MORTALITY FROM ROAD CRASHES IN 193 COUNTRIES: A COMPARISON WITH OTHER LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH

40 %
60 %
Information about MORTALITY FROM ROAD CRASHES IN 193 COUNTRIES: A COMPARISON WITH OTHER...
Automotive

Published on February 25, 2014

Author: Autoua

Source: slideshare.net

Description

MORTALITY FROM ROAD CRASHES IN
193 COUNTRIES: A COMPARISON WITH
OTHER LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH

UMTRI-2014-6 FEBRUARY 2014 MORTALITY FROM ROAD CRASHES IN 193 COUNTRIES: A COMPARISON WITH OTHER LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH MICHAEL SIVAK BRANDON SCHOETTLE

MORTALITY FROM ROAD CRASHES IN 193 COUNTRIES: A COMPARISON WITH OTHER LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH Michael Sivak Brandon Schoettle The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2150 U.S.A. Report No. UMTRI-2014-6 February 2014

Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No. 2. Government Accession No. UMTRI-2014-6 3. Recipientʼs Catalog No. 4. Title and Subtitle 5. Report Date February 2014 Mortality from Road Crashes in 193 Countries: A Comparison with Other Leading Causes of Death 6. Performing Organization Code 383818 7. Author(s) 8. Performing Organization Report No. 9. Performing Organization Name and Address 10. Work Unit no. (TRAIS) Michael Sivak and Brandon Schoettle UMTRI-2014-6 The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 2901 Baxter Road Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2150 U.S.A. 11. Contract or Grant No. 12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address 13. Type of Report and Period Covered The University of Michigan Sustainable Worldwide Transportation http://www.umich.edu/~umtriswt 14. Sponsoring Agency Code 15. Supplementary Notes 16. Abstract This study compared, for each country of the world, the fatalities per population from road crashes with fatalities per population from three leading causes of death (malignant neoplasm, ischaemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease) and from all causes. The data, applicable to 2008, came from the World Health Organization. The main findings are as follows: (1) For the world, there were 18 fatalities from road crashes per 100,000 population, as compared with 113 for malignant neoplasm, 108 for ischaemic heart disease, and 91 for cerebrovascular disease. The highest fatality rate from road crashes was in Namibia (45) and the lowest in the Maldives (2). The rate in the United States was 14. (2) For the world, fatalities from road crashes represented 2.1% of fatalities from all causes. The highest percentage was in the United Arab Emirates (15.9%) and the lowest in the Marshall Islands (0.3%). The percentage in the United States was 1.8%. (3) For the world, fatalities from road crashes corresponded to 15.9% of fatalities from malignant neoplasm. The highest percentage was in Namibia (153.9%) and the lowest in the Maldives (1.7%). The percentage in the United States was 7.7%. (4) For the world, fatalities from road crashes corresponded to 16.7% of fatalities from ischaemic heart disease. The highest percentage was in Qatar (123.9%) and the lowest in Malta (1.9%). The percentage in the United States was 10.1%. (5) For the world, fatalities from road crashes corresponded to 19.6% of fatalities from cerebrovascular disease. The highest percentage was in Qatar (529.7%) and the lowest in the Marshall Islands (2.3%). The percentage in the United States was 30.8%. The appendixes list the rates and percentages for each individual country. 17. Key Words Road crashes, public health perspective, leading causes of death, global, worldwide, cancer, heart disease, stroke 19. Security Classification (of this report) None 20. Security Classification (of this page) None i 21. No. of Pages 43 18. Distribution Statement Unlimited 22. Price

Contents Introduction ..........................................................................................................................1   Method .................................................................................................................................2   Results ..................................................................................................................................3   Discussion ..........................................................................................................................30   References ..........................................................................................................................33   Appendix A ........................................................................................................................34   Appendix B ........................................................................................................................38   ii

Introduction Road safety is a multifaceted concept. Consequently, it is not surprising that there are various indexes for evaluating different aspects of road safety. Several key indexes and their appropriate roles are listed in Table 1. Table 1 Key road-safety indexes (Sivak, 1996). Road safety index Appropriate role/perspective Fatalities per population Public health Fatalities per driver Driver education/licensing Fatalities per vehicle Vehicle manufacturing/regulation Fatalities per distance driven Traffic/roadway engineering Fatalities per trip Urban planning The most frequently used index in the U.S. is fatality rate per distance driven. However, one of the main limitations of this index is that it does not allow us to place road fatalities in the broader context of fatalities from other leading causes of death. That is possible only with fatalities per population. This study was designed to compare mortality from road crashes with mortality from three leading causes of death: malignant neoplasm (cancer), ischaemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease. The analysis was performed for each individual country of the world. The raw data came from the World Health Organization. 1

Method Estimated fatalities from road crashes, malignant neoplasm, ischaemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease for 193 countries were obtained from WHO (2014). The data were for 2008. Two sets of variables were analyzed: fatality rates per population from each of the four causes of deaths, and fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of fatalities from each of the other three causes of death. 2

Results Fatality rates per population Tables 2 through 6 present the following fatality rates per population for each country: overall, road crashes, malignant neoplasm, ischaemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease. For each cause of death, these tables include the 25 countries with the highest and lowest rates, plus the following countries (if they are not already among the 25 highest or lowest countries): the Unites States, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Australia, China, India, and South Korea. The 25 countries with the highest and lowest rates are also mapped in Figures 1 through 5. (A complete list of these fatality rates for all 193 countries is shown in Appendix A.) Overall fatality rate For the world, there were 844 fatalities from all causes per 100,000 population (Table 2). The highest rate by country (1,717 in Chad) was 12 times the lowest rate (141 in Qatar). The rate in the United States was 817. The 10 countries with the highest rates were Chad, Guinea-Bissau, Central African Republic, Ukraine, Malawi, Afghanistan, Dem. Rep. of the Congo, Somalia, Lesotho, and Mozambique (Table 2). The 10 countries with the lowest rates were Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Bahrain, Brunei Darussalam, Oman, Syria, the Maldives, Saudi Arabia, and Costa Rica. The countries with the highest rates tended to cluster in two regions: central Africa, and several of the countries of the former Soviet Union and some adjacent countries (Figure 1). The countries with the lowest rates tended to cluster in Central America and the northern part of South America, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia. 3

