Published on February 3, 2014
Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD
The ultimate freedom lies in choosing to be the true being that you are, in wisdom, beauty and love, and in that light, inspire others to choose likewise.
Three Definitions: A collaborative conversation style for strengthening a person’s own motivation and commitment to change. A person-centered counseling style for addressing the common problem of ambivalence about change. A collaborative, goal-oriented style of communication with particular attention to the language of change. It is designed to strengthen personal motivation for and commitment to a specific goal by eliciting and exploring the person’s own reasons for change within an atmosphere of acceptance and compassion. Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S., Motivational Interviewing – Helping People Change . 3rd Ed. (20113)
Its overall style is one of guiding rather than directing. It aims at creating and amplifying discrepancy between present behavior and positive goals. Its spirit encompasses collaboration, acceptance, evocation and compassion. Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S., Motivational Interviewing – Helping People Change . 3rd Ed. (20113)
Works through four fundamental processes which are sequential and recursive that is, they follow a cycle. Engaging Planning Focusing Evoking
Maintenance Pre-Contemplation Engaging Planning Focusing Action Contemplation Evoking Preparation 6
Stage Definition Pre-Contemplation Not seeing a need for a lifestyle or behavior change Contemplation Considering making a change but not decided yet Preparation Decided to make changes and considering how to make them Action Actively doing something to change Maintenance Working to maintain the change or new lifestyle, possibly with some temptations to return to the former behavior or small lapses
This is done by focusing on the Journey of Change that is, a Rite of Healing, Transformation and Re-Entry Like the commission of a crime, the reintegration of the former outcast back into society represents a challenge to the moral order, a delicate transition fraught with danger and possibility. However, unlike punishment, reintegration is not a process characterized by wellorchestrated and familiar rituals. This lack might explain the failings of prisoner reentry in contemporary society. Maruna, C. (2011) Reentry as a Rite of Passage Punishment & Society 13(1) 3-28 8
citizen that has been convicted of a crime goes into prison. Eventually this citizen undergoes experiences and might utilize available help to open a portal to follow a reentry path into society and become a useful member of it. Going past such a portal involves healing and transformation. That, in turn, occurs through the purification and tempering from crucibles that is, successfully going past a number of challenges. And, as a part of returning to society, the offender shares his insights and helps others in their own 9
Healing, transformation & reentry is a process that can take years to complete by the offender. Or it might occur through a relatively short period of time. What is important is that at its center is the purposeful transformation of the offender. This being an inner transformation, involves a shift in selfperception and in the worldview been held which encompasses the offender’s participation in society. Naturally, that will only happen as a result of the offender’s choice and commitment. 10
A offender’s purposeful transformational coincides with Joseph Campbell´s monomyth - The Hero´s Journey: A hero is anyone who leaves the world of everyday life to undergo a journey to a special world where challenges and fears are overcome to secure a reward which is then shared with others in the community. Adapted from Campbell, J. (1973), The Hero with a Thousand Faces 11
… “The hero, therefore, is the man or woman who has been able to battle past his personal and local historical limitations to the generally valid, normally human forms”. Campbell, J. (1973), The Hero with a Thousand Faces
Carl G. Jung developed the idea of the archetype: A recurring pattern of images, situations, or symbols found in the mythology, religion, art, and dreams of cultures around the world. Carl Jung
Joseph Campbell utilized Jung’s idea of the archetype to construct the Hero’s Journey pattern of transformation. The Hero’s Journey archetypical cycle goes through three parts: • Departure/Preparation, • Initiation/Passage/Transformation and, • Return/Celebration. Joseph Campbell RETURN PREPARATION PASSAGE The Hero's Journey Pattern 14
The Hero´s Journey cycle of transformation starts at the world as usual a.k.a. the “comfort zone”. A call to adventure then takes place. If heeded, the hero then enters the three stage transformational cycle. After word, the hero is back at his world as usual which has expanded as a result from the transformation experienced. Now the hero is ready to undertake subsequent endeavors. CALL TO ADVENTURE THE WORLD AS USUAL The Hero's Journey Pattern 15
