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Information about Mountainbldg

Published on October 3, 2007

Author: Shariyar


How to Make a Mountain:  How to Make a Mountain Using a sandbox to Model mountain building Part 1 SOAR-High Collaborators:  Part 1 SOAR-High Collaborators Dr. Michele Cooke:  Dr. Michele Cooke Dr. Mario Del Castello Department of Geosciences, University of Massachusetts Part 2 Structure of the Earth:  Part 2 Structure of the Earth The Earth:  The Earth Crust Continents Ocean Floor Core Lithosphere aethenosphere Picture of Earth cross- section here Earth’s Crust is made of plates:  Earth’s Crust is made of plates A large rigid slab of solid rock 15 km under oceans 200+ under continents Billion years old Largest plates are under the Pacific ocean, and Antarctica. Earth’s Crust :  Earth’s Crust The plates are cracked The cracks are called faults The edge of a plate is called a boundary Earth’s crust:  Earth’s crust The plates are always in motion! Changes require much more time than humans can live! Fastest movement is 2 to 3 cm/yr Most geologic changes require a 100 million years. Humans live 80 years Part 3 Kinds of Faults:  Part 3 Kinds of Faults Faults can be large and small:  Faults can be large and small A Large scale fault Small scale faults The San Andreas Fault in California stretches 1000 km! Part 4 The plates move!:  Part 4 The plates move! What happens when Plates Move?:  What happens when Plates Move? A Geologic Rule: A broken plate may move apart, and it always uses faults to move around blocks of crust and will always fill up the space between Two kinds of movement:  Two kinds of movement Extension <=== ===> Pull apart force is called TENSION Creates a RIFT Contraction ===> <=== Push together force is called SHORTENING Creates a SUBDUCTION Extension Contraction:  Extension Contraction Drawing of extension situation Drawing of contraction situation Combine pictures with vocab on next slide (= 1 slide) Rifts vs Subduction:  Rifts vs Subduction (Extension) Plates are Stretching <== ==> Involves an extensional fault (Contraction) Plates are Colliding ==> <== Involves a thrust fault Part 5 studying mountains:  Part 5 studying mountains Let’s study mountains!:  Let’s study mountains! Go out for a hike + You can see the real thing + Can make measurements & drawings -- You can’t see underground -- can’t change anything! Or we can Make a model:  Or we can Make a model + you can test variables (different situations) + you can measure and draw + you can see underground (cross sections) -- Is it really the same? -- Do real mountains follow the same patterns? The Sandbox is a model of mountains:  The Sandbox is a model of mountains Mountains are LARGE scale. Sand is very small scale. 1 cm deep sand = 1 km of crust What we can measure:  What we can measure Strike: a fault’s orientation (north/south, east/west, or parallel, or whatever to tell how it looks.) Dip: How steep or shallow the fault is; its angle. Part 6 Set up the Sandbox:  Part 6 Set up the Sandbox Carefully observe what happens in the sandbox. Make small sketches of the results frequently Part 7 Thinking and Understanding:  Part 7 Thinking and Understanding Synthesis Label your drawings - Show your understanding:  Synthesis Label your drawings - Show your understanding Label a fault Is it an extensional or thrust fault? Show the force. Is the force Tension or Shortening? Measure the angles Synthesis The big picture:  Synthesis The big picture View the sandbox from above, looking down. Make a sketch. Draw the ‘plate’ (use the whole sand area) Label the boundary (the edges of the sand area) show the strike of the fault or faults How does the surface look? Part 8 Compare with the real world:  Part 8 Compare with the real world Slide26:  Young mountains Old mountains Back in the real world - How do mountains look? Synthesis What do you see in the real world?:  Synthesis What do you see in the real world? How does the surface look after millions of years? How did it change? Erosion by wind Erosion by water Erosion by temperature changes Slide28:  More mountain pictures…. Identify types of faults? Old/new, & other vocabulary. Web sites:  Web sites

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