Table 2 Fatality rate per 100,000 population from all causes. Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 53 68 94 98 103 104 120 124 131 145 162 165 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 Country Chad Guinea-Bissau Central African Republic Ukraine Malawi Afghanistan Dem. Rep. of the Congo Somalia Lesotho Mozambique Zambia Swaziland Sierra Leone Côte d'Ivoire Russian Federation Zimbabwe Bulgaria Cameroon Burundi Guinea Latvia Burkina Faso Armenia Angola Belarus Germany United Kingdom World France India United States Argentina China Canada Australia Brazil South Korea Mexico Turkey Malaysia Singapore Jordan Venezuela Panama Peru Vanuatu Libya Belize Paraguay Solomon Islands Colombia Cook Islands Nicaragua Costa Rica Saudi Arabia Maldives Syria Oman Brunei Darussalam Bahrain Kuwait United Arab Emirates Qatar 4 Rate 1717 1675 1671 1638 1627 1612 1607 1560 1559 1559 1551 1504 1502 1499 1474 1468 1459 1453 1413 1389 1379 1365 1362 1362 1356 1009 960 844 842 838 817 810 716 704 668 631 527 519 500 494 491 483 478 476 475 474 472 463 459 454 454 444 439 434 404 380 364 331 310 296 175 155 141

Fatality rate per population from all causes Red = Top 25 (highest) Green = Bottom 25 (lowest) Michael Sivak and Brandon Schoettle University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute Figure 1. The 25 countries with the highest (red) and lowest (green) rates of fatalities per population from all causes. 5  

Fatality rate from road crashes For the world, there were 18 fatalities from road crashes per 100,000 population (Table 3). The highest rate by country (45 in Namibia) was 22 times the lowest rate (2 in Maldives). The rate in the United States was 14. The 10 countries with the highest rates were Namibia, Thailand, Iran, Sudan, Swaziland, Venezuela, Congo, Malawi, Dominican Republic, and Iraq (Table 3). The 10 countries with the lowest rates were the Maldives, Tajikistan, Malta, Fiji, the Marshall Islands, Israel, Tonga, Antigua and Barbuda, the Netherlands, and Switzerland. The countries with the highest rates tended to be in Central America and the northern part of South America, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia (Figure 2). The countries with the lowest rates tended to be in Europe (primarily northern Europe), Oceania, and Asia. 6

Table 3 Fatality rate per 100,000 population from road crashes. Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 42 44 76 82 97 110 114 150 160 161 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 Country Namibia Thailand Iran Sudan Swaziland Venezuela Congo Malawi Dominican Republic Iraq Central African Republic Mongolia Belize Djibouti Lesotho Mozambique Malaysia El Salvador Yemen Ethiopia Equatorial Guinea Zambia Guyana Jordan Angola Brazil China World India South Korea United States Mexico Argentina Canada Australia France Germany Iceland Singapore Kiribati Cook Islands Denmark Bosnia and Herzegovina Macedonia Haiti Norway Japan Vanuatu United Kingdom Solomon Islands Sweden Guatemala Switzerland Netherlands Antigua and Barbuda Tonga Israel Marshall Islands Fiji Malta Tajikistan Maldives 7 Rate 45 44 38 36 36 35 34 32 32 32 32 31 31 30 30 30 30 29 28 28 28 28 27 27 27 22 22 18 17 16 14 13 12 8 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 2

Fatality rate per population from road crashes Red = Top 25 (highest) Green = Bottom 25 (lowest) Michael Sivak and Brandon Schoettle University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute Figure 2. The 25 countries with the highest (red) and lowest (green) rates of fatalities per population from road crashes. 8  

Fatality rate from malignant neoplasm For the world, there were 113 fatalities from malignant neoplasm per 100,000 population (Table 4). The highest rate by country (318 in Hungary) was 17 times the lowest rate (19 in the United Arab Emirates). The rate in the United States was 189. The 10 countries with the highest rates were Hungary, Croatia, Denmark, Slovenia, Italy, San Marino, Japan, Latvia, Estonia, and the Czech Republic (Table 4). The 10 countries with the lowest rates were the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar, Namibia, Syria, Botswana, Niger, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. The countries with the highest rates (Figure 3) were primarily in Europe. The countries with the lowest rates tended to be in Africa and the Middle East. 9

Table 4 Fatality rate per 100,000 population from malignant neoplasm. Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 32 38 42 50 53 55 78 111 134 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 Country Hungary Croatia Denmark Slovenia Italy San Marino Japan Latvia Estonia Czech Republic Germany United Kingdom Poland Serbia France Netherlands Lithuania Portugal Uruguay Greece Belgium Bulgaria Sweden Austria Monaco Canada Australia United States Argentina South Korea China World Brazil Mexico India Dem. Rep. of the Congo Senegal Côte d'Ivoire Sudan Chad Lesotho Burkina Faso Swaziland Sierra Leone Angola Oman Kiribati Tanzania Eritrea Bahrain Yemen Saudi Arabia Samoa Niger Botswana Syria Namibia Qatar Kuwait United Arab Emirates 10 Rate 318 301 290 282 277 275 275 274 269 267 265 262 261 260 259 255 252 250 247 246 244 243 241 237 233 208 194 189 163 156 149 113 99 66 54 42 42 41 41 40 40 39 39 39 38 38 37 37 37 37 35 35 35 34 33 30 29 28 23 19

Fatality rate per population from malignant neoplasm Red = Top 25 (highest) Green = Bottom 25 (lowest) Michael Sivak and Brandon Schoettle University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute Figure 3. The 25 countries with the highest (red) and lowest (green) rates of fatalities per population from malignant neoplasm. 11  

