Moringa as an alternative fodder

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Information about Moringa as an alternative fodder
Science-Technology

Published on February 2, 2013

Author: wajid1609

Source: authorstream.com

Moringa oleifera as an Alternative Fodder: Moringa oleifera as an Alternative Fodder Created by: Wajid Mahboob Pakistan In the name of Allah who is the most beneficent and the merciful What is Fodder: What is Fodder Fodder or animal feed is any agriculture foodstuff used specifically to feed  domesticated livestock, such as cattle, goats, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs. "Fodder" refers particularly to food given to the animals (including plants cut and carried to them), rather than that which they forage for themselves. It includes hay, straw, silage, compressed and pelleted feeds, oils and mixed rations, and sprouted grains and legumes. Characteristic of a Good Fodder Crop : Characteristic of a Good Fodder Crop Fodder should be palatable and easily digestible. It should not be injurious at the stage at which it is fed to animal It should be quick growing and early maturing. It should give high yield of green fodder. It should give maximum number of cutting, whien grown under irrigation. It should be nutritious. It should need little tillage and care. It should be capable of preserving as hay or silage. WHY WE NEED ALTERNATIVE FODDER: WHY WE NEED ALTERNATIVE FODDER Major fodder crops grown include berseem, lucerne, oats, barley mustard maize, sorghum. As the livestock population is increasing at the rate of 4.2% per year and accordingly its feed requirements are also increasing Regular supply of adequate and nutritious fodder is essential for the promotion and development of livestock Fodder crops are the main and cheapest source of feed for livestock. However, shortage of fodder production is the major limiting factor for livestock production in our country. About 2% reduction in fodder area in each decade along-with two important fodder scarcity periods, one in winter months (November to January) and other in summer (May-June) further worsening the situation (http://www.parc.gov.pk ) Alternative Fodder: Alternative Fodder It is well known that forages have an important role in ruminant nutrition in term of providing energy, protein and minarels as well as fiber for chewing and ruminant (Ahmad et al., 2000; Ranjbar, 2007). Research efforts (Benninson and paterson, 2003 McDonald et al., 1998) have confirmed the potency of browsing plants for rumnant nutrition in the tropics. However, despite the fact that the list of such browse trees and shrubs with potential use as fodder comparises more than 300 species, research has unfortunatly concentrated on a few (Anurudu et al., 2004). PowerPoint Presentation: The leaves of the Moringa oleifera tree have become known for their high nutritional content and potential benefits for human consumption. However, because these leaves are high in protein and other essential nutrients, they may also provide benefits in livestock feed. WHY MORINGA?: WHY MORINGA? Moringa oleifera , a non-leguminous multi-purpose tree, is one of the fastest growing trees in the world, with high crude protein in the leaves (> 20 %) (Makkar & Becker, 1996) It offers a good alternative source of protein to humans and ruminants wherever they thrive (Nouala et al., 2006) There has been an increasing interest in the use of moringa as a protein source for livestock (Asaolu et al., 2009; 2010) Laboratory analysis (Makkar & Becker 1997; Asaolu, 2009) showed negligible amounts of tannins (1 to23 g/kg) in all fractions of the Moringa oleifera plant and high levels of sulphur-containing amino acids. PowerPoint Presentation: Sarwatt et al. (2004) reported that moringa foliages are a potential inexpensive protein source for livestock feeding. The advantages of using moringa as a protein resource are numerous, and include the fact that it is a perennial plant that can be harvested several times in one growing season and also has the potential to reduce feed cost. Moringa can easily be established in the field, has good coppicing ability, as well as good potential for forage production. It can reach 12 m in height at maturity, yielding up to 120 tonnes/ha/yr when planted very densely for use as forage (Makkar & Becker, 1997). Additionally, it is not affected by ant serious diseases in its native or introduced ranges (Parrotta, 2005). Moringa vs Major fodders: Moringa vs Major fodder s The metabolizable energy for Moringa