Published on May 8, 2016
1. The Medieval ChurchThe Medieval Church
2. Main IdeasMain Ideas • What was the nature and influence of religion in theWhat was the nature and influence of religion in the Middle Ages?Middle Ages? • Why did the Church become powerful and importantWhy did the Church become powerful and important in the Middle Ages?in the Middle Ages? • ReformReform and changes swept through the Christianand changes swept through the Christian Church, one of the most influential institutions inChurch, one of the most influential institutions in medieval Europe.medieval Europe. • PopesPopes gained influence over peoplegained influence over people’’s religious lives,s religious lives, also over European politicsalso over European politics
3. Goals and Objectives:Goals and Objectives: Goal 5 – The Church in the Middle AgesGoal 5 – The Church in the Middle Ages •The student will evaluate the role of theThe student will evaluate the role of the Christian church in the culture of medievalChristian church in the culture of medieval Europe.Europe. • 5.015.01 Evaluate the civil role of the Christian church inEvaluate the civil role of the Christian church in medieval Europe.medieval Europe. • 5.035.03 Summarize the nature of canon law of the ChristianSummarize the nature of canon law of the Christian church and its role in the culture of medieval Europe.church and its role in the culture of medieval Europe. • 5.045.04 Detail the various monastic movements includingDetail the various monastic movements including but not limited to the Benedictines, Augustinians, Cluniacs,but not limited to the Benedictines, Augustinians, Cluniacs, Cistercians, Dominicans, and Franciscans of medievalCistercians, Dominicans, and Franciscans of medieval Europe and their impact on the culture of the ChristianEurope and their impact on the culture of the Christian church and Europe.church and Europe. • 5.055.05 Trace the Christian Crusades including but notTrace the Christian Crusades including but not limited to the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Crusades.limited to the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Crusades. • 5.065.06 Assess the causes and effects of the ChristianAssess the causes and effects of the Christian Crusades on medieval Europe and the Middle East.Crusades on medieval Europe and the Middle East.
4. IntroductionIntroduction • By 500 AD,By 500 AD, Germanic InvasionsGermanic Invasions had all buthad all but destroyed the urban world of the Roman Empiredestroyed the urban world of the Roman Empire • Trade DeclinedTrade Declined • Cities, bridges, and roads fell into disrepair and disuse.Cities, bridges, and roads fell into disrepair and disuse. • Law and Order Vanished, and education almostLaw and Order Vanished, and education almost disappeareddisappeared • Money was no longer usedMoney was no longer used • For most, life did not extend beyond the tiny villagesFor most, life did not extend beyond the tiny villages where they were born, lived and diedwhere they were born, lived and died • Dark Ages!!!!Dark Ages!!!!
5. • People turned to church for order andPeople turned to church for order and security.security. • Germanic people called the FranksGermanic people called the Franks were led by Clovis, who converted towere led by Clovis, who converted to Christianity.Christianity. • The Church adapts to the ruralThe Church adapts to the rural conditions of Western Europe. Theconditions of Western Europe. The Church built religious communitiesChurch built religious communities called monasteries.called monasteries.