Fatality rate from ischaemic heart disease For the world, there were 108 fatalities from ischaemic heart disease per 100,000 population (Table 5). The highest rate by country (735 in Ukraine) was 92 times the lowest rate (8 in Kiribati). The rate in the United States was 143. The 10 countries with the highest rates were Ukraine, Belarus, the Russian Federation, Georgia, Lithuania, Moldova, Latvia, Estonia, Armenia, and Slovakia (Table 5). The 10 countries with the lowest rates were Kiribati, Qatar, the Maldives, Niger, Brunei Darussalam, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Senegal, Haiti, and Eritrea. The countries with the highest rates (Figure 4) tended to be in several of the countries of the former Soviet Union, and eastern and northern Europe. The countries with the lowest rates tended to be in Central and South America, Africa, and Oceania. 12

Table 5 Fatality rate per 100,000 population from ischaemic heart disease. Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 31 34 43 54 68 84 99 109 112 115 161 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 Country Ukraine Belarus Russian Federation Georgia Lithuania Moldova Latvia Estonia Armenia Slovakia Hungary Kazakhstan Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Romania Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan Finland Poland Uzbekistan Germany Azerbaijan Sweden Malta United Kingdom United States Canada Australia World India Argentina China Mexico Brazil France South Korea Gambia Bahamas Madagascar Mauritania Rwanda Sao Tome and Principe Cape Verde Belize Kenya Burkina Faso Ecuador Guatemala Sierra Leone Peru Mali Eritrea Haiti Senegal Bahrain United Arab Emirates Brunei Darussalam Niger Maldives Qatar Kiribati 13 Rate 735 580 466 465 449 447 439 364 342 340 335 311 304 277 276 266 238 231 215 207 190 189 187 185 178 151 143 126 118 108 106 91 77 71 70 69 43 40 39 39 38 36 35 35 35 35 34 33 32 32 32 32 31 29 29 27 26 25 25 24 16 8

Fatality rate per population from ischaemic heart disease Red = Top 25 (highest) Green = Bottom 25 (lowest) Michael Sivak and Brandon Schoettle University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute Figure 4. The 25 countries with the highest (red) and lowest (green) rates of fatalities per population from ischaemic heart disease. 14  

Fatality rate from cerebrovascular disease For the world, there were 91 fatalities from cerebrovascular disease per 100,000 population (Table 6). The highest rate by country (318 in the Russian Federation) was 80 times the lowest rate (4 in Qatar). The rate in the United States was 47. The 10 countries with the highest rates were the Russian Federation, Bulgaria, Georgia, Latvia, Ukraine, Romania, Belarus, Macedonia, Serbia, and Moldova (Table 6). The 10 countries with the lowest rates were Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Guatemala, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Brunei Darussalam, the Maldives, Kuwait, and Peru. The countries with the highest rates (Figure 5) tended to be in several of the countries of the former Soviet Union, southern Europe, and Southeast Asia. The countries with the lowest rates tended to be in Central and South America, Africa, and the Middle East. 15

Table 6 Fatality rate per 100,000 population from cerebrovascular disease. Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 42 52 54 72 87 106 110 115 139 142 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 Country Russian Federation Bulgaria Georgia Latvia Ukraine Romania Belarus Macedonia Serbia Moldova Albania Armenia Croatia Bosnia and Herzegovina Lithuania Azerbaijan Marshall Islands China Kazakhstan Portugal Viet Nam Greece Kyrgyzstan Hungary Uruguay United Kingdom World Germany South Korea India Brazil Australia Argentina France United States Canada Senegal Papua New Guinea Djibouti Iraq Mexico Colombia Nicaragua Niger Ecuador Israel Yemen Timor-Leste El Salvador Costa Rica Belize Peru Kuwait Maldives Brunei Darussalam Saudi Arabia Oman Guatemala Bahrain United Arab Emirates Qatar 16 Rate 318 305 278 244 230 223 214 214 212 203 192 190 189 182 175 163 162 158 150 150 138 137 137 136 127 91 91 82 80 70 64 59 57 55 47 47 35 34 34 33 32 31 30 29 29 29 28 26 26 26 25 24 20 19 19 19 18 12 10 8 4

Fatality rate per population from cerebrovascular disease Red = Top 25 (highest) Green = Bottom 25 (lowest) Michael Sivak and Brandon Schoettle University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute Figure 5. The 25 countries with the highest (red) and lowest (green) rates of fatalities per population from cerebrovascular disease. 17  

Fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of fatalities from other leading causes of death Tables 7 through 10 present fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of the following other leading causes of death for each country: overall, malignant neoplasm, ischaemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease. For each cause of death, these tables include the 25 countries with the highest and lowest percentages, plus up to 10 additional selected countries (as in Tables 2 through 6). The 25 countries with the highest and lowest percentages are also mapped in Figures 6 through 9. (A complete list of these percentages for all 193 countries is shown in Appendix B.) Fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of fatalities from all causes of death For the world, fatalities from road crashes represented 2.1% of fatalities from all causes (Table 7). The highest percentage by country (15.9% in the United Arab Emirates) was 53 times the lowest percentage (0.3% in the Marshall Islands). The percentage in the United States was 1.8%. In the following 10 countries, road crashes were responsible for the highest percentage of all fatalities: the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Venezuela, Iran, Belize, Malaysia, Jordan, and Mongolia (Table 7). The 10 countries with the lowest percentages were the Marshall Islands, Malta, Tajikistan, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Fiji, Denmark, and Macedonia. The countries with the highest percentages (Figure 6) tended to be in Central America and the northern part of South America, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia. Eleven of the 25 countries with the lowest percentages were in Europe. 18