fodder has been reported by researchers to be of a similar order of magnitude as for some highly nutritive fresh forages ( Foidl et al ., 2001; Asaolu et al ., 2009a ) such as alfalfa. Lucerne’s crude protein (16%), calcium (1.4-1.9 %) Phosphorous (0.41), Dry matter digestibility (58%), fat (1.78%) (Lanyon and Griffith, 1988; Katić et al., 2005) are lower than Moringa. The values of the corresponding parameters in M. oleifera are 28.9%, 2.62%, 0.43 %, 72% and 6.3% respectively. Similarly Moringa also have high nutritive value as compared to Maize which is considered as an ideal forage crop because of its quick growth, high yield, palatability, rich in vitamin–A, and contains 1.56% protein, 0.30% fat, and 5.27% fiber (Sattar et al ., 1994;Chaudhry, 1982). Chemical Composition of Moringa: Chemical Composition of Moringa A comparative assessment was thus conducted to investigate the nutrient compositions and feeding values of M. stenopetala and M. oleifera leaves. Feed samples were analyzed for proximate nutrients Minerals amino acid profiles Moringa species to be used as a protein supplement (Aberra, 2011). Chemical Composition of Moringa : Chemical Composition of Moringa SPECIES M. stenopetala M. oleifera Metabolizable energy (MJ/kg DM) 9.83 9.30 Organic matter digestibility (%) 76.4 72.0 Short chain fatty acids (mmol) 101 89.5 Ash (%) 14.8 13.2 Crude fiber (%) 10.2 Crude protein (%) 26.6 28.9 Fat(%) 3.36 6.73 DM gross energy (KJ/kg) 17.9 17.9 nitrogen free extract (NFE) (%) 45 45 Neutral detergent fiber 16.8 16.7 Non fiber carbohydrate (NFC).(%) 38.4 38.4 Acid detergent lignin 5.52 6.49 Cellulose 8.73 5.59 Hemicelluloses 2.55 4.66 Major minerals : Major minerals SPECIES M. STENOPETALA M. OLEIFERA Calcium (%) 2.47 2.62 Phosphorous, (%) 0.57 0.43 Magnesium, (%) 0.76 0.56 potassium (%) 2.45 2.0 Sodium(%) 0.11 0.03 Essential Amino Acids (g/kg DM): Essential Amino Acids (g/kg DM) SPECIES M. STENOPETALA M. OLEIFERA Arginine 3.91 3.55 Cysteine 13.1 15.4 Isoleucine 9.41 10.9 Leucine 18.6 21.4 Lysine 12.2 13.2 Methionine 3.65 4.24 Phenylalanine 13.7 16.4 Threonine 11.4 13.0 Valine 12.0 14.0 The Maximum Protein And Fiber Content Of Livestock Feed : The Maximum Protein And Fiber Content Of Livestock Feed Animal Protein (%) Fiber (%) Lactating cow 18 26-30 Beef cow 12-14 36 Lactating sow 16-18 5-7 Meat pig 12-14 5-7 (http://savegaia.blogspot.com) Biomass production of Moringa: Biomass production of Moringa For intensive biomass production 50–75 plants per square meter cut every 75 days it would be higher quality forage Because the nutritive value of Moringa forage in terms of CP and DM did not decline under the longer harvesting interval (Nadir et al.,2006) PowerPoint Presentation: Foidl et al . (2001) have been able to harvest it up to 9 times a year from irrigated and well-fertilized land, producing per year: 650 to 700 metric tons of green mass Equivalent to 100 to 110 metric tons of dry mass 17.5 metric tons of pure protein 7000 kg of lipids, with 65% being omega-3 fatty acids 10 metric tons of fermentable sugars Approximately 8 metric tons of starch Approximately 45 metric tons of hemicellulose and cellulose. Effect of Moringa on growth and development of animals: Effect of Moringa on growth and development of animals PowerPoint Presentation: Moringa fresh foliage has been included into the diet of different animals. Positive effects on feeding behaviour in goats (Manh et al ., 2005), growth rate in sheep (Ben Salem and Makkar, 2009) and milk yield in dual purpose cows (Reyes-Sánchez et al ., 2006b) have been reported Promising results have been obtained on inclusion of MLM into the diet of fish (Richter et al ., 2003), sheep (Murro et al ., 2003), laying hens (Kakengi et al ., 2007) and cross-bred dairy cows (Sarwatt et al ., 2004). PowerPoint Presentation: Asaolu et al ., (2012) employed an 84-day feeding trial to investigate dried leaves of Moringa oleifera (MOR), Leucaena leucocephala (LEU) and Gliricidia sepium (GLI) as supplements to cassava peels by 16 growing West African Dwarf goats with a mixed concentrate (MC) of groundnut cake and wheal offals (50:50) as the reference supplement. Results showed that MOR supplementation resulted in an highest average weight gain of 20.83 g/animal/day Feed and protein were however more efficiently utilized by animals on the MOR supplement showed that the moringa supplement was even better utilized than the mixed concentrate by growing WAD goats. PowerPoint Presentation: Three male WAD goats weighing 10+1 kg, were used in a feed