Molecules of Life

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Information about Molecules of Life

Published on March 1, 2014

Author: acocil


Molecules of Life: Molecules of Life We are what we eat.: We are what we eat. PowerPoint Presentation: Where In The World Is Jesus? PowerPoint Presentation: The molecules of life – carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids – are organic molecules Organic Type of molecule that consists primarily of carbon and hydrogen atoms PowerPoint Presentation: Carbon atoms bond covalently with up to four other atoms, often forming long chains or rings Enzyme-driven reactions construct large molecules from smaller subunits, and break large molecules into smaller ones PowerPoint Presentation: Cells assemble large polymers from smaller monomers , and break apart polymers into component monomers Metabolism All the enzyme-mediated chemical reactions by which cells acquire and use energy as they build and break down organic molecules PowerPoint Presentation: Monomers Molecules that are subunits of polymers Simple sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, nucleotides Polymers Molecules that consist of multiple monomers Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids PowerPoint Presentation: Condensation (water forms) Process by which an enzyme builds large molecules from smaller subunits Hydrolysis (water is used) Process by which an enzyme breaks a molecule into smaller subunits by attaching a hydroxyl to one part and a hydrogen atom to the other PowerPoint Presentation: Cells use carbohydrates for energy and structural materials Carbohydrates Molecules that consist primarily of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a 1:2:1 ratio PowerPoint Presentation: Enzymes assemble complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides) from simple carbohydrate (sugar) subunits Glucose monomers can bond in different patterns to form different complex carbohydrates Cellulose (a structural component of plants) Starch (main energy reserve in plants) Glycogen (energy reserve in animals) PowerPoint Presentation: Lipids are greasy or oily nonpolar organic molecules, often with one or more fatty acid tails Lipids Fatty, oily, or waxy organic compounds Fatty acid Consists of a long chain of carbon atoms with an acidic carboxyl group at one end PowerPoint Presentation: Fats, such as triglycerides, are the most abundant source of energy in vertebrates – stored in adipose tissue that insulates the body Fat Lipid with one, two, or three fatty acid tails Triglyceride Lipid with three fatty acid tails attached to a glycerol backbone PowerPoint Presentation: Saturated fats pack more tightly than unsaturated fats, and tend to be more solid Saturated fat Fatty acid with no double bonds in its carbon tail Unsaturated fat Lipid with one or more double bonds in a fatty acid tail Fatty Acids: Fatty Acids Saturated, unsaturated, cis , and trans fatty acids PowerPoint Presentation: Phospholipids are the main structural component of cell membranes Phospholipid A lipid with a phosphate group in its hydrophilic head, and two nonpolar fatty acid tails Phospholipids: Phospholipids PowerPoint Presentation: Waxes are part of water-repellent and lubricating secretions in plants and animals Wax Water-repellent lipid with long fatty-acid tails bonded to long-chain alcohols or carbon rings PowerPoint Presentation: A protein’s function depends on its structure, which consists of chains of amino acids that twist and fold into functional domains Protein Organic compound that consists of one or more chains of amino acids PowerPoint Presentation: Amino acid Small organic compound with a carboxyl group, amine group, and a characteristic side group (R) PowerPoint Presentation: Amino acids are linked into chains by peptide bonds Peptide bond A bond between the amine group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of another Polypeptide Chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds PowerPoint Presentation: 1. Primary structure (polypeptide formation) A linear sequence of amino acids 2. Secondary structure Hydrogen bonds twist the polypeptide into a coil or sheet 3. Tertiary structure Secondary structure folds into a functional shape PowerPoint Presentation: 4. Quaternary structure In some proteins, two or more polypeptide chains associate and function as one molecule Example: hemoglobin 5. Fibrous proteins may aggregate into a larger structure, such as keratin filaments Example: hair PowerPoint Presentation: Fig. 