6. Dark AgesDark Ages • Western Europe was so backward because ofWestern Europe was so backward because of this decline that the early part of this period wasthis decline that the early part of this period was once call the Dark Agesonce call the Dark Ages • MedievalMedieval-- Latin for Middle AgeLatin for Middle Age • Transition between ancient and modern timesTransition between ancient and modern times • Out of this violent medieval period, or MiddleOut of this violent medieval period, or Middle Ages, a dynamic civilization arose.Ages, a dynamic civilization arose. • Combined elements classical and Germanic culturesCombined elements classical and Germanic cultures with Christian beliefswith Christian beliefs
7. Notre Dame: Gothic Architecture
8. Medieval Life ReviewMedieval Life Review • FeudalismFeudalism - highly decentralized form of- highly decentralized form of government that developed in western Europe.government that developed in western Europe. • Stressed alliances of mutual protection betweenStressed alliances of mutual protection between monarchs and nobles of various degrees of power.monarchs and nobles of various degrees of power. • Land given to nobles in exchange for loyalty and militaryLand given to nobles in exchange for loyalty and military aidaid • With the land came peasants to farm itWith the land came peasants to farm it • Nobles also had powers over land usually reserved forNobles also had powers over land usually reserved for governmentsgovernments
9. FeudalismFeudalism • A political, economic, and socialA political, economic, and social system in which land was allocated insystem in which land was allocated in exchange for services; roles andexchange for services; roles and obligations were clearly defined forobligations were clearly defined for all participantsall participants • Grew out of Roman practices ofGrew out of Roman practices of clientage/patronageclientage/patronage • Originally developed as a means ofOriginally developed as a means of protection and defense fromprotection and defense from invasionsinvasions • FeudalismFeudalism appeared in Europe duringappeared in Europe during the 700s in the areas we know nowthe 700s in the areas we know now asas France and GermanyFrance and Germany, as weak, as weak governments sought solutions to thegovernments sought solutions to the question of how to provide securityquestion of how to provide security with limited resources. By the 1000s,with limited resources. By the 1000s, most of western Europe practicedmost of western Europe practiced some form of feudalism.some form of feudalism. A French vassal receiving a feudal grant from the king
10. Roles in the FeudalRoles in the Feudal SystemSystem • LordLord • VassalVassal • FiefFief • ManorManor • SerfSerf Feudal serfs Monarch Nobles Lesser Nobles/Knights Peasants
11. RolesRoles • Lord—Lord—A landowner, usually a noble, although sometimesA landowner, usually a noble, although sometimes lords were bishopslords were bishops • Vassal—Vassal—A person (usually a soldier) given a piece of land byA person (usually a soldier) given a piece of land by the lordthe lord • Fief—Fief—The land itself that is givenThe land itself that is given • ManorManor (sometimes referred to in the context of the(sometimes referred to in the context of the ““manorial systemmanorial system””))——A basic unit of land, usually bigA basic unit of land, usually big enough for the supervision of a single noble or knightenough for the supervision of a single noble or knight
12. KnightsKnights Statue of a medieval knight Knights tended to be vassals of nobles. In exchange for land, they would swear an oath of fealty to the noble and agree to fight for them and protect them. A knight’s training was rigorous and took a great deal of time: boys were often chosen to be knights early in life so that training could begin. Age 7: served as a “page,” an attendant in the personal service of an individual knight; given basic lessons in horsemanship and basic hand-to-hand fighting skills Age 14: successful students would be granted the title of “squire,” included sword privileges and increasingly difficult physical challenges and tasks such as assisting a knight in battle Age 21: formally qualified to become a knight Knights were supposed to live by a code of behavior known as chivalry, which required them to remain loyal to their lords, fight with honor, treat all with justice, and act politely towards women
13. The Medieval TournamentThe Medieval Tournament Means of practicing military skillsMeans of practicing military skills Knights practiced their military skills in exercises known as “tournaments”—mock battles that involved both real weapons and actual combat Another popular sport in late medieval Europe was jousting, which involved two knights charging each other on horseback and attempting to dismount one another.