Table 7 Fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of fatalities from all causes of death. Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 31 38 40 48 67 85 108 133 148 167 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 Country United Arab Emirates Qatar Kuwait Bahrain Venezuela Iran Belize Malaysia Jordan Mongolia Saudi Arabia Thailand Dominican Republic Iraq Paraguay Libya Brunei Darussalam Lebanon Yemen El Salvador Namibia Costa Rica Ecuador Colombia Viet Nam Brazil China South Korea Mexico World India United States Argentina Canada Australia France Niger Tuvalu Kiribati Guatemala Israel Finland Somalia Antigua and Barbuda Tonga Norway Germany Japan Maldives Haiti Bosnia and Herzegovina Macedonia Denmark Fiji Netherlands Switzerland United Kingdom Sweden Tajikistan Malta Marshall Islands 19 % 15.9 14.3 7.9 7.3 7.3 7.1 6.7 6.0 5.7 5.5 5.1 5.1 4.9 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.1 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.0 3.0 2.4 2.1 2.0 1.8 1.5 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3

Fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of fatalities from all causes Red = Top 25 (highest) Green = Bottom 25 (lowest) Michael Sivak and Brandon Schoettle University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute Figure 6. The 25 countries with the highest (red) and lowest (green) fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of fatalities from all causes of death. 20  

Fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of fatalities from malignant neoplasm For the world, the number of fatalities from road crashes corresponded to 15.9% of fatalities from malignant neoplasm (Table 8). The highest percentage by country (153.9% in Namibia) was 91 times the lowest percentage (1.7% in the Maldives). The percentage in the United States was 7.7%. In the following 10 countries, fatalities from road crashes corresponded to the highest percentage of fatalities from malignant neoplasm: Namibia, the United Arab Emirates, Swaziland, Sudan, Yemen, Lesotho, Congo, Angola, Qatar, and Central African Republic (Table 8). The 10 countries where fatalities from road crashes corresponded to the lowest percentage of fatalities from malignant neoplasm were the Maldives, the Netherlands, Malta, Demark, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Japan, Switzerland, Norway, and Germany. Seventeen of the 25 countries with the highest percentages were in Africa (Figure 7). Twenty-one of the 25 countries with the lowest percentages were in Europe. 21

Table 8 Fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of fatalities from malignant neoplasm. Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 59 82 91 104 122 133 135 166 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 Country Namibia United Arab Emirates Swaziland Sudan Yemen Lesotho Congo Angola Qatar Central African Republic Malawi Djibouti Botswana Iraq Sierra Leone Mozambique Kuwait Ethiopia Chad Burkina Faso Iran Saudi Arabia Cameroon Bahrain Tanzania India Brazil Mexico World China South Korea United States Argentina Canada Hungary Australia Iceland Ireland Antigua and Barbuda Bosnia and Herzegovina Czech Republic Austria Macedonia Finland Italy San Marino Spain Israel France Germany Norway Switzerland Japan Sweden United Kingdom Denmark Malta Netherlands Maldives 22 % 153.9 133.1 91.8 89.4 79.7 75.5 75.1 71.5 70.5 68.5 63.9 63.4 62.7 62.6 61.2 61.1 60.9 60.7 59.8 59.3 59.2 58.8 58.8 58.5 56.9 31.1 22.0 19.1 15.9 14.6 10.1 7.7 7.5 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.0 2.7 2.6 2.3 2.3 2.1 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.7

Fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of fatalities from malignant neoplasm Red = Top 25 (highest) Green = Bottom 25 (lowest) Michael Sivak and Brandon Schoettle University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute Figure 7. The 25 countries with the highest (red) and lowest (green) fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of fatalities from malignant neoplasm. 23  

Fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of fatalities from ischaemic heart disease For the world, the number of fatalities from road crashes corresponded to 16.7% of fatalities from ischaemic heart disease (Table 9). The highest percentage by country (123.9% in Namibia) was 65 times the lowest percentage (1.9% in Malta). The percentage in the United States was 10.1%. In the following 10 countries, fatalities from road crashes corresponded to the highest percentage of fatalities from ischaemic heart disease (Table 9): Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Belize, Bahrain, Mongolia, Sierra Leone, Namibia, Kiribati, Burkina Faso, and Angola. The 10 countries where fatalities from road crashes corresponded to the lowest percentage of fatalities from ischaemic heart disease were Malta, the Marshall Islands, Sweden, Georgia, Ukraine, Tajikistan, Finland, the Czech Republic, Germany, and Belarus. Sixteen of the 25 countries with the highest percentages were in Africa (Figure 8). The countries with the lowest percentages tended to be either in Europe or in the eastern and southern parts of the former Soviet Union. 24

Table 9 Fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of fatalities from ischaemic heart disease. Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 51 67 73 95 98 109 124 126 148 154 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 Country Qatar United Arab Emirates Belize Bahrain Mongolia Sierra Leone Namibia Kiribati Burkina Faso Angola Swaziland Uganda Ecuador Congo Kenya Mauritania Thailand Brunei Darussalam Ethiopia Mozambique Zambia Malawi Dem. Rep. of the Congo Equatorial Guinea Central African Republic South Korea Brazil China Mexico World India Argentina United States France Canada Australia Austria Azerbaijan Norway Turkmenistan Slovakia Macedonia Latvia Bosnia and Herzegovina Lithuania Fiji Hungary Moldova Switzerland United Kingdom Estonia Belarus Germany Czech Republic Finland Tajikistan Ukraine Georgia Sweden Marshall Islands Malta 25 % 123.9 95.4 89.6 79.6 75.0 73.3 72.3 71.5 69.3 64.5 60.6 60.4 59.0 57.9 57.8 56.4 55.8 54.5 52.3 51.5 51.3 51.1 51.1 50.7 49.7 36.9 31.4 28.1 17.9 16.7 15.8 13.4 10.1 9.9 6.7 5.9 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.2 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.1 2.8 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.2 1.9

Fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of fatalities from ischaemic heart disease Red = Top 25 (highest) Green = Bottom 25 (lowest) Michael Sivak and Brandon Schoettle University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute Figure 8. The 25 countries with the highest (red) and lowest (green) fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of fatalities from ischaemic heart disease. 26  

Fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of fatalities from cerebrovascular disease For the world, the number of fatalities from road crashes corresponded to 19.6% of fatalities from cerebrovascular disease (Table 10). The highest percentage by country (529.7% in Qatar) was 230 times the lowest percentage (2.3% in the Marshall Islands). The percentage in the United States was 30.8%. In the following 10 countries, fatalities from road crashes corresponded to the highest percentage of fatalities from cerebrovascular disease (Table 10): Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Belize, El Salvador, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Iraq, Venezuela, and Djibouti. The 10 countries where fatalities from road crashes corresponded to the lowest percentage of fatalities from cerebrovascular disease were the Marshall Islands, Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Malta, Fiji, Georgia, Bulgaria, Azerbaijan, Albania, and Tonga. The countries with the highest percentages (Figure 9) tended to be in Central America and the northern part of South America, northern Africa, and the Middle East. The countries with lowest percentages were primarily in Europe and in several countries of the former Soviet Union. 27

Table 10 Fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of fatalities from cerebrovascular disease. Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 51 71 77 95 103 108 112 127 133 138 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 Country Qatar United Arab Emirates Bahrain Belize El Salvador Saudi Arabia Yemen Iraq Venezuela Djibouti Brunei Darussalam Kuwait Costa Rica Malaysia Ecuador Oman Namibia Sudan Iran Sierra Leone Burkina Faso Libya Afghanistan Colombia Jordan Mexico Brazil United States India Argentina South Korea World Canada China France Australia Russian Federation Germany Dominica Latvia Haiti Norway Romania Denmark Tuvalu Tajikistan Kiribati Serbia United Kingdom Japan Sweden Tonga Albania Azerbaijan Bulgaria Georgia Fiji Malta Bosnia and Herzegovina Macedonia Marshall Islands 28 % 529.7 299.0 208.5 124.5 111.8 109.1 102.0 96.4 93.6 89.4 71.2 69.5 68.9 67.2 67.1 65.5 65.2 64.6 64.3 61.2 57.6 57.6 57.4 55.0 52.7 40.1 34.2 30.8 23.8 21.3 19.7 19.6 18.1 13.8 12.3 11.9 7.6 7.5 7.4 7.0 7.0 7.0 6.6 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.1 5.6 5.5 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.6 4.3 4.2 4.0 3.1 2.6 2.3

Fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of fatalities from cerebrovascular disease Red = Top 25 (highest) Green = Bottom 25 (lowest) Michael Sivak and Brandon Schoettle University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute Figure 9. The 25 countries with the highest (red) and lowest (green) fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of fatalities from cerebrovascular disease. 29  

Discussion Fatality rates per population The key findings concerning the examined fatality rates per population are summarized in Table 11. Of particular note is the fact that the range of fatality rates from road crashes (maximum/minimum) is comparable to the range of rates from malignant neoplasm, but is substantially smaller than the range of rates from either ischaemic heart disease or cerebrovascular disease. Table 11 Key findings concerning fatality rates per 100,000 population by cause of death. World United States Maximum Minimum Maximum/ minimum 844 817 1,717 (Chad) 141 (Qatar) 12 18 14 45 (Namibia) Malignant neoplasm 113 189 318 (Hungary) 2 (Maldives) 19 (United Arab Emirates) Ischaemic heart disease 108 143 735 (Ukraine) 8 (Kiribati) 92 47 318 (Russian Federation) 4 (Qatar) 80 Cause of death All causes Road crashes Cerebrovascular disease 91 22 17 Fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of fatalities from all causes For the world, fatalities from road crashes represented 2.1% of fatalities from all causes (Table 7). For two countries on one extreme, this percentage was greater than 10% (15.9% in the United Arab Emirates and 14.3% in Qatar). On the other extreme, in six countries this percentage was 0.5% or less (0.5% in Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Sweden; 0.4% in Tajikistan and Malta; and 0.3% in the Marshall Islands). The percentage in the United States was 1.8%. 30

Fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of fatalities from other leading causes of death The key findings concerning fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of fatalities from malignant neoplasm, ischaemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease are presented in Table 12. For the world, these percentages were 15.9%, 16.7%, and 19.6%, respectively. Table 12 Key findings concerning fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of fatalities from three leading causes of death. World United States Maximum Minimum Maximum/ minimum Malignant neoplasm 15.9 7.7 153.9 (Namibia) 1.7 (Maldives) 91 Ischaemic heart disease 16.7 10.1 123.9 (Namibia) 1.9 (Malta) 65 Cerobrovascular disease 19.6 30.8 529.7 (Qatar) 2.3 (Marshall Islands) 230 Cause of death Table 13 lists the number of countries where fatalities from road crashes exceeded 100% and 60% of fatalities from each of these three leading causes of death. Also shown in Table 13 are the numbers of countries where fatalities from road crashes corresponded to less than 3.5% of fatalities from each of these three causes. Of particular note is the fact that the number of fatalities from road crashes exceeded the number of fatalities from malignant neoplasm, ischaemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease in 2, 1, and 7 countries, respectively. The corresponding number of countries where this percentage was between 60% and 100% is 21, 12, and 3, respectively. 31

