module 8- Section 1- narrated

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Information about module 8- Section 1- narrated

Published on March 13, 2014

Author: pmgreenwald1


Module 8- Connecting to and Setting up a Network: Module 8- Connecting to and Setting up a Network In this module we will cover the network hardware required to set up a peer-to-peer network. We will also cover IP addressing and accessing the Internet. 1 The Peer-to-Peer Network: The Peer-to-Peer Network We will start with the wired network. A network requires hardware such as NICs and a switch or a hub to send and receive information. A network also requires a software protocol which determines how devices on the network communicate. 2 PowerPoint Presentation: Almost all Ethernet networks today use the TCP/IP protocol and TCP/IP is installed by default when a NIC is installed. Older protocols include NetBEUI (a Microsoft protocol for a small network) and IPX/SPX (a protocol used on Novell networks). 3 PowerPoint Presentation: To view the protocol that is installed, go to the Network and Sharing Center (right-click the network icon in the system tray, then click Open Network and Sharing Center). When the Network and Sharing Center opens, select Change Adapter Settings from the left panel. Then double-click the Local Area connection icon. From the Local Area Connection status box, click Properties. 4 Network and Sharing Center: Network and Sharing Center 5 Local Area Connection and Status: Local Area Connection and Status 6 Local Area Connection Properties: Local Area Connection Properties 7 PowerPoint Presentation: The NIC located within the PC is where the information to be out on the network is sent first. The NIC prepares the packet and sends it out on the cable. The packet is destined for one of the PCs on the network. The hub or switch connects PC on an Ethernet network using the star topology. 8 PowerPoint Presentation: A hub will broadcast the address that the packet is going to – meaning that all of the PCs connected to the hub “hear” the broadcast. A switch passes the packet on to the PC it was intended for. 9 PowerPoint Presentation: Using switches instead of hubs will improve network performance. A hub is simply a pass-through device. A switch directs a packet directly to its destination without broadcasting. The cost differential makes switches a better investment than hubs. 10 Switches: Switches Switches can also be used to connect segments of a LAN together. Segments are used to break a LAN up into groups of people who are likely to communicate with each other most of the time. A large network should be separated into segments to reduce the overall traffic and improve network performance. 11 PowerPoint Presentation: Switches can be used to connect segments of a LAN provided that all segments of the LAN use the same software protocol. When switches are used in this manner, the topology is a star-bus. 12 Bridges: Bridges A bridge is a device used to connect segments of a network. The main difference between a switch and bridge is that bridges connect two network segments and switches can connect up to four network segments. Bridges may be used to connect networks of different speeds or used in an older network to connect networks using protocols. 13 PowerPoint Presentation: Router: a router is similar to a switch except that it connects different networks (as opposed to segments of the same network as a switch does). A router connects a LAN to the Internet, for example. 14 The switch connects the local network, the router connects the local network to the Internet.: The switch connects the local network, the router connects the local network to the Internet. 15 PowerPoint Presentation: A Router can perform several functions: It stands between the ISP network (cable modem) and the local network routing traffic between the two networks. It can act as a switch or a bridge It provides IP addresses dynamically. It may be able to serve as a wireless access point for a wireless network if it is designed to do so. Acts as a hardware firewall. 16 Network requirements for a SOHO: Network requirements for a SOHO Installing a Small Network: Each PC needs a NIC Appropriate cable (matching the speed of the network) Switch (unless the router acts as a switch and has enough ports) Wall jacks (possibly) Router (may also act as a switch) Cable Modem It is always important to route cables to avoid trip hazards . 17 Hardware setup- small network: Hardware setup- small network 18 Connection problems on a LAN: Connection problems on a LAN Connection Problems : Most connection problems can be traced to bad cables or to faulty NIC cards Improper termination on a bus network can also lead to reduced bandwidth (capacity to carry signal). NIC cards have small LEDs that blink in reaction to network activity- look for this light to help indicate connectivity. 19 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN): Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) A. Uses radio waves or infrared light to transmit data Requires a NIC that is setup for wireless and that has an antenna to receive the signals Wireless networks cover a limited geographical area. 20 PowerPoint Presentation: Wireless provides a convenient means for establishing networks where cables are difficult to install. PCs (or laptops) using a wireless connection can connect to a cabled LAN using an access point- many routers function as a WAP ( wireless access point ). 