14. CastlesCastles • Centers of noble life – serving as homes and fortressesCenters of noble life – serving as homes and fortresses • Building a castle was often a lifelong pursuit for nobles;Building a castle was often a lifelong pursuit for nobles; some castles would even take severalsome castles would even take several generations to completegenerations to complete. Castles were usually constructed by serfs and masons (. Castles were usually constructed by serfs and masons (craftsmencraftsmen who worked with stone).who worked with stone). Once erected, these buildings would serve a number of purposes:Once erected, these buildings would serve a number of purposes: Purposes:Purposes: • IntimidationIntimidation——Castles were often built in the spirit of competition with other nobles, friendlyCastles were often built in the spirit of competition with other nobles, friendly or otherwise. A large castle could serve as a sign of a nobleor otherwise. A large castle could serve as a sign of a noble’’s strength, esteem, or power.s strength, esteem, or power. Castles were often placed on the highest point in a region so they could be seen from greatCastles were often placed on the highest point in a region so they could be seen from great distances.distances. • Military defenseMilitary defense——Castles were most certainly built with military use in mind. They hadCastles were most certainly built with military use in mind. They had clever defensive designs, incorporating elements such as moats, large watchtowers, and highclever defensive designs, incorporating elements such as moats, large watchtowers, and high walls. Castles were sometimes built on the outer regions of a noblewalls. Castles were sometimes built on the outer regions of a noble’’s land grant as a means ofs land grant as a means of encroaching on another nobleencroaching on another noble’’s territory.s territory. • ResidenceResidence——Nobles and their families lived in castles. The castles of the higher nobles wereNobles and their families lived in castles. The castles of the higher nobles were often lavishly decorated, with rich tapestries on the walls, grand halls, and music rooms.often lavishly decorated, with rich tapestries on the walls, grand halls, and music rooms. • Castles were dark, lit only by torches and fireplaces. The rooms were large and drafty becauseCastles were dark, lit only by torches and fireplaces. The rooms were large and drafty because windows did not have glass in them.windows did not have glass in them. Warwick Castle, England
15. • Medieval castles were designed in response toMedieval castles were designed in response to the weaponry they had to withstand. Woodenthe weaponry they had to withstand. Wooden castles were easily destroyed by the burningcastles were easily destroyed by the burning missiles slung by siege weapons.missiles slung by siege weapons. • Castles began to be built with stone and theirCastles began to be built with stone and their walls were built higher and thicker—exposedwalls were built higher and thicker—exposed walls could be as thick as 33 feet.walls could be as thick as 33 feet. • Rectangular towers were rounded off to deflectRectangular towers were rounded off to deflect missiles.missiles. • As protection against battering rams, castle doorsAs protection against battering rams, castle doors were reinforced with one or more iron grilles andwere reinforced with one or more iron grilles and sometimes a second door.sometimes a second door.
16. Rectangular towers were rounded off to deflect missiles. As protection against battering rams, castle doors were reinforced with one or more iron grilles and sometimes a second door.
17. Christian beliefsChristian beliefs Christian Beliefs • Manorialism, feudalism encouraged local loyalties • Christian beliefs brought people across Europe together in spiritual community of Christendom – Creation of a “churchly kingdom” • Religion touched almost every aspect of Christians’ lives
18. Why was medievalWhy was medieval clergy influential?clergy influential? Religious CeremonyReligious Ceremony • Major life events marked byMajor life events marked by religious ceremoniesreligious ceremonies • Monks acted as peacemakers,Monks acted as peacemakers, prayed for safety of rulers, armiesprayed for safety of rulers, armies • Church officials served as teachers,Church officials served as teachers, record keepersrecord keepers • Church leaders, or clergy,Church leaders, or clergy, usually the only ones educatedusually the only ones educated and literate during this timeand literate during this time • Clergy peopleClergy people’’s main connections main connection to church, had great influenceto church, had great influence Christian church had strong influence over daily lives of most Europeans; clergy were the people's link to the church
19. Why was medievalWhy was medieval clergy influential?clergy influential? Growth of the ChurchGrowth of the Church • Around 1000, influence ofAround 1000, influence of church increased dramaticallychurch increased dramatically • Great upwelling ofGreat upwelling of pietypiety, level, level of devotion, in Europeof devotion, in Europe • Members of Christian churchMembers of Christian church became more devoutbecame more devout (religious)(religious) • Participation in religiousParticipation in religious services increasedservices increased, thousands, thousands flocked to monasteries, joinedflocked to monasteries, joined religious ordersreligious orders
20. The Pope in the Middle AgesThe Pope in the Middle Ages Popes as Political FiguresPopes as Political Figures • Pope is head of Roman CatholicPope is head of Roman Catholic Church and spiritual leaderChurch and spiritual leader • During Middle Ages, they becameDuring Middle Ages, they became powerful political figurespowerful political figures • Gregory I (590) moves power ofGregory I (590) moves power of pope intopope into secularsecular (everyday) world(everyday) world —used Church money to build—used Church money to build roads, help poor, raise armiesroads, help poor, raise armies • Negotiates peace treaties withNegotiates peace treaties with invaders like the Lombardsinvaders like the Lombards