intake and nutrient digestibility study consisting of three experimental periods of 24 days each. The experimental diets; 50%Moringa:50% Gliricidia, 50%Moringa:50% Leucaena 100 % Moringa were investigated It was observed that only Moringa contained P and Na at level (0.20 g/100 g DM) higher than the (0.07 g/100 g DM) required in the deit of goats. The intake, nutient digestability, nitrogen utilization and predicted relative feed values were highly obtained in fovour of the sole moringa fodder. The nitrogen retention values suggest that the sole moringa diet had the highest efficiency of protein utilization. (Asaolu et al ., 2011) PowerPoint Presentation: With moringa feed, daily weight gain of beef cattle was 1,200 grams/day. Without moringa feed, daily weight gain of beef cattle was 900 grams/day. That's a 33% increase, with NO artificial hormones and NO antibiotics involved (http://savegaia.blogspot.com/2005/06/wondertree-100-facts-moringa-fact-04.html) Moringa supplemented goats had an average body weight gain of 86 g/day while nonsupplemented goats gained only 55 g/day (Aregheore, 2002). Trials using Moringa as feed to fatten cattle were conducted with a herd of 24 animals. During the day animals grazed on gamba (a pasture containing some leguminous plants). During the night, 12 of the animals (divided into 3 groups of 4) were fed ad libidum with freshly cut pasture and 12 were fed ad libidum with chopped 35 day old Moringa(Foidl et al., 2001) : Trials using Moringa as feed to fatten cattle were conducted with a herd of 24 animals. During the day animals grazed on gamba (a pasture containing some leguminous plants). During the night, 12 of the animals (divided into 3 groups of 4) were fed ad libidum with freshly cut pasture and 12 were fed ad libidum with chopped 35 day old Moringa(Foidl et al ., 2001) Animal Range of weight gains (g/day) groupAverage weight gain (g/day) Pasture fed group (3 x 4 animals) 750 – 980 950 Experimental group (3 x 4 animals) 1150 – 1450 1250 Effect of Moringa on mild yield: A study was conducted to compared the milk production of dairy cattle fed hay only with that of cattle fed hay supplemented with Moringa The results were: Hay only: 3.1 kg milk per day With 2 kg Moringa: 4.9 kg milk per day (increase of 58%) With 3 kg Moringa: 5.1 kg milk per day (increase of 65%) Nadir (2006) Effect of Moringa on mild yield PowerPoint Presentation: In one test by Foidl and his coworkers, cattle were fed 15-17 kg of Moringa leaves daily, mixed with their regular feed. The results were: 43% increase in milk yields 32% increase in daily weight gains for beef cattle 3-5 kg increase in birth weights  (for Jersey cows, whose average normal birth weight is 22 kg) (Martin , 2007) PowerPoint Presentation: Mendieta (1998) and Foild et al. (1999), reported that cows supplemented with Moringa had 13% and 30%, respectively, higher milk production than cows fed a basal diet of Hyparrenia ruffa grass or Sorghum vulgare straw. According to Sarwatt et al. (2004) Moringa improved the milk yield, which was stated to be due to a positive effect on the rumen environment, leading to increased rumen microbial output, or to the fact that the protein in Moringa also has good rumen bypass characteristics. PowerPoint Presentation: In a study the Cattle were fed 15-17 kg of moringa daily. With moringa feed, milk production was 10 liters/day and without moringa feed, it was only 7 liters/day. This almost a 45% increase, with NO artificial hormones involved (http://savegaia.blogspot.com/2005/06/wondertree-100-facts-moringa-fact-04.html) Sarwatt et al. (2004) found that when cotton seed cake was substituted by Moringa leaf meal at levels of 10, 20 or 30% of DM, milk yield was significantly increased by 1.4, 0.9 and 0.8 kg cow day1 respectively. Future prospects: If Moringa leaves can increase livestock weight gain and milk production on a consistent basis, it would be a great boon for farmers around the world, especially in developing areas It would be a very low-cost method for increasing food production in areas that need it greatly, thus helping many thousands of hungry people Further studies are needed on the potential of MLM as an alternative protein source for milk production based not only on biological results but also including economic aspects. It would be valuable to study protein availability of Moringa diets in vivo. Further studies are needed to explore this potential benefit of Moringa leaves Future prospects

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