The Offender’s Heroic Journey The World as Usual & The Call to Adventure THE WORLD AS USUAL THE WORLD AS USUAL • This is the mental place where things that are known dwell, including self image, reputation, skills, habits and so forth. • It is also the state of mind of not being aware, not believing in the possibility or not having the intention to change, to self-transform into a pro-social, productive individual. • Locus of control is likely external, accompanied by a reactive attitude product of a belief of a destiny-defined future. THE CALL TO ADVENTURE • Becoming aware of the potential within: Awakening to the possibility of materializing the true self in spite of past history of wrong doings. • Visualizing a positive future for self. • Hanna’s precursors to change are present: ₋ Mindsets: sense of necessity, readiness to experience anxiety or difficulty, hope. ₋ Meta-cognitions: Awareness, confronting the problem, effort or will toward change. ₋ Broad, Confiding Social Support
The Offender’s Heroic Journey Preparation - Departure, The Gate Keeper and the First Threshold DEPARTURE: • Committing to self-transformation. • Envisaging a positive purpose in life. • Searching for guidance & advice. • Identifying probable aides & opponents, weaknesses, strengths, opportunities, threats and challenges to overcome. • The strongest aide would come from self knowledge, just as the worse opponent emerges from the inner “shadow”. • KEY: Know Thyself.` THE GATE KEEPER: • Clarifying the personal vision & recommitting to materialize it. • Dealing with fears and facing concerns & doubts that could fold the endeavor to heal & self-transform. • Understanding and acceptance of those concerns about the outcomes and on how to manage the uncertain future affairs. • Identifying keys for the journey ahead. KEY: Only those who dream can create realities. 1ST THRESHOLD: Leaving the world as usual - Entering the extraordinary world of healing & transformation.
The Offender’s Heroic Journey Passage – Endurance Trials, Abyss-Supreme Challenge ENDURANCE TRIALS: • Knowing that at some level, every obstacle being faced is FOR the best in self. • Resolving to utilize everything to learn, grow & advance toward healing, transformation & reentry. • Developing pro-social values & attitude. • Going past inner blockades and external difficulties. • Key: “The event is not important, the response to the event is everything.” (From the I Ching) ABYSS – SUPREME CHALLENGE: • Overcoming the Greatest Fear: Death and Rebirth. • Acknowledging that "Our deepest fear is not that we are Inadequate. Our deepest fear is that we are powerful yond measure. It is our light, not our darkness, that most frightens us.” (M.Williamson) • KEY: You have being preparing yourself for this all along.
The Offender’s Heroic Journey Passage (Cont.) – Claiming the Treasure, Convergence with the True Self, and the 2nd Threshold. CLAIMING THE TREASURE: • Thriving in discovery & fulfillment. • Experiencing the true self and thus realizing that this true self is not the doing or the having but the being. So all rewards that come with the healing and transformation are just reflections of that true self. KEY: Inner rich & abundance is a consciousness, not a material scorecard. CONVERGENCE WITH THE TRUE SELF: • Building a consciousness of Inner Alignment. • Attaining balances between pairs of opposites: Inner - Outer, Material – Spiritual, Temporal-Eternal. • Treading the pathway to atonement: Acceptance, cooperation, understanding and enthusiasm. KEY: Manifesting the true self. 2nd THRESHOLD: Leaving the extraordinary world of healing & transformation and Proceeding to reentry society.
The Offender’s Heroic Journey Return - Preparing to Return, Arrival & Celebration PREPARING TO RETURN: • Owning the successful healing & pursuing further transformation. • Being grateful for the journey undertaken. And thus, entering an ongoing cycle of giving & receiving. • Visualizing the reentry steps & challenges to overcome. • Assessing & rethinking the original journey motives. • Recovering from any inner wounds. KEY: Self Acknowledge and Reconnect to Society. ARRIVAL & CELEBRATION: • Enjoying being free from Fear, Letting Love Lead Life. • Building on the awareness of having become a Master of Two Worlds: the ordinary and the extraordinary. • Responding to expectations of sharing the learning and being able to contribute to the wellbeing of society. KEY: It is time to reciprocate.
The Offender’s Heroic Journey Back to the Community - The Expanded World as Usual • The experience of going through the journey of transformation, healing and re-entry results in an expanded comfort zone. THE EXPANDED WORLD AS USUAL • Having mastered the ordinary and the extraordinary worlds makes the ex-offender a person with an unusual potential for contributing to society. • Such potential empowers the returning citizen to pursue further journeys and thus creating a myth about self, a hero´s myth.