21. Growth of the PopeGrowth of the Pope’’s Powers Power • 900s-1000s, pope had little900s-1000s, pope had little authorityauthority • Considered head ofConsidered head of church, but local bishopschurch, but local bishops made most importantmade most important religious decisionsreligious decisions • Papacy not held in highPapacy not held in high regardregard • Few popes noted forFew popes noted for religious devotion; mostreligious devotion; most were nobles concernedwere nobles concerned with increasing own powerwith increasing own power • 1049, first of series of1049, first of series of clever, capable popesclever, capable popes dedicated todedicated to reformingreforming papacy came to power,papacy came to power, Leo IXLeo IX • Believed that EuropeBelieved that Europe’’ss clergy had becomeclergy had become corrupt, wanted to reformcorrupt, wanted to reform itit • Concerned withConcerned with simonysimony,, buying and selling ofbuying and selling of church offices by bishopschurch offices by bishops Not only were Europe’s common people inspired by a new sense of piety, many clergy members sought ways to improve
22. Power and ConflictPower and Conflict • Bishops guilty of bad offensesBishops guilty of bad offenses excommunicatedexcommunicated, cast out of church, cast out of church • No greater punishment for ChristiansNo greater punishment for Christians in Middle Ages—it meant they couldin Middle Ages—it meant they could not be savednot be saved • Leo became more active in governingLeo became more active in governing church than other popes in pastchurch than other popes in past • conflict with political, religious leadersconflict with political, religious leaders • Many bishops believed pope had noMany bishops believed pope had no authority to tell them how to actauthority to tell them how to act • One who rejected LeoOne who rejected Leo’’ss authority, bishop ofauthority, bishop of ConstantinopleConstantinople • 1054, Leo excommunicated1054, Leo excommunicated bishop, split Christian Church inbishop, split Christian Church in two (two (schismschism)) • Those who agreed Leo calledThose who agreed Leo called Roman Catholics (WEST)Roman Catholics (WEST) • Those who sided with bishop,Those who sided with bishop, Eastern Orthodox (EAST—Eastern Orthodox (EAST— Byzantine)Byzantine)
23. In what ways did popes becomeIn what ways did popes become stronger in the Middle Ages?stronger in the Middle Ages? • Pope became head of hugePope became head of huge network of ecclesiastical courts,network of ecclesiastical courts, heard cases on religious, moralheard cases on religious, moral mattersmatters • Pope also ruled territories, likePope also ruled territories, like Papal StatesPapal States • Had ability to raise armies toHad ability to raise armies to defend territoriesdefend territories • Several popes hired Normans toSeveral popes hired Normans to fight warsfight wars • Crusades against MuslimsCrusades against Muslims launched by popeslaunched by popes • TheThe Investiture ControversyInvestiture Controversy between Pope Gregory VII andbetween Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV of Germany (HolyHenry IV of Germany (Holy Roman Empire)Roman Empire) • eliminated corrupt clergy,eliminated corrupt clergy, appointed bishops, becameappointed bishops, became political leaders, built armies,political leaders, built armies, ruled territoryruled territory
24. The Catholic ChurchThe Catholic Church Expands Its PowerExpands Its Power • The Church becomesThe Church becomes more of a politicalmore of a political entityentity • Struggles withStruggles with monarchsmonarchs • Gregory VII andGregory VII and Henry IVHenry IV • Expanded landExpanded land ownershipownership Henry IV of Germany Pope Gregory VII
25. The Church ExpandsThe Church Expands continuedcontinued • As the Catholic Church grew in popularity and worshippers, Popes worked toAs the Catholic Church grew in popularity and worshippers, Popes worked to increase the Churchincrease the Church’’s power as a political entity.s power as a political entity. • In 1075, a controversy erupted when Pope Gregory VII insisted that the Church, notIn 1075, a controversy erupted when Pope Gregory VII insisted that the Church, not the kings, should control appointment of archbishops, bishops, and other clergy.the kings, should control appointment of archbishops, bishops, and other clergy. • Henry IV of Germany disagreedHenry IV of Germany disagreed and, after the two men exchanged bitter letters, theand, after the two men exchanged bitter letters, the pope excommunicated him.pope excommunicated him. • The pope also threatened to excommunicate any German clergyThe pope also threatened to excommunicate any German clergy who did not obeywho did not obey him. Because much of Henryhim. Because much of Henry’’s army came from lands administered by the Church,s army came from lands administered by the Church, he was vulnerable to attack from powerful nobles.he was vulnerable to attack from powerful nobles. • Henry went to Italy to seek papal forgiveness, while at the same time, the popeHenry went to Italy to seek papal forgiveness, while at the same time, the pope started a journey to Germany to install a new king. They met at a castle in Canossa,started a journey to Germany to install a new king. They met at a castle in Canossa, Italy, where Henry stood in the snow for three days before Gregory forgave him.Italy, where Henry stood in the snow for three days before Gregory forgave him. Though this episode resulted inThough this episode resulted in a dramatic collapse of royal power,a dramatic collapse of royal power, the pope wasthe pope was unable to control other European monarchs in the same manner. Theunable to control other European monarchs in the same manner. The rivalryrivalry between Church and statebetween Church and state continued for centuries; however, there was no questioncontinued for centuries; however, there was no question that Europe was united in the Christian faith.that Europe was united in the Christian faith.
