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Molecular Nanotechnology

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Information about Molecular Nanotechnology
Science-Technology

Published on November 24, 2009

Author: ankush85

Source: authorstream.com

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Molecular Nanotechnology : Zyvex 1 Molecular Nanotechnology National Nanotechnology Initiative : Zyvex 2 National Nanotechnology Initiative Interagency (AFOSR, ARO, BMDO, DARPA, DOC, DOE, NASA, NIH, NIST, NSF, ONR, and NRL) Congressional hearings Objective: double funding through existing channels Academic and Industry : Zyvex 3 Academic and Industry Caltech’s MSC (1999 Feynman Prize), Rice CNST (Smalley), USC Lab for Molecular Robotics, etc Private nonprofit (Foresight, IMM) Private for profit (IBM, Zyvex, Covalent) And many more…. Slide 4: Zyvex 4 There is a growing sense in the scientific and technical community that we are about to enter a golden new era. Richard Smalley 1996 Nobel Prize, Chemistry http://www.house.gov/ science/smalley_062299.htm The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things atom by atom. It is not anattempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are toobig. Richard Feynman, 1959 : Zyvex 5 The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things atom by atom. It is not anattempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are toobig. Richard Feynman, 1959 http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/feynman.html The book that laid out the technical argument for molecular nanotechnology:Nanosystemsby K. Eric Drexler, Wiley 1992 : Zyvex 6 The book that laid out the technical argument for molecular nanotechnology:Nanosystemsby K. Eric Drexler, Wiley 1992 Three historical trendsin manufacturing : Zyvex 7 Three historical trendsin manufacturing More flexible More precise Less expensive The limit of these trends: nanotechnology : Zyvex 8 The limit of these trends: nanotechnology Fabricate most structures consistent with physical law Get essentially every atom in the right place Inexpensive (~10-50 cents/kilogram) http://www.zyvex.com/nano Slide 9: Zyvex 9 Coal Sand Dirt, water and air Diamonds Computer chips Grass It matters how atoms are arranged Today’s manufacturing methods move atoms in statistical herds : Zyvex 10 Today’s manufacturing methods move atoms in statistical herds Casting Grinding Welding Sintering Lithography Slide 11: Zyvex 11 Possible arrangements of atoms . What we can make today (not to scale) Slide 12: Zyvex 12 The goal: a healthy bite. . Slide 13: Zyvex 13 Core molecular manufacturing capabilities Today Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Overview of the development of molecular nanotechnology Terminological caution : Zyvex 14 Terminological caution “Nanotechnology” has been applied to almost any research where some dimension is less than a micron (1,000 nanometers) in size. Example: sub-micron optical lithography Two morefundamental ideas : Zyvex 15 Two morefundamental ideas Self replication (for low cost) Positional assembly (so molecular parts go where we want them to go) Slide 16: Zyvex 16 Von Neumann architecture for a self replicating system Universal Computer Universal Constructor http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/vonNeumann.html Slide 17: Zyvex 17 Drexler’s architecture for an assembler Molecular computer Molecular constructor Positional device Tip chemistry Illustration of an assembler : Zyvex 18 Illustration of an assembler http://www.foresight.org/UTF/Unbound_LBW/chapt_6.html Slide 19: Zyvex 19 The theoretical concept of machine duplication is well developed. There are several alternative strategies by which machine self-replication can be carried out in a practical engineering setting. Advanced Automation for Space Missions Proceedings of the 1980 NASA/ASEE Summer Study http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/selfRepNASA.html A C program that prints out an exact copy of itself : Zyvex 20 A C program that prints out an exact copy of itself main(){char q=34, n=10,*a="main() {char q=34,n=10,*a=%c%s%c; printf(a,q,a,q,n);}%c";printf(a,q,a,q,n);} For more information, see the Recursion Theorem: http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/selfRep.html English translation: : Zyvex 21 English translation: Print the following statement twice, the second time in quotes: “Print the following statement twice, the second time in quotes:” Slide 22: Zyvex 22 C program 800 Von Neumann's universal constructor 500,000 Internet worm (Robert Morris, Jr., 1988) 500,000 Mycoplasma capricolum 1,600,000 E. Coli 9,278,442 Drexler's assembler 100,000,000 Human 6,400,000,000 NASA Lunar Manufacturing Facility over 100,000,000,000 http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/selfRep.html Complexity of self