Table 13 Number of countries at the extremes of fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of fatalities from malignant neoplasm, ischaemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Cause of death Fatalities from road crashes were: >100% >60%, <100% <3.5% Malignant neoplasm 2 16 21 Ischaemic heart disease 1 11 12 Cerebrovascular disease 7 13 3 How fatalities from road crashes can correspond to a high (or low) percentage of fatalities from another cause For a country to have fatalities from road crashes corresponding to a high percentage of fatalities from another cause requires either a high fatality rate per population from road crashes, or a low fatality rate from the other cause, or both. The converse applies to a low percentage. (Because both of the rates are per population, these statements apply to the absolute numbers as well.) Let us consider the following three examples. In the first example, the United Arab Emirates and Qatar are the two countries where fatalities from road crashes represented the two highest percentages of fatalities from all causes. This is the case primarily because these two countries had the two lowest fatality rates from all causes. (Their rank order in terms of the fatality rate from road crashes was only the 32nd and 60th highest, respectively.) In the second example, the SUN countries (Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands) were all among the seven countries with the lowest fatalities from road crashes as a percentage of fatalities from all causes. This is primarily the case because all three of these countries had a low fatality rate per population from road crashes. Indeed, these countries had the 4th, 5th, and 7th lowest rates, respectively. (Their rank order in terms of the fatality rate from all causes was only the 64th, 55th, and 105th highest, respectively.) In the third example, in the Netherlands fatalities from road crashes represented the second lowest percentage of fatalities from malignant neoplasm. This was the case because the Netherlands had both a low fatality rate per population from road crashes (9th lowest) and a high fatality rate per population from malignant neoplasm (16th highest). 32

References Sivak, M. (1996). Motor-vehicle safety in Europe and the USA: A public-health perspective. Journal of Safety Research, 27, 225-231. WHO [World Health Organization]. 2014. Disease and injury country estimates. Available at: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/estimates_country/en/index .html 33

Appendix A Country WORLD Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo Cook Islands Costa Rica Côte d'Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Dem. Rep. of the Congo Denmark Fatality rates per 100,000 population from leading causes of death Malignant Ischaemic heart Cerebrovascular All causes Road crashes neoplasm disease disease 844 1612 884 506 819 1362 684 810 1362 668 886 889 530 296 719 805 1356 937 463 1110 846 675 939 1006 631 310 1459 1365 1413 840 1453 704 509 1671 1717 568 716 454 914 1240 444 434 1499 1203 789 663 998 1607 983 113 43 162 60 202 38 128 163 217 194 237 116 94 37 65 178 196 244 58 46 80 55 162 33 99 51 243 39 52 62 45 208 52 46 40 132 149 76 48 46 43 92 41 301 194 125 267 42 290 34 108 115 172 43 101 42 88 91 342 118 175 187 39 27 102 75 580 132 35 48 129 52 146 44 70 25 304 34 45 63 59 126 35 64 49 58 77 61 46 60 57 62 72 277 162 122 276 42 122 91 42 192 52 82 52 53 57 190 59 64 163 39 10 51 60 214 73 25 59 66 40 182 53 64 19 305 41 58 48 74 47 44 79 60 52 158 31 59 70 50 26 83 189 85 61 112 52 87 18 24 10 12 13 27 4 12 15 7 8 8 16 22 13 10 19 10 31 20 15 14 6 21 22 14 14 23 22 15 27 8 16 32 24 13 22 17 18 34 6 18 23 15 9 12 9 21 6 (continued)

Appendix A (continued) Country Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland France Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Fatality rates per 100,000 population from leading causes of death Malignant Ischaemic heart Cerebrovascular All causes Road crashes neoplasm disease disease 903 759 650 512 556 699 1314 601 1242 1235 642 897 842 944 921 1153 1009 946 879 631 594 1389 1675 840 923 616 1274 609 838 736 532 707 636 527 976 769 893 483 1159 942 739 175 839 794 1379 614 1559 1165 472 48 156 80 99 62 83 50 37 269 47 80 205 259 49 51 135 265 54 246 132 67 52 53 68 54 79 318 172 54 95 64 51 185 145 277 117 275 55 142 54 37 23 84 68 274 119 40 44 61 35 97 74 97 33 97 80 55 31 364 54 98 215 69 58 40 465 189 56 117 67 32 58 61 121 29 84 335 116 106 107 120 89 119 67 147 115 83 76 311 35 8 40 238 92 439 140 67 43 106 34 90 73 29 64 26 70 38 119 68 84 77 55 68 48 278 82 59 137 59 12 71 75 94 78 51 136 50 70 61 59 33 47 29 109 66 105 52 150 40 94 20 137 61 244 52 78 54 36 30 7 32 19 20 29 28 15 12 28 4 7 7 22 17 12 6 22 15 11 5 26 25 27 5 11 12 6 17 21 38 32 6 4 9 14 5 27 22 20 6 14 21 17 17 27 30 16 21 (continued)

Appendix A (continued) Country Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Micronesia Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue North Korea Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Fatality rates per 100,000 population from leading causes of death Malignant Ischaemic heart Cerebrovascular All causes Road crashes neoplasm disease disease 1305 736 970 715 1627 494 380 1323 769 1225 956 702 519 595 1242 819 571 976 528 1559 1232 1089 1094 634 805 678 439 1237 1304 560 857 860 331 835 523 476 704 459 475 564 1000 964 141 1163 1474 998 801 593 697 252 201 170 57 51 75 136 50 190 86 48 83 66 50 168 233 119 178 62 49 92 29 104 69 255 199 59 34 49 60 113 232 38 57 69 88 60 77 87 54 261 250 28 216 191 51 144 103 102 36 449 96 131 39 63 84 24 32 178 168 38 108 71 61 447 85 42 100 107 58 117 62 131 73 77 135 54 25 47 74 116 126 81 111 69 51 68 50 32 64 207 98 16 266 466 36 86 46 119 175 66 214 47 75 44 19 36 83 162 47 68 32 65 203 68 88 117 38 70 68 69 53 39 57 62 30 29 58 63 63 77 18 57 60 40 34 46 24 45 105 150 4 223 318 45 125 61 78 17 8 6 13 32 30 2 15 3 4 22 15 13 6 16 11 31 10 17 30 10 45 24 9 4 10 11 10 16 11 11 5 12 11 7 16 12 20 12 9 16 12 20 15 24 17 17 15 8 (continued)