26. The Monastic MovementThe Monastic Movement • A Christian movement called monasticism, whichA Christian movement called monasticism, which had begun in the 3rd century, became more popularhad begun in the 3rd century, became more popular in the 5th century.in the 5th century. • Arose as a reaction against the increasingArose as a reaction against the increasing ““worldlinessworldliness”” of the Churchof the Church • Monasteries: secluded religious communitiesMonasteries: secluded religious communities • Men in these communities were called monks andMen in these communities were called monks and women were known as nuns. They lived simplewomen were known as nuns. They lived simple lives, often in basic communal dwellings.lives, often in basic communal dwellings. • The most prevalent model of the time wasThe most prevalent model of the time was BenedictineBenedictine monasticism, modeled after the life ofmonasticism, modeled after the life of Saint Benedict of Nursia (480Saint Benedict of Nursia (480––543).543). • involved taking three vows: chastity, poverty, andinvolved taking three vows: chastity, poverty, and obedience.obedience. • Most monks lived highly structured lives and engagedMost monks lived highly structured lives and engaged in activities such as producing copies of classicalin activities such as producing copies of classical works (which they did by writing out the completeworks (which they did by writing out the complete work by hand), reading, studying, and manual laborwork by hand), reading, studying, and manual labor —especially farming, which would often serve as the—especially farming, which would often serve as the main source of economic support for a monasterymain source of economic support for a monastery.. St. Benedict
27. Medieval ChurchMedieval Church • TheThe decline of Rome led the church to assume many political anddecline of Rome led the church to assume many political and social taskssocial tasks • Bishop of Rome, now the Pope, became the strongest political leader inBishop of Rome, now the Pope, became the strongest political leader in W. Europe.W. Europe. • The Pope claimed spiritual authority over all ChristiansThe Pope claimed spiritual authority over all Christians • After the fall of Rome…the church takes on the central authorityAfter the fall of Rome…the church takes on the central authority • Church taught all were sinnersChurch taught all were sinners • Only way to receive grace was throughOnly way to receive grace was through sacramentssacraments • Most people did not understand ritualsMost people did not understand rituals • Priest spoke in Latin and most could not read or writePriest spoke in Latin and most could not read or write • Much was learned from statues, paintings and stained glass windows thatMuch was learned from statues, paintings and stained glass windows that adorned most churchesadorned most churches
28. Church OrganizationChurch Organization • Same as early Christian ChurchSame as early Christian Church • Remember the hierarchy?Remember the hierarchy? • Secular ClergySecular Clergy • PopePope • BishopBishop • PriestsPriests • Regular Clergy- included Monks and Nuns that livedRegular Clergy- included Monks and Nuns that lived away from the rest of societyaway from the rest of society
29. BenedictBenedict’’s Rules Rule • Founded a monastery at Monte CassinoFounded a monastery at Monte Cassino • Became a model for monks in other communitiesBecame a model for monks in other communities • Rules for work, meditation and prayerRules for work, meditation and prayer • Monastic Rule:Monastic Rule: • Monks dressed simply (robes)Monks dressed simply (robes) • Rule of silenceRule of silence • Women- known as NunsWomen- known as Nuns • Influences in Monastics:Influences in Monastics: • Provided school for youngProvided school for young • Hospitals for sickHospitals for sick • Food for needyFood for needy • Some became missionariesSome became missionaries • Missionary Efforts:Missionary Efforts: • Pope Gregory I adopted the Benedictine Rule to spread Christianity to all of EuropePope Gregory I adopted the Benedictine Rule to spread Christianity to all of Europe • Mid 1000s AD- Most western Europeans had become CatholicMid 1000s AD- Most western Europeans had become Catholic
