Published on February 28, 2014
Module 12- Section 1: Module 12- Section 1 We will start this module by finishing Chapter 8 with sound. Sound : Sound PCs come with four components geared toward sound: The sound card (may be integrated) Speakers Microphone Recording/playback software PowerPoint Presentation: Sound is transmitted as a waveform that travels through air (or some other medium). To be digitized for use in the PC, a sound wave must be sampled. Typical- CD quality sample rate and bit-depth: Typical- CD quality sample rate and bit-depth PowerPoint Presentation: Nyquist Criterion: minimum sampling rate must be twice the highest frequency. Today, sound cards can use 192 kHz/24 bit sample rate/bit depth! PowerPoint Presentation: Recorded sound formats: The sound format refers to the manner in which a sound file is stored. The three most common formats are: WAV, MP3 and Midi (.mid) PowerPoint Presentation: The first sound format was PCM which stands for pulse-code modulation. PCM is better known as the WAV format. WAV files have a high sampling rate and a depth. This causes the sampled file to be quite large. PowerPoint Presentation: MP3 is a compressed file format that shrinks a WAV file by about a factor of 12. The “bit rate” is the number of bits transferred to the decoder each second. Bit rates range from 24 kbps to 320 kbps. PowerPoint Presentation: The bit rate determines the depth or quality of the sound that is reproduced. All compressed sound formats stem from PCM. PowerPoint Presentation: The Midi format stands for musical instrument digital interface file. A midi processor contains embedded recordings of musical instruments- a “veritable symphony orchestra on a chip” (Mike Meyers). PowerPoint Presentation: Midi files are similar to text files- basically instructions that the midi processor follows to reproduce the sounds. Entertainment System Standards: Entertainment System Standards Audio Compression Standards (output): Dolby TrueTV Dolby Digital Dolby surround sound PowerPoint Presentation: TrueHD and Dolby Digital use and build on surround sound technologies Popular variations of surround sound 5.1 (6 speakers (channels)-including front center and subwoofer) 7.1 9.1 PowerPoint Presentation: A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 16 PowerPoint Presentation: A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 17 Figure 10-2 This motherboard with onboard sound has eight sound ports Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning PowerPoint Presentation: A digital output called S/PDIF (Sony/Philips digital interface) all the output of a sound card to be connected directly to a stereo system using an RCA jack or an optical connection. PowerPoint Presentation: TV Tuner Cards: Receives signals from cable (or antenna) and displays it on the monitor Video Capture Cards: Accepts input from a video camera using for editing with application software OR security. PowerPoint Presentation: Images can be transferred from a camera to a PC using: Cable: USB Firewire Infrared Wireless BNC (coax) S-video Removable Media: Removable Media CD and DVD drives are referred to as “optical drives” because the main component of the drive is the laser. Reading data off of the disc depends on the reflective properties of the media- thus, the discs are sometimes called optical media. CD: CD A. Standard CD Drives follow the High Sierra standard which allows any drive to read any CD (the original standard did NOT apply to writeable CD.) CDs store about 640 MB of data PowerPoint Presentation: B. Speed “x-factor” 1X = 150 KBps data transfer rate 12x = 12 x (150) = 1800 kBps 52x = 52 x 150 = 7800 kBps (7.8 MBps) PowerPoint Presentation: CD drives are much slower than hard drives (an Ultra-DMA mode IDE hard drive transfers data at 133 MBps) The average access time of a CD is 95 ms, for a hard drive it is about 4 ms. C. CDFS: C. CDFS CD file system: how data is stored on and organized on CD Refers to file allocation table system on CD, allows a drive to read a CD CDFS is also known as ISO-9660 UDF: UDF A new file system standard that allows a drive to also read CD-R, CD-RW, and DVD is UDF: universal disk format Blu-ray uses UDF version 2.5 PowerPoint Presentation: The file system of a CD or a DVD is NOT dependent on the operating system. Thus, CDs and DVDs can be used with MACs, Linux, Windows etc. D. Lands and Pits: D. Lands and Pits Lands: reflect light (1) Pits: Trap light (0) How Data Is Read and Written To Optical Discs: 29 How Data Is Read and Written To Optical Discs Process of writing data Data written using laser beam Data burned (etched) with lands (1) and pits (0) How Much Data Can Be Stored On Optical Discs: A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 30 How Much Data Can Be Stored On Optical Discs CD 700 MB of data DVD Single-sided, single-layer DVD: 4.7 GB Single-sided, dual-layer DVD: 8.5 GB Double-sided, single-layer DVD: 9.4 GB Double-sided, dual-layer DVD: 17 GB PowerPoint Presentation: BD Double-sided, single-layer BD: 25 GB Double-sided, dual-layer BD: 50 GB Standards Supported By CD, DVD, and BD Drives: A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 32 Standards Supported By CD, DVD, and BD Drives Distinguish between CD, CD-R, CD-RW disc Color on disc bottom CD-R and CD-RW discs: blue, black, some other color Read-only CDs: silver Table 8-4: Table 8-4 PowerPoint Presentation: 34 Table 10-4 DVD standards PowerPoint Presentation: 35 Table 8-4 BD standards Features of Optical Drives: Features of Optical Drives External or internal drives Optical drive selection considerations Interface Disc standards supported Read, write-once, and rewriteable speeds Ability to burn labels on the top of a disc Labelflash and LightScribe 36 PowerPoint Presentation: Other means of labeling a disc Print using special discs with white paper like surface Use a permanent felt-tip marker PowerPoint Presentation: 38 Figure 8-66 This disc label was written using a DVD burner that supports LightScribe Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning Caring For Optical Drives and Discs: 39 Caring For Optical Drives and Discs Precautions when handling CDs, DVDs, and BDs Hold disc by the edge Use a clean, soft, dry cloth to remove dust Do not paste paper on the surface, subject disc to heat, make the center hole larger, bend disc, or drop disc PowerPoint Presentation: Use emergency eject hole to remove a stuck disc When closing a tray do not push on the tray Use a cleaning solution specifically designed for optical discs Problems with Optical Drives: Problems with Optical Drives General guidelines installation causes problems Check drive data cable and power cord connections For EIDE drive Check master/slave jumper setting Check if IDE connection on the motherboard disabled in BIOS setup 41 PowerPoint Presentation: Use Device Manager to verify drive SCSI drive: check for proper IDs Download updates to Windows Suspect a boot virus Scan system for viruses Problems When Burning a CD, DVD, or BD: Problems When Burning a CD, DVD, or BD Make sure disc capacity is not exceeded Ensure hard drive has at least 1 GB free space Required for temporary files Close other programs before beginning Prevents interruptions 43 PowerPoint Presentation: Try a different brand of disc Try using a slower burn rate Burn process requires a constant flow of data to the disc PowerPoint Presentation: This is the end of the first section of Module 12.