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Molecular Shape Covalent 4 No Grp Wk

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Information about Molecular Shape Covalent 4 No Grp Wk

Published on April 28, 2008

Author: itamarita1984

Source: slideshare.net

Description

molecular shape notes
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Molecular Shape Pp 259-262

VSEPR Theory Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Used to determine molecular shape Based on arrangement that minimizes the repulsion between shared and unshared electrons

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion

Used to determine molecular shape

Based on arrangement that minimizes the repulsion between shared and unshared electrons

Bond Angle Angle formed by any two terminal atoms and a central atom Caused by the repulsion of electron pairs Supported by experimental evidence Shared electron pairs repel each other

Angle formed by any two terminal atoms and a central atom

Caused by the repulsion of electron pairs

Supported by experimental evidence

Shared electron pairs repel each other

 

 

Lone pairs and VSEPR Lone pairs also important Occupy a larger orbital than shared electrons Lone pairs push shared orbitals together

Lone pairs also important

Occupy a larger orbital than shared electrons

Lone pairs push shared orbitals together

 

VSEPR Definitions Electron group –set of electrons that occupies a particular region around an atom. Ligand – an atom or a group of atoms bonded to an inner atom Steric number – the sum of the number of ligands plus the number of lone pairs; in other words, the total number of groups associated with that atom.

Electron group –set of electrons that occupies a particular region around an atom.

Ligand – an atom or a group of atoms bonded to an inner atom

Steric number – the sum of the number of ligands plus the number of lone pairs; in other words, the total number of groups associated with that atom.

 

 

Linear 180’ Bent/angular <120’ Bent/angular 104.5

Linear

180’

Bent/angular

<120’

Bent/angular

104.5

Trigonal planar 120’ Tetrahedral 109.5’ Trigonal pyramidal 107.3’

Trigonal planar

120’

Tetrahedral

109.5’

Trigonal pyramidal

107.3’

Trigonal bipyramidal 90’ Horz to vert 120’ horz to horz Octahedral 90’

Trigonal bipyramidal

90’ Horz to vert

120’ horz to horz

Octahedral

90’

See-saw Square planar T-structure Linear Square pyramidal

See-saw

Square planar

T-structure

Linear

Square pyramidal

 

Hybridization What’s a hybrid? Combining two of the same type of object and contains characteristics of both Occurs to orbitals during bonding Hybridization Process in which atomic orbitals are mixed to form new hybrid orbitals Each hybrid orbital contains one electron that it can share with another atom Carbon is most common atom to undergo hybridization Four hybrid orbitals from 1 s and 3 p orbitals Hybrid= sp 3 orbital

What’s a hybrid?

Combining two of the same type of object and contains characteristics of both

Occurs to orbitals during bonding

Hybridization

Process in which atomic orbitals are mixed to form new hybrid orbitals

Each hybrid orbital contains one electron that it can share with another atom

Carbon is most common atom to undergo hybridization

Four hybrid orbitals from 1 s and 3 p orbitals

Hybrid= sp 3 orbital

HYBRIDIZATION Mixture of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new hybrid atomic orbitals of equal energies Orbitals of equal energy produced by the combination of two or more orbitals on the same atom Hybrid Orbital

Mixture of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new hybrid atomic orbitals of equal energies

Orbitals of equal energy produced by the combination of two or more orbitals on the same atom

 

 

# of atomic orbitals mixed to form hybrid orbitals = the total # of pairs of shared electrons # of hybrid orbitals formed = # of atomic orbitals mixed 1 s orbital + px + py + pz = 4 sp 3 hybrid orbitals CH 4 AlCl 3 Lone pairs also occupy hybrid orbitals H 2 O BeCl 2

# of atomic orbitals mixed to form hybrid orbitals = the total # of pairs of shared electrons

# of hybrid orbitals formed = # of atomic orbitals mixed

1 s orbital + px + py + pz = 4 sp 3 hybrid orbitals

CH 4

AlCl 3

Lone pairs also occupy hybrid orbitals

H 2 O

BeCl 2

 

Class Work Lewis Dot Diagram (6 steps) Molecular geometry Bond Angle Type of hybridization New Lewis dot structure showing molecular shape BF 3 NH 4 + OCl 2 BeF 2 CF 4 AsH 3

Lewis Dot Diagram (6 steps)

Molecular geometry

Bond Angle

Type of hybridization

New Lewis dot structure showing molecular shape

BF 3

NH 4 +

OCl 2

BeF 2

CF 4

AsH 3

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