30. Power of ChurchPower of Church • Many Bishops and Abbots were nobles who received landMany Bishops and Abbots were nobles who received land • Local lords began to control many church offices and lands-Local lords began to control many church offices and lands- contrary to church tradition- appointing leaderscontrary to church tradition- appointing leaders • Signs of corruptionSigns of corruption Church Reforms:Church Reforms: • Many devout Christians called for reforms –began in monasteriesMany devout Christians called for reforms –began in monasteries • Goal of reforms = Free Church from control of feudal lordsGoal of reforms = Free Church from control of feudal lords • Pope would be chosen by cardinalsPope would be chosen by cardinals • Pope would appoint bishops and other officialsPope would appoint bishops and other officials
31. Fighting HeresyFighting Heresy • Pope Innocent III- condemned drunkenness, feasting, and dancingPope Innocent III- condemned drunkenness, feasting, and dancing among clergyamong clergy • Stop spread of heresy (denial of basic church teachings)Stop spread of heresy (denial of basic church teachings) • Convert first/ crush laterConvert first/ crush later The InquisitionThe Inquisition • Court set up to seek out and punish hereticsCourt set up to seek out and punish heretics • Many accused without proofMany accused without proof • Punishments- prison or deathPunishments- prison or death End of European MonasteryEnd of European Monastery After decline of Rome…no central authority existed until theAfter decline of Rome…no central authority existed until the 1100ADs when many European monarchs began building1100ADs when many European monarchs began building strong statesstrong states
32. EnglandEngland • Alfred the Great united the Anglo-Saxons kingdomsAlfred the Great united the Anglo-Saxons kingdoms • United kingdom=EnglandUnited kingdom=England • William the Conqueror won the throneWilliam the Conqueror won the throne • Began to strengthen powers of monarchyBegan to strengthen powers of monarchy • Magna CartaMagna Carta (Thomas Becket)(Thomas Becket) • Placed clearPlaced clear limitslimits of royal powerof royal power • *Government becoming increasingly representative*Government becoming increasingly representative • Holy Roman EmpireHoly Roman Empire • GermanyGermany’’s central government remained weaks central government remained weak • Pope and monarchs struggle for power and territory for yearsPope and monarchs struggle for power and territory for years
33. • The best known Medieval King wasThe best known Medieval King was Charlemagne,Charlemagne, who ruled over a large empire inwho ruled over a large empire in what is now France, Germany and parts of Italy.what is now France, Germany and parts of Italy. • Charlemagne encouraged learning and set upCharlemagne encouraged learning and set up schools.schools. • He also rescued the Pope from RomanHe also rescued the Pope from Roman attackers, thereby spreading his empire andattackers, thereby spreading his empire and Christianity.Christianity. Charlemagne’s capital, Aachen, in Germany.
34. • Feudalism and the manor system created divisions among people. Shared beliefs in the teachings of the Church bonded people together. – Priests and other religious officials administered the sacraments, or important religious ceremonies. – Kings and peasants were subject to canon law, or the law of the Church, in matters such as marriage and religious practices. A crown from the Holy Roman Empire.
35. A crown from the Holy Roman Empire. • After the death of Charlemagne, the Holy Roman Empire was the strongest kingdom that arose from the ruins of his empire. – When Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor in 800, he unknowingly set the stage for future conflicts between popes and emperors. – Otto I, a German leader, allies with the church and creates the Holy Romany Empire.