replicating systems (bits) How cheap? : Zyvex 23 How cheap? Potatoes, lumber, wheat and other agricultural products are examples of products made using a self replicating manufacturing base. Costs of roughly a dollar per pound are common. Molecular manufacturing will make almost any product for a dollar per pound or less, independent of complexity. (Design costs, licensing costs, etc. not included) How long? : Zyvex 24 How long? The scientifically correct answer is I don’t know Trends in computer hardware suggest early in the next century — perhaps in the 2010 to 2020 time frame Of course, how long it takes depends on what we do Developmental pathways : Zyvex 25 Developmental pathways Scanning probe microscopy Self assembly Ever smaller systems Hybrid approaches Slide 26: Zyvex 26 Moving molecules with an SPM (Gimzewski et al.) http://www.zurich.ibm.com/News/Molecule/ Self assembled DNA octahedron(Seeman) : Zyvex 27 Self assembled DNA octahedron(Seeman) http://seemanlab4.chem.nyu.edu/nano-oct.html DNA on an SPM tip(Lee et al.) : Zyvex 28 DNA on an SPM tip(Lee et al.) http://stm2.nrl.navy.mil/1994scie/1994scie.html Buckytubes(Tough, well defined) : Zyvex 29 Buckytubes(Tough, well defined) Buckytube glued to SPM tip(Dai et al.) : Zyvex 30 Buckytube glued to SPM tip(Dai et al.) http://cnst.rice.edu/TIPS_rev.htm Building the tools to build the tools : Zyvex 31 Building the tools to build the tools Directly manufacturing a diamondoid assembler using existing techniques appears very difficult . We’ll have to build intermediate systems able to build better systems able to build diamondoid assemblers. Slide 32: Zyvex 32 If we can make whatever we want what do we want to make? Diamond Physical Properties : Zyvex 33 Diamond Physical Properties Property Diamond’s value Comments Chemical reactivity Extremely low Hardness (kg/mm2) 9000 CBN: 4500 SiC: 4000 Thermal conductivity (W/cm-K) 20 Ag: 4.3 Cu: 4.0 Tensile strength (pascals) 3.5 x 109 (natural) 1011 (theoretical) Compressive strength (pascals) 1011 (natural) 5 x 1011 (theoretical) Band gap (ev) 5.5 Si: 1.1 GaAs: 1.4 Resistivity (W-cm) 1016 (natural) Density (gm/cm3) 3.51 Thermal Expansion Coeff (K-1) 0.8 x 10-6 SiO2: 0.5 x 10-6 Refractive index 2.41 @ 590 nm Glass: 1.4 - 1.8 Coeff. of Friction 0.05 (dry) Teflon: 0.05 Source: Crystallume Strength of diamond : Zyvex 34 Strength of diamond Diamond has a strength-to-weight ratio over 50 times that of steel or aluminium alloy Structural (load bearing) mass can be reduced by about this factor When combined with reduced cost, this will have a major impact on aerospace applications A hydrocarbon bearing : Zyvex 35 A hydrocarbon bearing http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/bearingProof.html Neon pump : Zyvex 36 Neon pump A planetary gear : Zyvex 37 A planetary gear http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/gearAndCasing.html A proposal for a molecular positional device : Zyvex 38 A proposal for a molecular positional device Classical uncertainty : Zyvex 39 Classical uncertainty σ: mean positional error k: restoring force kb: Boltzmann’s constant T: temperature A numerical example of classical uncertainty : Zyvex 40 A numerical example of classical uncertainty σ: 0.02 nm (0.2 Å) k: 10 N/m kb: 1.38 x 10-23 J/K T: 300 K Molecular tools : Zyvex 41 Molecular tools Today, we make things at the molecular scale by stirring together molecular parts and cleverly arranging things so they spontaneously go somewhere useful. In the future, we’ll have molecular “hands” that will let us put molecular parts exactly where we want them, vastly increasing the range of molecular structures that we can build. Synthesis of diamond today:diamond CVD : Zyvex 42 Synthesis of diamond today:diamond CVD Carbon: methane (ethane, acetylene...) Hydrogen: H2 Add energy, producing CH3, H, etc. Growth of a diamond film. The right chemistry, but little control over the site of reactions or exactly what is synthesized. Slide 43: Zyvex 43 A hydrogen abstraction tool http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/Habs/Habs.html Some other molecular tools : Zyvex 44 Some other molecular tools A synthetic strategy for the synthesis of diamondoid structures : Zyvex 45 A synthetic strategy for the synthesis of diamondoid structures Positional assembly (6 degrees of freedom) Highly reactive compounds (radicals, carbenes, etc) Inert environment (vacuum, noble gas) to eliminate side reactions The impact of nanotechnologydepends on what’s being made : Zyvex 46 The impact of nanotechnologydepends on what’s being made Computers, memory, displays Space Exploration Medicine Military Environment, Energy, etc. Powerful computers : Zyvex 47 Powerful computers In the future we’ll pack more computing power into a sugar cube than the sum total of all the computer power that exists in the world today We’ll be able