21 Wired and Wireless Network: Wired and Wireless Network 22 PowerPoint Presentation: Wireless technology is typically one of these varieties: IEEE-802.11 wireless Ethernet standard the Bluetooth standard The IrDA (infrared data association) protocol Cellular phone network 23 Wireless Networking Standards: Wireless Networking Standards Wireless Ethernet LAN Specifications is commonly referred to as Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity): IEEE-802.11 (released circa 1990) is the base standard It set the broadcast and receive frequencies of 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz All versions of 802.11 use one or both of these bands 24 PowerPoint Presentation: The wireless Ethernet scheme uses CSMA/CA which stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance. Unlike CSMA/CD, the CSMA/CA technique uses the RTS/CTS (request to send/clear to send) protocol so that collisions are avoided. This is because activity over the airwaves is more difficult to detect than over a wire. 25 Versions of 802.11: Versions of 802.11 802.11a : Maximum Throughput: 54 Mbps Maximum Range: 150 feet (50 m) Frequency: 5 GHz 802.11b : This standard was released before 802.11a Max data throughput: 11 Mbps Max Range: 300 ft (100 m) Frequency: 2.4 GHz (also used by other electronic devices such as cordless phones and microwaves) 26 PowerPoint Presentation: 802.11g : (2003) Max. data throughput 54 Mbps Max Range: 300 ft Frequency: 2.4 GHz Backward compatible with 802.11b 27 802.11n: 802.11n Improved antenna design uses a MIMO (multiple in/multiple out) feature that enables the device to make multiple connections thus increasing data throughput and reducing dead spots. Can use up to four antennas and requires two for most devices Max data throughput: 500 Mbps depending on configuration but at least 100 Mbps Frequency 2.4 GHz but advanced versions also use 5.0 GHz Range: indoor up to 70 m and outdoor up to 250 m 28 PowerPoint Presentation: Note that our textbook specifies a different indoor and outdoor range for 802.11n but not for other standards. The range of all standards are difficult to pin down as the conditions will be different for each set up. Walls will limit the range of wireless. The construction of the wall is important too. Interference can occur from objects as well as other transmitting devices- so the range and speed specifications of wireless networks are for ideal circumstances. 29 PowerPoint Presentation: Most Wi-Fi equipment complies with several Wi-Fi standards. This is for backward compatibility. Many wireless devices are specified as 802.11 a/b/g/n which means that they are compatible with all 802.11 standards. 30 Other Wireless Standards: Other Wireless Standards Long-range standard : Wi Max (the technology standard for long-range wireless networking) WiMax stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access Based on the standard of 802.16d and 802.16e WiMax can extend for upwards of 30 miles and is often used as an extension (the last mile) of copper networks into remote places 31 PowerPoint Presentation: WiMax is important in cellular network technologies and is rivaled by 4G LTE The G stands for Generation and the LTE stands for Long Term Evolution. WiMax is striving for a maximum throughput of 40 Mbps and a range of about 30 miles. 32 PowerPoint Presentation: Bluetooth : standard for short range 10 m (30 ft) wireless (2.5 mW – mid power range) uses 2.54 GHz range 723 Kbps to 1 Mbps transmission rate Useful for PANs Connects peripherals such as keyboard, mouse, printer, wireless headsets Connects two PDAs for file transfer 33 PowerPoint Presentation: Bluetooth is used for a small wireless network that is configured for a PAN (person area network) which is used to connect peripherals such as a keyboard, mouse, or headset. Bluetooth devices are configured in one of three classes based on their power usage: Class 1 100 mW and range of 100 m Class 2 2.5 mW and range of 10 m Class 3 1mW and range of 1 m 34 PowerPoint Presentation:  Infrared : (used by Apple and Linux and for some devices such as a keyboard or mouse) Uses the IrDA protocol (Infrared Data Association) 4 Mbps transmission speed 1 m distance Transmits in Half-duplex Uses ad hoc mode only (devices connect directly to each other) Typically used for quick file transfers or printing 35 PowerPoint Presentation: Setting up a Wireless LAN: Each PC needs a wireless NIC WAP (access point or wireless access point)/ router Cable Modem Careful placement of the WAP to avoid obstruction and interference is important in the design of the wireless network. Security of the wireless network must be taken into account. 36 Wireless Network Modes: Wireless Network Modes Computers using Wi Fi can connect to each other directly using ad hoc mode OR They can connect to a LAN using an access point (AP) also known as a wireless access point (WAP). This is called infrastructure mode . 37 PowerPoint Presentation: Ad hoc Mode : Two or more wireless nodes communicating in ad hoc mode form an IBSS or independent basic service set. Ad hoc mode is suited for small, temporary groups such as at a business meeting. The NIC is setup for ad hoc mode and all PCs communicate with each other independently. 38 PowerPoint Presentation: Infrastructure Mode: A WAP is used to provide the IP addresses (functioning as a router) and acts as a switch (directing packets) as in a wired network. If a single WAP is used, the arrangement is called a BSS (base service set). If more than one WAP is used, the arrangement is called an EBSS (extended base service set). 39 PowerPoint Presentation: The SSID is the service set identifier. It is the name of the network. The SSID is setup on a Wireless Access Point by the network administrator through the WAPs software. The computers and other resources that communicate with the wireless access point must be configured with the SSID. 40 PowerPoint Presentation: To set up ad hoc mode, all NIC cards must be set to ad hoc mode, all devices must use the same SSID and all must use the same channel number. For infrastructure mode, all NIC cards must be set for infrastructure mode and must be set to the same SSID as the WAP. 41 PowerPoint Presentation: If a wireless network is public the wireless network interface within a device (such as a laptop) will display the networks that are available and when you choose the network the SSID is set automatically for that session. For private wireless networks, where the SSID is not broadcast, the SSID must be set manually. 42 Laptops are using Infrastructure Mode: Laptops are using Infrastructure Mode 43 Router/Access Point: Router/Access Point 44 PowerPoint Presentation: This section of Module 8 covers setting up the network devices. Wireless security will be covered later. This ends the first section of Module 8. 45

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