Module 8- Section 2-narrated

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Information about Module 8- Section 2-narrated

Published on March 13, 2014

Author: pmgreenwald1


Module 8- Section 2: Module 8- Section 2 Addressing on a Network The OSI Model: The OSI (open system interconnect) model is the basic reference model for how the pieces of a network fit together. The A+ certification exam does not require the understanding of all seven layers of the OSI model, but breaks a network down into three levels as discussed on the following slide. The OSI Model Addressing on a Network: When a computer communicates over a network, the communication takes place at three levels: The application level (such as email) The operating system level (acts as an interface to the application) The hardware level (packages the data and sends it- or receives it- over a cable or the airwaves) 3 Addressing on a Network PowerPoint Presentation: At each of these levels, a particular identifier is used: MAC Address (identifies the PC at the hardware level) IP Address (identifies the PC at the operating system level) Port Address (identifies the application level) 4 Fig 15-2 : 5 Fig 15-2 PowerPoint Presentation: The MAC address is used to identify the computer on a local area network at the hardware level. The operating system uses a particular protocol which is bound to the NIC card during installation. 6 PowerPoint Presentation: The protocol that is installed by default with Win XP, Vista, and Windows 7 is TCP/IP. TCP/IP has become the standard network protocol because (almost) all networks connect to the Internet. 7 PowerPoint Presentation: The group of communication protocols used at the operating system level is called TCP/IP which stands for Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol. The IP address is used to identify a computer (or a resource such as a printer) on the network at the operating system level AND over the Internet. 8 PowerPoint Presentation: An IP address must be unique on a network. The IP address either assigned to the PC manually (a static IP address which is “permanent”) or it is assigned when the PC is logged on to a network. How IP addresses are assigned will be discussed later. MAC Addresses and IP Addresses (Fig 15-4): MAC Addresses and IP Addresses (Fig 15-4) 10 PowerPoint Presentation: When communicating over the Internet, your PC uses an application known as a browser which acts as an Internet Client . A browser such as Firefox or Internet Explorer is an example of an Internet Client . An email application such as Outlook is also an example of an Internet Client . 11 PowerPoint Presentation: The application that the PC is communicating with “out there” on the Internet is called a “server.” The PC communicates using its IP address. The client and server are matched to the application using the “port address”. 12 PowerPoint Presentation: 13 Table 15-5 Common TCP/IP port assignments for client/server applications Fig 15-5: 14 Fig 15-5 Figure 15-6: Figure 15-6 More About the IP Address: IP Address (IPv4) : a 32-bit address consisting of four 8-bit numbers separated by periods (dotted decimal notation). It identifies a device on a TCP/IP network. EX: 16 More About the IP Address PowerPoint Presentation: Each device on the network must have a unique IP address. All IPv4 addresses are 32 bits long and are broken up into 4 segments of 8 bits each. 17 PowerPoint Presentation: Each segment is called an “octet.” The IP address reflects the decimal value of the octet. Example: Each octet can be converted to binary: 10000000.00000000.00001000.00001001 18 PowerPoint Presentation: The largest decimal number for an octet is 255. Allowing for 2 32 unique combinations of 1’s and 0’s, there can be about 4.3 billion IP addresses. Not all are available for use. 19 PowerPoint Presentation: IP Addresses are divided into classes which reflect the size of the network. Class A: large networks; starts with 1 - 126 Class B: medium sized networks; starts with 128 - 191 Class C: small networks; starts with 192 – 223 You should memorize the addresses associated with each class of network. 20 Classes of IP Addresses (Table 15-1): Classes of IP Addresses (Table 15-1) 21 Reserved IP Addresses: Reserved IP Addresses 22 PowerPoint Presentation: The IP address has two parts: Network portion Host The Network portion is the upper bits of the IP address and is used to identify a network . 23 PowerPoint Presentation: The Host portion identifies a particular PC or resource. A subnet mask distinguishes which part of the IP address is the network portion and which is the host portion. 24 PowerPoint Presentation: Default subnet masks for the three classes of IP Addresses: Class A: Class B: Class C: The 255 in a subnet mask is a “cover” that covers the network portion of the subnet mask. 25 PowerPoint Presentation: The subnet mask of a Class A network “covers” the first octet. The subnet mask of a Class B network “covers” the first two octets. The subnet mask of a Class C network “covers” the first three octets. 26 IP Addresses (Figure 15-7): IP Addresses (Figure 15-7) 27 PowerPoint Presentation: The number of bits left uncovered by the subnet mask determines how many IP addresses are available for the network. Class C has the least number of IP addresses available- 254. All PCs on the same network have the same network portion. Thus, the digits covered by the subnet mask are the same. 28 PowerPoint Presentation: The host portion must be different for each device on the network. Example: two PCs on a network have IP addresses: and The network portion is 195.0.0 for both (it is required that they be the same). Since the network portion begins with 195, it is a class C network. PowerPoint Presentation: One computer is identified with the host portion 2 and the other is identified with the host portion 3. What is the subnet mask for this example? PowerPoint Presentation: Recall that the subnet mask “covers” the network portion. Since the network portion was 195.0.0 the subnet mask must be No computer or device (such as a camera or a printer) can have the same IP address. So if the example network had two more devices, their IP addresses might be and IPv6: IPv6 The world is running out of IP addresses. A new scheme to provide IP addresses has been designed. It is called IPv6. 