Appendix A (continued) Country Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Korea Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States of America Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Fatality rates per 100,000 population from leading causes of death Malignant Ischaemic heart Cerebrovascular All causes Road crashes neoplasm disease disease 618 922 650 404 785 1261 727 1502 491 985 898 454 1560 1345 527 851 899 1013 643 1504 975 819 364 619 1190 873 643 992 651 756 530 500 866 1002 1338 1638 155 960 817 1001 656 474 478 662 653 1551 1468 35 275 76 35 42 260 142 39 146 224 282 44 49 98 156 229 85 41 74 39 241 218 30 43 37 105 48 46 59 102 83 91 69 103 54 177 19 262 189 247 47 55 72 95 35 51 58 37 69 133 35 83 29 178 46 32 103 340 120 42 80 41 43 98 80 95 71 60 185 130 68 99 45 79 50 46 70 126 99 110 231 117 43 735 26 151 143 120 190 54 75 90 77 54 42 78 98 46 19 35 212 62 39 41 115 96 42 49 47 80 72 40 56 114 70 92 58 46 44 52 109 26 56 83 68 39 79 44 123 50 230 8 91 47 127 86 53 37 138 28 66 50 6 8 11 21 13 12 8 24 6 14 11 5 11 17 16 7 12 36 21 36 5 5 13 3 21 44 7 15 4 17 19 9 10 8 26 20 25 5 14 10 11 5 35 24 28 28 14

Appendix B Country WORLD Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo Cook Islands Costa Rica Côte d'Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Dem. Rep. of the Congo Denmark Fatalities from road crashes as % of fatalities from other leading causes of death Malignant Ischaemic heart Cerebrovascular All causes neoplasm disease disease 2.1 1.5 1.1 2.3 1.6 2.0 0.6 1.5 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.9 3.0 7.3 1.8 1.3 1.4 1.1 6.7 1.8 1.8 2.1 0.6 2.1 3.5 4.4 1.0 1.7 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.2 3.1 1.9 1.4 2.3 3.0 3.7 1.9 2.8 1.3 4.1 1.6 1.2 1.1 1.8 0.9 1.3 0.6 15.9 56.3 6.0 19.5 6.4 71.5 3.4 7.5 7.0 3.6 3.2 6.9 16.8 58.5 20.5 5.8 9.7 4.2 54.0 43.6 19.4 25.6 3.4 62.7 22.0 27.0 5.8 59.3 42.6 24.8 58.8 4.0 30.7 68.5 59.8 9.8 14.6 22.2 36.9 75.1 13.0 19.0 56.9 4.9 4.6 9.3 3.4 51.0 1.9 38 16.7 20.9 5.6 27.4 12.7 64.5 5.0 13.4 4.5 5.9 4.4 4.3 40.4 79.6 13.0 13.7 3.3 7.9 89.6 41.8 12.0 26.8 3.8 47.3 31.4 54.5 4.6 69.3 49.2 24.3 44.9 6.7 45.2 49.7 49.4 22.2 28.1 27.4 38.5 57.9 9.8 28.4 32.3 5.3 5.5 9.6 3.3 51.1 4.6 19.6 57.4 5.0 22.6 15.7 52.6 8.3 21.3 8.0 11.9 12.0 4.9 40.5 208.5 25.9 17.4 8.9 14.2 124.5 33.8 23.5 35.0 3.1 39.7 34.2 71.2 4.6 57.6 38.0 32.1 35.8 18.1 36.5 40.2 40.1 24.8 13.8 55.0 30.1 49.5 11.2 68.9 28.1 7.7 10.5 19.0 8.0 41.3 6.4 (continued)

Appendix B (continued) Country Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland France Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Fatalities from road crashes as % of fatalities from other leading causes of death Malignant Ischaemic heart Cerebrovascular All causes neoplasm disease disease 3.4 0.9 4.9 3.7 3.5 4.1 2.1 2.6 1.0 2.3 0.6 0.7 0.8 2.3 1.9 1.0 0.6 2.3 1.7 1.8 0.8 1.9 1.5 3.3 0.6 1.7 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.9 7.1 4.5 1.0 0.8 0.9 1.8 0.6 5.7 1.9 2.1 0.8 7.9 2.6 2.2 1.2 4.4 1.9 1.3 4.4 63.4 4.2 39.9 19.4 31.4 34.8 56.8 41.6 4.5 60.7 4.5 3.2 2.6 44.7 33.7 8.8 2.3 40.3 6.1 8.5 6.8 49.4 48.0 40.4 10.1 13.4 3.8 3.5 31.1 22.3 59.2 62.6 3.5 2.7 3.2 12.1 2.0 50.3 15.6 37.3 15.2 60.9 25.7 25.0 6.3 22.6 75.5 35.3 34.3 39 31.2 8.9 32.8 59.0 20.3 36.0 50.7 49.5 3.3 52.3 3.6 3.1 9.9 37.4 42.7 2.6 3.3 38.5 12.8 16.6 14.2 44.5 41.8 22.7 18.6 12.5 3.6 5.2 15.8 19.8 31.7 35.9 5.4 6.0 6.0 12.3 6.5 35.9 7.1 57.8 71.5 34.1 9.0 18.7 3.9 19.2 45.3 36.0 19.8 89.4 7.4 43.8 67.1 30.6 111.8 40.5 40.6 10.1 41.6 4.2 8.5 12.3 32.1 35.7 4.3 7.5 36.5 11.0 18.8 38.5 36.3 33.9 29.4 7.0 20.8 8.9 12.0 23.8 34.8 64.3 96.4 13.5 14.0 8.1 21.4 5.1 52.7 14.7 50.7 6.1 69.5 15.7 28.2 7.0 51.1 38.6 29.1 57.6 (continued)

