Moon Sighting Laws

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Information about Moon Sighting Laws

Published on March 27, 2008

Author: almujtaba

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Islamic Laws concerning moon sighting and the issue of sharing sightings of cities

Laws of fasting 5 Moon sighting part one Is sighting the moon obligatory? The issue of sharing the sighting of other city.

ALBAQARAH (THE COW 185) فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ therefore whoever witnesses the month, he shall fast therein, and whoever is sick or upon a journey, then (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days;

فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ

therefore whoever witnesses the month, he shall fast therein, and whoever is sick or upon a journey, then (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days;

فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ SHAHIDA is testimony or witness: And in the English interpretations of the Qur’an : (four opinions) KNOWS THE BEGINNING: Any one of you who knows that the month of RAMADHAN has begun, he must start to fast-SARWAR WITTNESSES THE MONTH: So let those who witness it (the month) fast in it- QOLI/Mir Ahmed WITNESSES THE MOON: Who ever observes the moon PRESENT IN HIS HOME: Therefore whoever of you is present in the month, he shall fast therein, -SHAKIR

SHAHIDA is testimony or witness:

And in the English interpretations of the Qur’an : (four opinions)

KNOWS THE BEGINNING: Any one of you who knows that the month of RAMADHAN has begun, he must start to fast-SARWAR

WITTNESSES THE MONTH: So let those who witness it (the month) fast in it- QOLI/Mir Ahmed

WITNESSES THE MOON: Who ever observes the moon

PRESENT IN HIS HOME: Therefore whoever of you is present in the month, he shall fast therein, -SHAKIR

TABATABAI فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ The witness of the month by the knowledge of its coming. It happens by the knowledge of its start. It does not mean that the moon has to be sighted, nor a person must be present in the home town (in oppose to the traveling person), for there is no evidence for such claim. Yes the moon sighting can be an indication for the entrance of the month.

The witness of the month by the knowledge of its coming.

It happens by the knowledge of its start.

It does not mean that the moon has to be sighted, nor a person must be present in the home town (in oppose to the traveling person), for there is no evidence for such claim.

Yes the moon sighting can be an indication for the entrance of the month.

ALKHOEI فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ The real existence of this month is the cause of the obligation in fasting it. The plenty narrations (about 30) indicate that the new month emerges by the emerge of the sun light on the moon in a way that it can be seen or sighted. (Religious new moon) If such emerge occurs for a region then it is enough for the entire earth, but since the night does not cover the whole earth at one time, then the unity of the night should be observed in the sharing of the moon sighting. The night sharing regions could be in the sunset and the dawn.

The real existence of this month is the cause of the obligation in fasting it.

The plenty narrations (about 30) indicate that the new month emerges by the emerge of the sun light on the moon in a way that it can be seen or sighted. (Religious new moon)

If such emerge occurs for a region then it is enough for the entire earth, but since the night does not cover the whole earth at one time, then the unity of the night should be observed in the sharing of the moon sighting.

The night sharing regions could be in the sunset and the dawn.

SABZAWARI فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ The criteria is the real existence or the coming of the month, by moon sighting or by any other measures of such was possible. Other scholars of TAFSEER: SHAHIDA of the month means: SHAHIDA of moon, that means every one must sight, if not then no fasting is obligated. Being resident in the home town (Sh. MAKARIM)

The criteria is the real existence or the coming of the month, by moon sighting or by any other measures of such was possible.

Other scholars of TAFSEER:

SHAHIDA of the month means:

SHAHIDA of moon, that means every one must sight, if not then no fasting is obligated.

Being resident in the home town (Sh. MAKARIM)

Why moon has to be in a status where it can be sighted? There are about 30 narrations (many of them are authentic and correct), narrated by the Infallibles (AS), which indicate the command of fasting and breaking the fast (on EID) on the sighting of the moon. (Vol. 10 WASAEL ALSHIA page 252-261) Based on that the scholars who follow AHLUL BAYT (AS) unanimously agree that the moon should be in a status it can be sighted with the naked eye, or the possibility of its sighting with the naked eye if the sighting was prevented by clouds, dust, humidity, fog, smog, redness of the sun, or the reflections of the city lights…...