The Offender’s Journey: Summary CALL TO ADVENTURE Awakening, Awareness, Envisioning, Readiness. DEPARTURE: Commitment , sense of purpose in life, guidance & advice, aides & opponents, weaknesses, strengths, opportunities, threats and challenges to overcome KEY: Know Thyself.` ARRIVAL & CELEBRATION: Freedom from Fear, Letting Love Lead Life. Master of Two Worlds: the ordinary and the extraordinary. Sharing the learning and contributing to society. KEY: It is time to reciprocate. PREPARING TO RETURN: Owning the journey. Gratefulness: Giving & receiving. Preparing for reentry. Recovering from inner wounds. KEY: Self Acknowledge & Reconnect to Society. 2nd THRESHOLD Leaving the extraordinary world & Proceeding to reentry society. CONVERGENCE WITH THE TRUE SELF: Inner Alignment & Balance. At-onement: Acceptance, .cooperation, understanding and enthusiasm. KEY: Manifesting the true self. CLAIMING THE TREASURE: Thriving in discovery & fulfillment. Experiencing the true self reflections: the rewards from healing and transformation. KEY: Inner rich & abundance is a consciousness, not a material scorecard. THE GATE KEEPER: Dealing with fears & concerns. Re-commitment to the vision. KEY: Only those who dream can create realities. 1st THRESHOLD THE WORLD AS USUAL Leaving the world as usual - Entering the extraordinary world of healing & transformation. ENDURANCE TRIALS: Utilizing everything to learn, grow & advance. Pro-social values & attitude. Key: “The event is not important, the response to the event is everything.” ABYSS – SUPREME CHALLENGE: Death & Rebirth. Overcoming the greatest fear: Acknowledging that what most frightens us is our inner light.” KEY: You have being preparing yourself for this all along.
Several archetypes are at play along the Hero’s Journey: The Heroic Archetypes These additional archetypes become awake as supportive, favorable “aides” once the hero starts the journey. CALL TO ADVENTURE •The Ruler •The Magician •The Sage •The Jester •The Innocent •The Orphan •The Warrior •The Altruist THE WORLD AS USUAL •The Explorer •The Destroyer •The Lover •The Creator The Heroic Archetypes 23
The Heroic Archetypes are observable psychological patterns They are measurable: • Heroic Myth Index (HMI) C. S. Pearson, Awakening the Heroes Within (1991) • Pearson-Marr Archetype Index (PMAI) C. S. Pearson, Ph.D. and H. K. Marr Ph.D. Introduction to Archetypes & PMAI™ (2011) And they can serve as the basis for an evidence based practice 24
Motivational Interviewing is Capable of Scaffolding the Offender’s Journey ` Observing & coaching the heroic archetypes being manifested by the offender as the journey unfolds provides the basis for motivational interviewing getting in sync with the offender’s journey. Such a synchronization also demands specifying goals and their corresponding process emphasis in terms of the journey’s main stage milestones: • Heeding to the call to adventure • Going past the 1st threshold • Going past the 2nd threshold • Expansion of the world as usual The MI will undertake a full cycle for attaining each of these milestones 25
The Motivational Interview-Scaffolded Offender’s Journey Functions on a Basis of Intimate Interpersonal Connection The fundamental requirement is that the interviewer(s) come from a place of understanding, appreciation and compassion in order to enter and maintain a productive collaboration with and guidance to the journeying offender.
The Motivational Interviewer ‘s State of Mind & Heart Will Affect the Offender’s State and Journey Positively strengthening the interviewer capability includes: Being mindful of his/her own heroic journey as a human being. Being consciously aware of his/her inner state as it affects the quality of the connection with the offender. Cultivating an appropriate inner state through contemplative practices. Becoming consciously aware and entrained with the offender’s journey. 27
Motivational Interview-Scaffolded Offender’s Journey: The Potential Directing motivational interviewing to the offender’s journey rather than the conventional stages of change: Allows for a space of interaction between the interviewer and the offender at a much deeper psychological level: the archetypical world of the hero. Brings essential existential meaning to both the interviewer and the offender. Establishes a more significant and farther reaching connection with constructing societal wellbeing. 28
Questions Welcome !!! 29
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