36. Otto I
37. Formation of Western Europe 800 to 1500 AD
38. Beginnings of the CrusadesBeginnings of the Crusades • Muslim Seljuk Turks conqueredMuslim Seljuk Turks conquered nearly all Byzantine provinces in Asianearly all Byzantine provinces in Asia Minor.Minor. • In 1071, Jerusalem was conquered byIn 1071, Jerusalem was conquered by the Seljuk Turks.the Seljuk Turks. • In 1093,In 1093, Byzantine emperor Alexius IByzantine emperor Alexius I wrote a letter to Pope Urban IIwrote a letter to Pope Urban II asking him and western Europe toasking him and western Europe to join his war against the Muslimjoin his war against the Muslim Turks, so that the Holy Land couldTurks, so that the Holy Land could be controlled by Christians oncebe controlled by Christians once again.again.
39. Pope Urban IIPope Urban II • 1095: Pope Urban II1095: Pope Urban II’’s speechs speech • Promised spiritual rewardsPromised spiritual rewards • Thousands responded to the call for religiousThousands responded to the call for religious warriorswarriors • Pope Urban II (1042Pope Urban II (1042––1099) sparked the1099) sparked the First Crusade by making a dramaticFirst Crusade by making a dramatic plea to a crowd in France in 1095 forplea to a crowd in France in 1095 for warriors to organize and travel to thewarriors to organize and travel to the Middle East to liberate the Holy LandsMiddle East to liberate the Holy Lands from the Muslims.from the Muslims. • The Pope promised spiritual rewardsThe Pope promised spiritual rewards for the fighters, including forgivenessfor the fighters, including forgiveness of their sins in exchange for theirof their sins in exchange for their service. The speech was so effectiveservice. The speech was so effective that thousands of soldiers marchedthat thousands of soldiers marched East the next year to retake the HolyEast the next year to retake the Holy Lands.Lands. Pope Urban II calling for the Crusades
40. Beginnings of the CrusadesBeginnings of the Crusades • The letter to the pope begged forThe letter to the pope begged for help, so that the Holy Sepulcher,help, so that the Holy Sepulcher, ChristChrist’’s tomb in Jerusalem, woulds tomb in Jerusalem, would not be destroyed.not be destroyed. • At the Council of Clermont, Pope UrbanAt the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II declared a holy war in the East and theII declared a holy war in the East and the Truce of God in the West.Truce of God in the West. • The pope called for this crusade, or holyThe pope called for this crusade, or holy war, to help the Byzantine Empire, towar, to help the Byzantine Empire, to assert his own leadership in the West, andassert his own leadership in the West, and to get the Christians in western Europe toto get the Christians in western Europe to stop fighting each other.stop fighting each other.
41. Beginnings of the CrusadesBeginnings of the Crusades • Pope Urban II called for thePope Urban II called for the crusades in a famous speech.crusades in a famous speech. • In this speech, he referred to theIn this speech, he referred to the Muslims asMuslims as ““wickedwicked”” and promisedand promised forgiveness of sins and heaven toforgiveness of sins and heaven to anyone who fought against them.anyone who fought against them.
42. The CrusadesThe Crusades • The First Crusade consisted mostly ofThe First Crusade consisted mostly of poor people, including serfs, whopoor people, including serfs, who lacked supplies, equipment, weapons,lacked supplies, equipment, weapons, and training.and training. • Many peasantsMany peasants joined the crusade tojoined the crusade to gain new lands and riches,gain new lands and riches, as there hadas there had been many crop failures. Serfs wanted tobeen many crop failures. Serfs wanted to escape feudalism.escape feudalism. • Even criminals and debtors joined theEven criminals and debtors joined the crusade in order to escape punishments.crusade in order to escape punishments. • Many of the people in the First CrusadeMany of the people in the First Crusade died on the way to Constantinople due todied on the way to Constantinople due to a lack of food and clashes with othersa lack of food and clashes with others along the way.along the way.