There are about 30 narrations (many of them are authentic and correct), narrated by the Infallibles (AS), which indicate the command of fasting and breaking the fast (on EID) on the sighting of the moon. (Vol. 10 WASAEL ALSHIA page 252-261)

Based on that the scholars who follow AHLUL BAYT (AS) unanimously agree that the moon should be in a status it can be sighted with the naked eye, or the possibility of its sighting with the naked eye if the sighting was prevented by clouds, dust, humidity, fog, smog, redness of the sun, or the reflections of the city lights…...

The religious and the astronomical start of the lunar month The astronomical new lunar month is when the moon reflects the first sunlight (crescent) from the portion which faces the earth even if it was not seen by the people of the earth with naked eye. Religiously the lunar new month is when that light (crescent) is in a way the people of earth can sight it with naked eye.

The astronomical new lunar month is when the moon reflects the first sunlight (crescent) from the portion which faces the earth even if it was not seen by the people of the earth with naked eye.

Religiously the lunar new month is when that light (crescent) is in a way the people of earth can sight it with naked eye.

New Moon When the Moon is between the Earth and the Sun in its orbit. It can not be seen for the people of the earth, because dark surfaces faces the earth (the sunlight exists on the other half of the moon which is not visible to the people of the earth. This typically marks the end of the Lunar Cycle which lasts.   When the sunlight or the sunray moves towards the surface of the moon facing the earth, then that first appearance of the sunlight which is visible for the people of the earth in a way that they can sight it with the naked eye , is considered the first crescent and marks the first day of the lunar month.

When the Moon is between the Earth and the Sun in its orbit. It can not be seen for the people of the earth, because dark surfaces faces the earth (the sunlight exists on the other half of the moon which is not visible to the people of the earth. This typically marks the end of the Lunar Cycle which lasts.

 

When the sunlight or the sunray moves towards the surface of the moon facing the earth, then that first appearance of the sunlight which is visible for the people of the earth in a way that they can sight it with the naked eye , is considered the first crescent and marks the first day of the lunar month.

The moon cycle: 29 1/2 days

Astrologer (MONAJIM) vs. Astronomer (FALAKI) Astrologer gives predictions based on the observations of the movement of the stars, planets and other celestial bodies. Astronomer is a scientist who makes the predictions based on the scientific facts and figures, mathematical calculations, and the science of astrophysics of the celestial bodies . The words of the great scholars mention the Astrologer or MONAJIM and some times the astronomer.

Astrologer gives predictions based on the observations of the movement of the stars, planets and other celestial bodies.

Astronomer is a scientist who makes the predictions based on the scientific facts and figures, mathematical calculations, and the science of astrophysics of the celestial bodies .

The words of the great scholars mention the Astrologer or MONAJIM and some times the astronomer.

When can the moon be sighted? AGE of the moon: Time passed after New Moon Birth. Sighting is possible at different age in different months. The age when it can be sighted varies based on the speed of the movement of the moon, geographical factors, seasonal factors, and others. So, age cannot be a criterion for sighting. It could be from smaller age (like 17 hours), to larger age (like 23 hours). The main factor that makes the moon visible is the angle between moon-earth-sun. When this angle becomes about 9 degrees, the moon starts to be visible. How much time it takes to get this angle depends upon the speed of the moon in its orbit.

AGE of the moon: Time passed after New Moon Birth. Sighting is possible at different age in different months.

The age when it can be sighted varies based on the speed of the movement of the moon, geographical factors, seasonal factors, and others. So, age cannot be a criterion for sighting. It could be from smaller age (like 17 hours), to larger age (like 23 hours). The main factor that makes the moon visible is the angle between moon-earth-sun. When this angle becomes about 9 degrees, the moon starts to be visible. How much time it takes to get this angle depends upon the speed of the moon in its orbit.

The distance of the moon from earth varies in seasons

Three important facts If the age of moon was old enough that it can be sighted with the naked eye. If the moon was above the horizon where it can be sighted with the naked eye. If the time of moonset was after the sunset in a way it can be sighted with the naked eye.

If the age of moon was old enough that it can be sighted with the naked eye.

If the moon was above the horizon where it can be sighted with the naked eye.

If the time of moonset was after the sunset in a way it can be sighted with the naked eye.

The ruling: If these facts were proven by trustworthy experts, professionals, scientists or astronomers, and for some reasons it was not sighted, and such predictions gave certainty and satisfaction of accuracy, then based the FATWA of almost all the JURIISTS (MOJTAHID) contemporary and the past ones, one must follow such predictions, and the sighting is not required. Reference: TAWDHEEH of all the JURISTS in Persian, Urdu, English, and the laws in Arabic. This can be found in the section of moon sighting in the chapter of the LAWS of FASTING.

