Movement of people to australia pre 1900

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Information about Movement of people to australia pre 1900

Published on February 27, 2014

Author: daviddunlop1



Stage 5 History Education
Australian Curriculum
Movement of People
Industrial revolution

New Worlds and New Opportunities The Movement of People to Australia during the Industrial Revolution

• The Industrial Revolution caused whole populations to move across the world. Identify which four areas provided the greatest numbers of migrants? • By 1800, British citizens could consider going to Australia, the United States, Canada, India, South Africa and New Zealand. • By the 1840s the flood of migrants was so great that it caused public debate in Britain.

Push Factors: Population Growth and Penal Colonies • The British population grew rapidly in the 19th Century and it was increasing concentrated in crowded and poorly designed cities. • High unemployment and poor housing turned many people into criminals, often for minor crimes like stealing bread to feed the family. • British gaols (jails) overflowed and prison ships had to be built. • The Government decided to use the newly discovered Australia as a penal colony. • More than 150 000 convicts were transported between 1787 and 1852, including 25 000 women • Cities such as Sydney and Hobart came into existence specifically to contain the social problems caused by the Industrial Revolution.

Using ADAMANT to Analyse Historical Sources To gain a full understanding of the usefulness and reliability of an historical source, we need to understand not just the information inside the source, but also the information outside the source that affects the quality of the source. Use the acronym ADAMANT to remind you of the key questions to ask of any historical source. You do not need to follow them in order, but you do need to consider them all. Author: Who is the author/creator of the source? How does their perspective affect its reliability? Date: When was the source produced? Primary or Secondary source? How does the historical context of its production affect its reliability? Audience: Where was the source intended to be viewed? Public? Private? Academic? etc. How does the intended audience affect the usefulness of the source? Message: What is the actual (literal) content of the source saying? Agenda: Why was the source produced? What was the author trying to achieve by producing it? How does this affect its usefulness and reliability as an historical source? Nature: What nature/type of source is it? How does its form affect its reliability and usefulness? Techniques: How was the source produced? What forms and features does the author use? What do these techniques tell us about the agenda of the author? Consider the following site: .How could we check the reliability of this information?

Irish & Scottish Migration By the 1840s it was clear the Industrial Revolution brought wealth only to the middle classes and factory owners. In 1846, the Irish potato famine began. Thousands of starving people flooded to England, America and the colonies in search of work and survival. Watch: When Ireland Starved (excerpt) 1. Identify 3 laws which led to poverty in Ireland during the 19th Century. 2. What aspects of this video would you need to consider when using it as a source on the movement of Irish people in the 19th century (ADAMANT: Author , Date (context), Audience, Message (content), Agenda (motive), Nature (type), Techniques.) After 1851, poor agricultural workers were cleared from the Scottish highlands as Enclosure Acts were extended to the North. Many Scots were driven to migrate to the New World. Read through the introductory information on this page: 3. Write a brief definition of the Scottish Highland clearances 4. What was the impact of these events on Australia and New Zealand? 5. What problems are highlighted at the beginning of this article. 6. How might these influence the reliability of this source. Extension: What strategies could you use to allow for these problems.

Pull Factors: Free “Settlers” & Agriculture • Australia was not just seen as a prison colony. • The British believed it could also serve as a settler colony, giving free settlers the chance to start a new life setting up farms and industries. • During the 1840s 15 000 people migrated to Australia each year. • By 1850 Australia produced 39 million tonnes of wool – half of Britain’s supply.

The Great Land Grab 1832-1860 • The rise of the wool industry devastated the lives and cultures of the many Aboriginal tribes who had lived in Australia for at least 80 000 years. • In just 28 short years, over 200 000 British immigrants arrived and bred 20 million sheep that occupied over 400 million hectares of Aboriginal lands from Southern Queensland to South Australia. • The Aboriginals were quickly outnumbered and outgunned in their own land.

The Growth of Australia • Australia’s cities grew rapidly during the 19th Century, especially after the Gold Rushes of the 1850s. • Melbourne’s population boomed from 30 000 in 1850 to 500 000 by 1900. • Australia’s major ports became busy centres of trade. • Australian wool was exported back to England, while many British manufactured goods and luxuries were imported in return.

1. Look at the pictures of Australian cities from the 19th Century (above). How did they compare with English cities of the same time (below)?

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