43. The CrusadesThe Crusades • In 1099, crusaders conquered Jerusalem and forced JewsIn 1099, crusaders conquered Jerusalem and forced Jews and Muslims to convert to Christianity, leave the city, orand Muslims to convert to Christianity, leave the city, or die.die. • Fighting continued in the Holy Land between crusadersFighting continued in the Holy Land between crusaders and Muslims, who were fighting in the name of Allah.and Muslims, who were fighting in the name of Allah. • Led by Saladin, sultan of Egypt, the Muslims conqueredLed by Saladin, sultan of Egypt, the Muslims conquered Jerusalem and most of the Holy Land in 1187.Jerusalem and most of the Holy Land in 1187.
44. The CrusadesThe Crusades • TheThe King of England, Richard theKing of England, Richard the Lion-Hearted, led the Third CrusadeLion-Hearted, led the Third Crusade against Saladin.against Saladin. • Rather than fight,Rather than fight, theythey agreed to aagreed to a peace treaty.peace treaty. • Under the treaty, European pilgrims wouldUnder the treaty, European pilgrims would be allowed to safely visit the Holy Land,be allowed to safely visit the Holy Land, which would remain under the control ofwhich would remain under the control of the Muslims.the Muslims. • Many new trade routes opened between theMany new trade routes opened between the East and the West.East and the West.
45. The Crusades Continue…The Crusades Continue… • In the Fourth Crusade, crusaders attacked and plunderedIn the Fourth Crusade, crusaders attacked and plundered Constantinople, the city they had originally come to protect!Constantinople, the city they had originally come to protect! • For the next 68 years, four more crusades were fought, butFor the next 68 years, four more crusades were fought, but the Holy Land remained under Muslim control.the Holy Land remained under Muslim control. • Crusaders had ruined much of the land through which they traveled, including many farms. • Many knights that returned home had lost their horses and money. • Many crusaders never made it home, leaving western Europe with many widows and fatherless children.
46. Results of theResults of the Crusades?Crusades? The result of the Crusades is hard to determine… -Land gained from the Crusades was later taken back. -Europe lost many men in the Crusades, but for what? -Did they win anything? Trade relations New technology Borrow culture
47. England Develops • By the early 800s, there were many smallBy the early 800s, there were many small Anglo-Saxon kingdoms throughout theAnglo-Saxon kingdoms throughout the former Roman province Britain.former Roman province Britain. • For centuries, invaders from variousFor centuries, invaders from various regions in Europe landed on Englishregions in Europe landed on English shores. Many of them stayed, bringingshores. Many of them stayed, bringing their own ways and changing Englishtheir own ways and changing English culture.culture. • 800800’’s -- Danish Vikings invaded. It wasns -- Danish Vikings invaded. It wasn’’t untilt until Alfred the GreatAlfred the Great, king from 871-899, managed, king from 871-899, managed to turn back the Vikings.to turn back the Vikings. • Alfred united the kingdoms of Britain under oneAlfred united the kingdoms of Britain under one rule, calling it England (rule, calling it England (““Land of the AnglesLand of the Angles””).).
48. The InquisitionThe Inquisition • New orders: Franciscans and DominicansNew orders: Franciscans and Dominicans • TheThe InquisitionInquisition: special court established by: special court established by the Church to combat heresythe Church to combat heresy • Members depended on charity to supportMembers depended on charity to support them so that they could devote all their timethem so that they could devote all their time to preaching and aiding the poor andto preaching and aiding the poor and downtrodden.downtrodden. • The orders were also a response to theThe orders were also a response to the growing number ofgrowing number of hereticsheretics who werewho were interested in ideas contrary to Churchinterested in ideas contrary to Church doctrine.doctrine. • They hoped that providing examples ofThey hoped that providing examples of religious men and women leadingreligious men and women leading ““godlygodly”” liveslives in service to the community would draw peoplein service to the community would draw people back to the Church.back to the Church. • Accused hereticsAccused heretics were brought before thewere brought before the Inquisition and if they admitted error, theyInquisition and if they admitted error, they would be released after a penance waswould be released after a penance was administered.administered. • If they were slow, or uncooperative, theyIf they were slow, or uncooperative, they would be tortured. A convicted heretic waswould be tortured. A convicted heretic was burned at the stake.burned at the stake. A suspected heretic being tortured by the Inquisition
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