If these facts were proven by trustworthy experts, professionals, scientists or astronomers, and for some reasons it was not sighted, and such predictions gave certainty and satisfaction of accuracy, then based the FATWA of almost all the JURIISTS (MOJTAHID) contemporary and the past ones, one must follow such predictions, and the sighting is not required.

Reference: TAWDHEEH of all the JURISTS in Persian, Urdu, English, and the laws in Arabic. This can be found in the section of moon sighting in the chapter of the LAWS of FASTING.

The FATWA regarding the predictions of the astronomer 1741. The first day of a month will not be proved by the prediction made by the astronomers . However, if a person derives full satisfaction and certitude from their findings, he should act accordingly. (laws of S. SISITANI (MAP)) Two conditions: Knowledge or certainty Satisfaction

1741. The first day of a month will not be proved by the prediction made by the astronomers . However, if a person derives full satisfaction and certitude from their findings, he should act accordingly. (laws of S. SISITANI (MAP))

Two conditions:

Knowledge or certainty

Satisfaction

The scholars who support the Prediction of the Astronomer: S. ALKHOEI (MAMH) S. KHOMENI (MAMH) S. GOLPAYGHANI (MAMH) S. SABZAWARI (MAMH) SH. WAHEED KHORASANI (MAP)-QUM SH. MIRZA JAWAD TABREEZI (MAP)- QUM SH. NASIR MAKARIM (MAP) -QUM SH. FADHIL LANKARANI (MAP) -QUM

S. ALKHOEI (MAMH)

S. KHOMENI (MAMH)

S. GOLPAYGHANI (MAMH)

S. SABZAWARI (MAMH)

SH. WAHEED KHORASANI (MAP)-QUM

SH. MIRZA JAWAD TABREEZI (MAP)- QUM

SH. NASIR MAKARIM (MAP) -QUM

SH. FADHIL LANKARANI (MAP) -QUM

Moon sighting curve may not be accurate????

The issue of sharing the sighting These narrations can be found in WASAEL ALSHIA http://www.rafed.net/books/hadith/wasael-10/v12.html#111 These are four SAHEEH correct HADEETH authenticated by S. ALKHOEI and many great JURISTS: عن عبدالرحمن بن أبي عبدالله قال : سألت أبا عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) عن هلال شهر رمضان يغم علينا في تسع وعشرين من شعبان ؟ فقال : لا تصم إلا أن تراه ، فان شهد أهل بلد آخر فاقضه 1 st narration: narration# [ 13347 ] 9 WASAEL: ABDURRAHMAN IBN ABO ADBDILLAH said: I asked ABO ABDILLAH (Imam ASSADIQ –as-) about the crescent of the month of Ramadhan which is concealed from us on the night of 29 th of SHABAAN (what should we do)? So he (Imam (AS)) said: Do not fast (as the first of the month) until you sight it, and if people of different city fast (that day and you found out later) then make up that day. 2 nd narration # [ 13412 ] 3 in WASAEL: same as above but narrated by ISHAAQ IBN AMMAR from IMAM ASSADIQ (AS): عن إسحاق بن عمار ، قال : سألت أبا عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) عن هلال رمضان يغم علينا في تسع وعشرين من شعبان ؟ فقال : لا تصمه إلاّ أن تراه ، فإن شهد أهل بلد آخر أنهم رأوه فاقضه

These narrations can be found in WASAEL ALSHIA

http://www.rafed.net/books/hadith/wasael-10/v12.html#111

These are four SAHEEH correct HADEETH authenticated by S. ALKHOEI and many great JURISTS:

عن عبدالرحمن بن أبي عبدالله قال : سألت أبا عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) عن هلال شهر رمضان يغم علينا في تسع وعشرين من شعبان ؟ فقال : لا تصم إلا أن تراه ، فان شهد أهل بلد آخر فاقضه

1 st narration: narration# [ 13347 ] 9 WASAEL: ABDURRAHMAN IBN ABO ADBDILLAH said: I asked ABO ABDILLAH (Imam ASSADIQ –as-) about the crescent of the month of Ramadhan which is concealed from us on the night of 29 th of SHABAAN (what should we do)? So he (Imam (AS)) said: Do not fast (as the first of the month) until you sight it, and if people of different city fast (that day and you found out later) then make up that day.