Appendix B (continued) Country Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Micronesia Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue North Korea Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Fatalities from road crashes as % of fatalities from other leading causes of death Malignant Ischaemic heart Cerebrovascular All causes neoplasm disease disease 1.3 1.1 0.6 1.8 2.0 6.0 0.6 1.1 0.4 0.3 2.3 2.1 2.4 1.1 1.3 1.3 5.5 1.0 3.1 1.9 0.8 4.1 2.2 1.4 0.6 1.5 2.6 0.8 1.3 2.0 1.2 0.6 3.6 1.4 1.4 3.3 1.7 4.5 2.6 1.6 1.6 1.2 14.3 1.3 1.6 1.7 2.1 2.5 1.2 6.7 4.1 3.2 22.3 63.9 39.7 1.7 29.2 1.8 4.3 45.4 17.6 19.1 12.6 9.3 4.7 26.2 5.5 26.5 61.1 11.1 153.9 23.1 12.6 1.7 5.2 19.3 28.5 33.7 18.5 9.4 2.3 31.2 19.8 10.5 17.6 20.6 26.5 14.4 16.8 6.2 4.8 70.5 6.8 12.6 33.2 11.8 14.3 8.0 40 3.8 8.6 4.2 32.5 51.1 35.4 9.6 46.1 1.9 2.2 56.4 13.5 17.9 10.3 3.5 12.9 75.0 9.9 15.5 51.5 8.8 72.3 18.2 11.9 5.7 7.7 21.1 39.3 34.6 15.1 9.2 4.3 14.6 10.3 10.6 30.5 18.0 40.7 39.2 14.1 7.9 12.2 123.9 5.6 5.2 47.4 19.9 31.9 6.9 9.7 12.3 2.6 26.7 43.0 67.2 11.7 40.8 4.0 2.3 46.3 21.3 40.1 9.6 7.7 16.2 35.6 8.4 43.0 42.3 15.0 65.2 44.9 22.7 7.8 16.7 38.2 34.1 28.3 17.7 16.8 7.0 65.5 19.9 12.1 38.9 36.1 44.6 52.5 20.3 15.6 8.0 529.7 6.6 7.6 37.7 13.6 23.9 10.6 (continued)

Appendix B (continued) Country Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Korea Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States of America Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Fatalities from road crashes as % of fatalities from other leading causes of death Malignant Ischaemic heart Cerebrovascular All causes neoplasm disease disease 1.0 0.9 1.6 5.1 1.7 0.9 1.1 1.6 1.2 1.5 1.2 1.1 0.7 1.3 3.0 0.8 1.3 3.6 3.3 2.4 0.5 0.5 3.5 0.4 1.8 5.1 1.1 1.5 0.6 2.2 3.7 1.7 1.1 0.8 1.9 1.3 15.9 0.5 1.8 1.0 1.6 1.1 7.3 3.7 4.3 1.8 1.0 18.5 3.0 14.1 58.8 31.1 4.6 5.5 61.2 4.0 6.4 3.8 11.2 21.3 17.7 10.1 3.0 13.7 89.4 28.1 91.8 2.0 2.1 43.4 6.4 56.9 42.1 14.8 33.2 7.1 16.6 23.2 9.4 14.1 7.6 47.9 11.6 133.1 1.9 7.7 4.2 23.0 9.7 47.9 25.5 79.7 55.3 24.3 41 9.2 6.3 30.4 25.1 44.7 6.7 17.1 73.3 5.7 4.2 9.0 11.7 13.2 42.2 36.9 6.9 14.6 38.1 29.7 60.6 2.5 3.5 18.9 2.8 47.3 55.8 14.2 33.2 6.0 13.4 19.5 7.8 4.2 6.7 60.4 2.8 95.4 3.3 10.1 8.6 5.6 9.9 46.0 26.9 36.6 51.3 34.1 8.3 8.5 23.3 109.1 37.4 5.6 12.7 61.2 14.1 12.4 11.2 11.7 21.4 37.4 19.7 9.3 29.4 64.6 18.4 51.3 5.1 7.8 27.9 6.4 41.1 40.6 27.0 27.3 5.0 24.9 50.2 10.8 22.5 6.4 52.0 8.9 299.0 5.5 30.8 8.1 12.5 10.2 93.6 17.5 102.0 42.5 28.5

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

MORTALITY FROM ROAD CRASHES IN 193 COUNTRIES A COMPARISON ...

The University of Michigan ... Mortality from Road Crashes in 193 Countries: A Comparison with Other Leading Causes of Death 5.
Read more

Mortality from road crashes in 193 countries: a comparison ...

Mortality from road crashes in 193 countries: a comparison with other leading causes of death
Read more

Mortality from Road Crashes in 193 Countries: A Comparison ...

... Institute has released a report that compares countries’ fatalities from road crashes to those that result from three leading causes of death and ...
Read more

Mortality from Road Crashes in 193 Countries: A Comparison ...

Mortality from Road Crashes in 193 Countries: A Comparison with Other Leading Causes of Death. ... from road crashes in 193 countries: A comparison ...
Read more

The Safest Countries to Drive a Car - 24/7 Wall St.

... From Road Crashes in 193 Countries: A Comparison With ... the four causes of deaths, and fatalities from road crashes ... other three causes of death.
Read more

The most dangerous countries to drive in

The most dangerous countries to ... A comparison with other leading causes of death” also ... report Mortality from road crashes in 193 countries: ...
Read more

10 most dangerous (and safest) countries for driving - Yahoo

The study is called Mortality from Road Crashes in 193 Countries: A Comparison with Other Leading Causes of Death (PDF). To compile their report, ...
Read more

Thailand has Asia's Most Deadly Roads - The Establishment Post

... title of having Asia's most deadly roads. ... Mortality from road crashes in 193 countries: A comparison with other leading causes of death, ...
Read more

The 10 Best & Worst Countries For Drivers

The 10 Best & Worst Countries For ... The study is called Mortality from Road Crashes in 193 Countries: A Comparison with Other Leading Causes of Death ...
Read more

The 10 Best & Worst Countries For Drivers - The Washington ...

The study is called Mortality from Road Crashes in 193 Countries: A Comparison ... three other causes: ... comparisons of various causes of death ...
Read more