2-18, p. 35 lysine glycine glycine arginine 1 2 3 4 5 PowerPoint Presentation: Changes in a protein’s structure may also alter its function Denature To unravel the shape of a protein or other large biological molecule PowerPoint Presentation: Nucleotide Monomer of nucleic acids Has a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogen-containing base, and phosphate groups Nucleic acids Polymers of nucleotide monomers joined by sugar-phosphate bonds (include DNA, RNA, coenzymes, energy carriers, messengers) PowerPoint Presentation: The nucleotide ATP can transfer a phosphate group and energy to other molecules, and is important in metabolism Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Nucleotide that consists of an adenine base, five-carbon ribose sugar, and three phosphate groups Functions as an energy carrier PowerPoint Presentation: DNA encodes heritable information about a cell’s proteins and RNAs Different RNAs interact with DNA and with one another to carry out protein synthesis PowerPoint Presentation: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Nucleic acid that carries hereditary material Two nucleotide chains twisted in a double helix Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Typically single-stranded nucleic acid Functions in protein synthesis астероид mетеор метеорита : астероид mетеор метеорита asteroid meteor meteorite PowerPoint Presentation:  PowerPoint Presentation: All living things consist of the same kinds of molecules. PowerPoint Presentation: Molecule Group of two or more atoms joined by chemical bonds Compound Type of molecule that has atoms of more than one element Common in Science: defining concepts with other concepts. PowerPoint Presentation: All substances (matter) consist of atoms Atom Fundamental building-block particle of matter Life’s unique characteristics start with the properties of different atoms PowerPoint Presentation: an atom PowerPoint Presentation: + - PowerPoint Presentation: Atoms consist of electrons moving around a nucleus of protons and neutrons Atoms differ in numbers of subatomic particles Charge Electrical property of some subatomic particles Opposite charges attract; like charges repel Electron (e - ) Negatively charged subatomic particle that occupies orbitals around the atomic nucleus PowerPoint Presentation: Proton (p + ) Positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of all atoms Neutron Uncharged subatomic particle found in the atomic nucleus Nucleus Core of an atom, occupied by protons and neutrons How many elements do you know? Can you name them?: How many elements do you know? Can you name them? Hydrogen Lithium Beryllium Vanadium 118? PowerPoint Presentation: Are you? PowerPoint Presentation: Element A pure substance that consists only of atoms with the same number of protons Atomic number Number of protons in the atomic nucleus Determines the element PowerPoint Presentation: The proportions of different elements differ between living and nonliving things Some atoms, such as carbon, are found in greater proportions in molecules made only by living things – the molecules of life PowerPoint Presentation: mass number element symbol atomic number element name elemental substance Carbon Number of protons in nucleus Number of protons and neutrons in nucleus PowerPoint Presentation: Electrons travel around the nucleus in different orbitals (shells) – atoms with vacancies in their outer shells tend to interact with other atoms Atoms get rid of vacancies by gaining or losing electrons, or sharing electrons with other atoms Shell model Model of electron distribution in an atom PowerPoint Presentation: 1 proton 1 2 1 electron first shell hydrogen (H) helium (He) 6 8 10 second shell carbon (C) oxygen (O) neon (Ne) 11 17 18 third shell sodium (Na) chlorine (Cl) argon (Ar) PowerPoint Presentation: The negative charge of an electron balances the positive charge of a proton in the nucleus Changing the number of electrons may fill its outer shell, but changes the charge of the atom Ion Atom that carries a charge because it has an unequal number of protons and electrons PowerPoint Presentation: electron loss Sodium atom 11 11p + 11e – charge: 0 Sodium ion 11p + 11 charge: +1 10e – electron gain Chlorine atom 17 17p + 17e – charge: 0 Chloride ion 18e – 17 17p + charge: –1 PowerPoint Presentation: Atoms can also fill their vacancies by sharing electrons with other atoms A chemical bond forms when the electrons of two atoms interact Chemical bond An attractive force that arises between two atoms when