2 nd narration # [ 13412 ] 3 in WASAEL: same as above but narrated by ISHAAQ IBN AMMAR from IMAM ASSADIQ (AS):

عن إسحاق بن عمار ، قال : سألت أبا عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) عن هلال رمضان يغم علينا في تسع وعشرين من شعبان ؟ فقال : لا تصمه إلاّ أن تراه ، فإن شهد أهل بلد آخر أنهم رأوه فاقضه

3 rd Narration # [ 13381 ] 13 WASAEL ـ عن هشام بن الحكم ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) أنه قال فيمن صام تسعة وعشرين قال : إن كانت له بينة عادلة على أهل مصر أنهم صاموا ثلاثين على رؤيته قضى يوما Narrated by HISHAAM IBN ALHAKAM, who narrates from ABO ABDILLAH (IMAM ASSADIQ –as-) who said about the one who fasted 29 days (of RAMADHAN) he said: If he had just witness from people of a region that they fasted 30 days on its sighting (the beginning of the month of RAMADHAN was based on their sighting), then he has to make up one day (and rely on the sighting of the people of such region). That means that if a person had completed 30 days of SHABAAN, and fasted 29 days of Ramadhan and after that if he finds that any other region had started Ramadhan after 29 th SHABAAN, they he has to rely on the sighting of that region and make up the fast of that day.

3 rd Narration # [ 13381 ] 13 WASAEL ـ

عن هشام بن الحكم ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) أنه قال فيمن صام تسعة وعشرين قال : إن كانت له بينة عادلة على أهل مصر أنهم صاموا ثلاثين على رؤيته قضى يوما

Narrated by HISHAAM IBN ALHAKAM, who narrates from ABO ABDILLAH (IMAM ASSADIQ –as-) who said about the one who fasted 29 days (of RAMADHAN) he said: If he had just witness from people of a region that they fasted 30 days on its sighting (the beginning of the month of RAMADHAN was based on their sighting), then he has to make up one day (and rely on the sighting of the people of such region).

That means that if a person had completed 30 days of SHABAAN, and fasted 29 days of Ramadhan and after that if he finds that any other region had started Ramadhan after 29 th SHABAAN, they he has to rely on the sighting of that region and make up the fast of that day.

4 th Narration in WASAEL # [ 13447 ] 1 عن أبي بصير ، عن أبى عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) أنه سئل عن اليوم يقضى من شهر رمضان ؟ فقال : لا تقضه إلا أن يثبت شاهدان عدلان من جميع أهل الصلاة متى كان رأس الشهر ؟ ! وقال : لا تصم ذلك اليوم الذي يقضى إلا أن يقضي أهل الامصار ، فان فعلوا فصمه Narrated by ABO BASEER, that he asked ABO ABDILLAH (IMAM ASSADIQ –as-) about making up (the missed) day of the month of RAMADHAN? he (AS) said : That do not make up unless if two just witnesses from all of the people of SALAAT (i.e. Muslims) for when was the beginning of the month? And he (AS) said: Do not fast that day which is to be made up, unless if the people of the regions make up, so if they do such then you do so. In this narration Imam (AS) commands him to follow the Muslims of different regions. The fast of 30 th SHABAAN which might be 1 st Ramadhan is not required if moon was not sighted, yes if it was sighted in other Islamic regions then it needs to be made up.

4 th Narration in WASAEL # [ 13447 ] 1

عن أبي بصير ، عن أبى عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) أنه سئل عن اليوم يقضى من شهر رمضان ؟ فقال : لا تقضه إلا أن يثبت شاهدان عدلان من جميع أهل الصلاة متى كان رأس الشهر ؟ ! وقال : لا تصم ذلك اليوم الذي يقضى إلا أن يقضي أهل الامصار ، فان فعلوا فصمه

Narrated by ABO BASEER, that he asked ABO ABDILLAH (IMAM ASSADIQ –as-) about making up (the missed) day of the month of RAMADHAN? he (AS) said : That do not make up unless if two just witnesses from all of the people of SALAAT (i.e. Muslims) for when was the beginning of the month? And he (AS) said: Do not fast that day which is to be made up, unless if the people of the regions make up, so if they do such then you do so.

In this narration Imam (AS) commands him to follow the Muslims of different regions.

The fast of 30 th SHABAAN which might be 1 st Ramadhan is not required if moon was not sighted, yes if it was sighted in other Islamic regions then it needs to be made up.

