeking raw materials and markets for finished goods

Spurred colonization : European imperial powers seeking raw materials and markets for finished goods

Industrialization Marxism—Alternative vision: Urged workers to overthrow the present order and shape in their interests

Marxism—Alternative vision: Urged workers to overthrow the present order and shape in their interests

Industrialization Industrialism produced “mass society” Mass consumption of materials, entertainment, news Increased material conditions Better health

Industrialism produced “mass society”

Mass consumption of materials, entertainment, news

Increased material conditions

Better health

“ Second Coming” William Butler Yeats (1921) Turning and turning in the widening gyre The falcon cannot hear the falconer; Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold; Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world, The blood-dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhere The ceremony of innocence is drowned; The best lack all conviction, while the worst Are full of passionate intensity.

Turning and turning in the widening gyre

The falcon cannot hear the falconer;

Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;

Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world,

The blood-dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhere

The ceremony of innocence is drowned;

The best lack all conviction, while the worst

Are full of passionate intensity.

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