to store more than 1021 bits in the same volume Or more than a billion Pentiums operating in parallel Powerful enough to run Windows 2015 Slide 48: Zyvex 48 Memory probe Displays : Zyvex 49 Displays Molecular machines smaller than a wavelength of light will let us build holographic displays that reconstruct the entire wave front of a light wave It will be like looking through a window into another world Covering walls, ceilings and floor would immerse us in another reality Space : Zyvex 50 Space Launch vehicle structural mass will be reduced by about a factor of 50 Cost per pound for that structural mass will be under a dollar Which will reduce the cost to low earth orbit by a factor 1,000 or more http://science.nas.nasa.gov/Groups/ Nanotechnology/publications/1997/applications/ It costs less to launch less : Zyvex 51 It costs less to launch less Light weight computers and sensors will reduce total payload mass for the same functionality Recycling of waste will reduce payload mass, particularly for long flights and permanent facilities (space stations, colonies) Swallowing the surgeon : Zyvex 52 Swallowing the surgeon ...it would be interesting in surgery if you could swallow the surgeon. You put the mechanical surgeon inside the blood vessel and it goes into the heart and “looks” around. ... Other small machines might be permanently incorporated in the body to assist some inadequately-functioning organ. Richard P. Feynman, 1959 Nobel Prize for Physics, 1965 Nanomedicine Volume I : Zyvex 53 Nanomedicine Volume I By Robert Freitas Surveys medical applications of nanotechnology Extensive technical analysis Volume I (of three) published in 1999 http://www.foresight.org/Nanomedicine Slide 54: Zyvex 54 Mitochondrion 20 nm scale bar Ribosome Molecular computer (4-bit) + peripherals Molecular bearing Slide 55: Zyvex 55 “Typical” cell Mitochondrion Molecular computer + peripherals Slide 56: Zyvex 56 Disease and illness are caused largely by damage at the molecular and cellular level Today’s surgical tools are huge and imprecise in comparison http://www.foresight.org/Nanomedicine Slide 57: Zyvex 57 In the future, we will have fleets of surgical tools that are molecular both in size and precision. We will also have computers that are much smaller than a single cell with which to guide these tools. Medical applications : Zyvex 58 Medical applications Killing cancer cells, bacteria Removing blockages Providing oxygen (artificial red blood cell) Adjusting other metabolites A revolution in medicine : Zyvex 59 A revolution in medicine Today, loss of cell function results in cellular deterioration: function must be preserved With medical nanodevices, passive structures can be repaired. Cell function can be restored provided cell structure can be inferred: structure must be preserved Slide 60: Zyvex 60 Cryonics 37º C 37º C -196º C (77 Kelvins) Freeze Restore to health Time Temperature (many decades) Clinical trialsto evaluate cryonics : Zyvex 61 Clinical trialsto evaluate cryonics Select N subjects Freeze them Wait 100 years See if the medical technology of 2100 can indeed revive them But what do we tell those who don’t expect to live long enough to see the results? Would you rather join: : Zyvex 62 Would you rather join: The control group? (no action required) or The experimental group? (see www.alcor.org for info) Slide 63: Zyvex 63 Military applications of molecular manufacturing have even greater potential than nuclear weapons to radically change the balance of power. Admiral David E. Jeremiah, USN (Ret) Former Vice Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff November 9, 1995 http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/nano4/jeremiahPaper.html Human impact on the environment depends on : Zyvex 64 Human impact on the environment depends on Population Living standards Technology Restoring the environment with nanotechnology : Zyvex 65 Restoring the environment with nanotechnology Low cost greenhouse agriculture Low cost solar power Pollution free manufacturing The ultimate in recycling Solar power and nanotechnology : Zyvex 66 Solar power and nanotechnology The sunshine reaching the earth has almost 40,000 times more power than total world usage. Nanotechnology will produce efficient, rugged solar cells and batteries at low cost. Power costs will drop dramatically Environmentally friendly manufacturing : Zyvex 67 Environmentally friendly manufacturing Today’s manufacturing plants pollute because they use imprecise methods. Nanotechnology is precise — it will produce only what it has been designed to produce. An abundant source of carbon is the excess CO2 in the air Slide 68: Zyvex 68 Nanotechnology offers ... possibilities for health, wealth, and capabilities beyond most past imaginings. K. Eric Drexler Slide 69: Zyvex 69

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