32 PowerPoint Presentation: IPv6 uses 128 bits of addressing (as opposed to 32 for IPv4) allowing for close to 3.4 x 10 38 addresses. Ipv6 uses a colon as a separator (instead of a dot) and each group is a hexadecimal number called a field or a hextet. 33 PowerPoint Presentation: A complete IPv6 address has eight groups of four hexadecimal characters. So each IPv6 address has eight hextets. If a hextet consists of four zeros, the zeros can be replaced by a double colon: 2001:0000:B80: (which is the first 3 hextets) 2001::B80 replacing the 0000 Also note that repeating zeros (such in B800) can be simplified to B80 AND only one block of zeros within an IPv6 address can be replaced with the double colon. 34 PowerPoint Presentation: The last 4 blocks (which would be 64 bits) of an IPv6 address are called the interface ID and are used to identify the “interface” on the network. The interface is where a node attaches to the network (that could be the wireless access point or the NIC where the cable is attached). PowerPoint Presentation: IPv6 classifies IP addresses as: Unicast address: (uni is one, cast can be related to broadcast): for a unicast address, packets reach one node on the network. Multicast address: for a multicast address, packets are delivered to all nodes on a network Anycast address: used by routers. PowerPoint Presentation: A NIC would have a unicast address because it represents a single interface on the network. One NIC can have up to three unicast addresses and needs at least two. PowerPoint Presentation: When a PC boots, it gives itself the first address which is the link-local address which is the IPv6 version of an APIPA. The link-local address is for communicating with other PCs on a private network (not on the Internet). PowerPoint Presentation: The second unicast address is the global (unicast) address . This allows the PC to use the Internet. This would be provided by the router or a device functioning as a DHCP server. The third unicast address is called a unique local address (ULA) which identifies a specific site within a large organization that users must logon to. The site is not accessible by outsiders. 39 PowerPoint Presentation: In an IPv4 address a subnet mask was used to identify the network and host portion of the address. From the subnet mask, the class of the network can be determined. For IPv6, the Subnet ID is the left most block of the address which is 64-bits (or 16 hexidecimal characters) of the address. This block is called the prefix . The class of the IPv6 address is identified by which bits in the prefix are fixed . PowerPoint Presentation: Table 15-4 fixed “prefixes” in each type of address: Global Unicast: 2 000::/3 first three bits are always fixed- as 001 this means that the first four bits of the first hextet can be 001 0 or 001 1 Link-local unicast: FE8 0::/64 (the first 64 bits are always fixed- this means that the first hextet is always FE80 and the next three hextets are always 0000) PowerPoint Presentation: Unique Local Unicast: FC 00::/7 and FD 00::/8 For FC00:: the first seven bits are always 1111 110 For FD00:: the first eight bits are always 1111 1101 Multicast: FF 00::/8 with the first eight bits being 1111 1111. PowerPoint Presentation: A+ Guide to Managing & Maintaining Your PC, 8th Edition 43 Figure 15-10 Three types of IPv6 unicast addresses PowerPoint Presentation: The last 64 bits (which is four hextets) of the IPv6 are for the interface ID. In addition to the 64-bit interface ID, the IPv6 address is followed by a % sign and a number. The number identifies a specific interface (or device) on a particular local network OR it could refer to a tunneling protocol. View IP Address Settings: View IP Address Settings Use the ipconfig command in a command prompt window to show the IPv4 and IPv6 addresses assigned to all network connections IPv6 addresses are followed by a % sign and a number The number is called the zone ID or scope ID and is used to identify the interface in a list of interfaces for a local network OR a tunneling protocol. Refer to Figure 15-11 on the next slide A+ Guide to Managing & Maintaining Your PC, 8th Edition 45 PowerPoint Presentation: A+ Guide to Managing & Maintaining Your PC, 8th Edition 46 Figure 15-11 The ipconfig command showing IPv4 and IPv6 addresses assigned to this computer PowerPoint Presentation: So that IPv4 and IPv6 can exist on the same network because “tunneling” protocols” have been established so that IPv6 packets can travel over an IPv4 network. How IPv6 IP Addresses Are Used: How IPv6 IP Addresses Are Used These tunneling protocols are used for IPv6 packets to travel over an IPv4 network: ISATAP (Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol) Teredo – addresses intended to be used by this protocol always begin with the same 32-bit prefix (called fixed bits) which is 2001 6TO4 – older protocol being replaced by Teredo or ISATAP A+ Guide to Managing & Maintaining Your PC, 8th Edition 48 PowerPoint Presentation: In the next section of this module, we will look at how IP address are assigned on the network. This is the end of the second section of Module 8. 49

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