their electrons interact PowerPoint Presentation: Depending on the atoms, a chemical bond may be ionic or covalent Ionic bond A strong mutual attraction formed between ions of opposite charge Covalent bond Two atoms sharing a pair of electrons PowerPoint Presentation: ionic bond 11 17 sodium ion (Na + ) chloride ion (Cl – ) An Ionic Bond: Sodium Chloride Covalent Bonds: Covalent Bonds Molecular hydrogen (H—H) and molecular oxygen (O=O) PowerPoint Presentation: A covalent bond is nonpolar if electrons are shared equally, and polar if the sharing is unequal Polarity Any separation of charge into distinct positive and negative regions PowerPoint Presentation: Nonpolar Having an even distribution of charge When atoms in a covalent bond share electrons equally, the bond is nonpolar Polar Having an uneven distribution of charge When the atoms share electrons unequally, the bond is polar PowerPoint Presentation: A water molecule (H-O-H) has two polar covalent bonds – the oxygen is slightly negative and the hydrogens are slightly positive – which allows water to form hydrogen bonds PowerPoint Presentation: Hydrogen bond Attraction that forms between a covalently bonded hydrogen atom and another atom taking part in a separate covalent bond PowerPoint Presentation: Hydrogen bonds form and break more easily than covalent or ionic bonds – they do not form molecules Hydrogen bonds impart unique properties to substances such as water, and hold molecules such as DNA in their characteristic shapes Water: Water All living organisms are mostly water, and all chemical reactions of life are carried out in water Hydrogen bonds between water molecules give water unique properties that make life possible Capacity to dissolve many substances Cohesion (surface tension) Temperature stability PowerPoint Presentation: slight negative charge slight positive charge slight positive charge PowerPoint Presentation: Polar water molecules hydrogen-bond to other polar (hydrophilic) substances, and repel nonpolar (hydrophobic) substances Hydrophilic (water-loving) A substance that dissolves easily in water Hydrophobic (water-dreading) A substance that resists dissolving in water PowerPoint Presentation: Water is an excellent solvent Solvent Liquid that can dissolve other substances Solute A dissolved substance PowerPoint Presentation: Salts, sugars, and many polar molecules dissolve easily in water Salt Compound that dissolves easily in water and releases ions other than H + and OH - Example: sodium chloride (NaCl) PowerPoint Presentation: Water molecules surround the atoms of an ionic solid and pull them apart, dissolving it PowerPoint Presentation: Temperature stability is an important part of homeostasis Water absorbs more heat than other liquids before temperature rises Hydrogen bonds hold ice together in a rigid pattern that makes ice float Temperature Measure of molecular motion PowerPoint Presentation: Cohesion helps sustain multicelled bodies and resists evaporation Cohesion Tendency of water molecules to stick together Evaporation Transition of liquid to gas Absorbs heat energy (cooling effect) Break time: Break time 10 minutes PowerPoint Presentation: Water molecules separate into hydrogen ions (H + ) and hydroxide ions (OH - ) pH A measure of the number of hydrogen ions (H + ) in a solution The more hydrogen ions, the lower the pH Pure water has neutral pH (pH=7) Number of H + ions = OH - ions PowerPoint Presentation: Acid Substance that releases hydrogen ions in water pH less than 7 Base Substance that releases hydroxide ions (accepts hydrogen ions) in water pH greater than 7 PowerPoint Presentation: — 0 battery acid — 1 gastric fluid lemon juice — 2 acid rain cola — 3 vinegar more acidic tomatoes, wine orange juice — 4 bananas beer — 5 black coffee bread urine, tea, typical rain butter — 6 corn milk — 7 pure water — 8 seawater egg white blood, tears — 9 detergents baking soda Tums — 10 hand soap toothpaste milk of magnesia household ammonia — 11 more basic — 12 hair remover bleach — 13 — 14 drain cleaner oven cleaner A pH Scale Acid Rain: Acid Rain Sulfur dioxide and other airborne pollutants dissolve in water vapor to form acid rain PowerPoint Presentation: Most molecules of life work only within a narrow range of pH – essential for homeostasis Buffers keep solutions in cells and tissues within a consistent range of pH Buffer Set of chemicals that can keep the pH of a solution stable by alternately donating and accepting ions that contribute to pH

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