What is the criteria for following other cities moon sighting These four authentic narrations were understood and interpreted by our great scholars and jurists (MOJTAHIDS) in four different ways, based on their intellectual analysis of the sharing region or sharing city in sighting: Unity of the horizon and closeness of the cities Unity of the continent Unity of the night Unity of the EARTH

These four authentic narrations were understood and interpreted by our great scholars and jurists (MOJTAHIDS) in four different ways, based on their intellectual analysis of the sharing region or sharing city in sighting:

Unity of the horizon and closeness of the cities

Unity of the continent

Unity of the night

Unity of the EARTH

Unity of the horizon and closeness of the cities That means that the cities share the horizon can follow each other: They share in the time of sunset They share the vertical or horizontal lines in a way that if the moon is sighted in a city it has to sight in another if the clouds or mountains were not obstructing. These cities must not be very far (some say 880 km). The western regions can follow the sighting in the eastern regions if there was no obstructing factor it would have been sighted.

That means that the cities share the horizon can follow each other:

They share in the time of sunset

They share the vertical or horizontal lines in a way that if the moon is sighted in a city it has to sight in another if the clouds or mountains were not obstructing.

These cities must not be very far (some say 880 km).

The western regions can follow the sighting in the eastern regions if there was no obstructing factor it would have been sighted.

Unity of the horizon and closeness of the cities Those who support this opinion: S. SISTANI (MAP) -NAJAF S. KHAMENAI (MAP)- TEHRAN S. GOLPAYGHANI (MAMH) S. KHOMENI (MAMH) Sh. NASIR MAKARIM (MAP) -QUM

Those who support this opinion:

S. SISTANI (MAP) -NAJAF

S. KHAMENAI (MAP)- TEHRAN

S. GOLPAYGHANI (MAMH)

S. KHOMENI (MAMH)

Sh. NASIR MAKARIM (MAP) -QUM

Unity of the continent S. MOHAMMAD SAEED TABATABAI ALHAKIM –NAJAF The west can follow the sighting in the east The east can follow the sighting of the west If they share the continent

S. MOHAMMAD SAEED TABATABAI ALHAKIM –NAJAF

The west can follow the sighting in the east

The east can follow the sighting of the west

If they share the continent

Unity of the night The cities of east and the west can follow the sighting of each other if they share one night. The reason for the concept of sharing the night is that the moon is sighted in the with the naked eye night, so if a city does not share the night when the moon was sighted, then that city can not depend on that sighting.

The cities of east and the west can follow the sighting of each other if they share one night.

The reason for the concept of sharing the night is that the moon is sighted in the with the naked eye night, so if a city does not share the night when the moon was sighted, then that city can not depend on that sighting.

Unity of the night The first great scholar who supported this concept with strong evidences was the MASTER of JURISTS ALSYED ABO ALQASIM ALHOEI (MAM) Then some of his strong students followed him, those who support this concept: SH. WAHEED ALKHORASANI (MAP)–Qum SH. MIRZA JAWAD ATTABRIZI (MAP)–Qum Sh. LANKARANI (MAP) -QUM

The first great scholar who supported this concept with strong evidences was the MASTER of JURISTS ALSYED ABO ALQASIM ALHOEI (MAM)

Then some of his strong students followed him, those who support this concept:

SH. WAHEED ALKHORASANI (MAP)–Qum

SH. MIRZA JAWAD ATTABRIZI (MAP)–Qum

Sh. LANKARANI (MAP) -QUM

Unity of the EARTH If any spot on the earth sights it, then it will be enough for the entire earth. The concept says once the moon is out from the shadow, then it is out for the entire earth, so on any spot it is sight, then it is enough for the whole earth. SH. AFAYAADH- NAJAF SH. BASHEER –NAJAF SH. BAHJAT-QUM This opinion must be supported by some types of limits, other wise if taken absolutely then it has few practical problems such as some parts of earth might missed the whole day of EID.

If any spot on the earth sights it, then it will be enough for the entire earth.

The concept says once the moon is out from the shadow, then it is out for the entire earth, so on any spot it is sight, then it is enough for the whole earth.

SH. AFAYAADH- NAJAF

SH. BASHEER –NAJAF

SH. BAHJAT-QUM

This opinion must be supported by some types of limits, other wise if taken absolutely then it has few practical problems such as some parts of earth might missed the whole day of EID.

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