Module 20

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Published on November 23, 2007

Author: Pravez

Source: authorstream.com

Myers PSYCHOLOGY Seventh Edition in Modules:  Myers PSYCHOLOGY Seventh Edition in Modules Module 20 Classical Conditioning James A. McCubbin, Ph.D. Clemson University Worth Publishers Learning:  Learning Learning relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience Association:  Association We learn by association Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence Aristotle 2000 years ago John Locke and David Hume 200 years ago Associative Learning learning that two events occur together two stimuli a response and its consequences Association:  Association Learning to associate two events Event 1 Event 2 Sea snail associates splash with a tail shock Seal learns to expect a snack for its showy antics Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning:  Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning We learn to associate two stimuli Operant Conditioning:  Operant Conditioning We learn to associate a response and its consequence Classical Conditioning:  Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov 1849-1936 Russian physician/ neurophysiologist Nobel Prize in 1904 studied digestive secretions Pavlov’s Classic Experiment:  Pavlov’s Classic Experiment Before Conditioning During Conditioning After Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) Neutral stimulus (tone) No salivation UCR (salivation) Neutral stimulus (tone) UCS (food in mouth) UCR (salivation) CS (tone) CR (salivation) Classical Conditioning:  Classical Conditioning Pavlov’s device for recording salivation Classical Conditioning:  Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning organism comes to associate two stimuli a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus Behaviorism:  Behaviorism John B. Watson viewed psychology as objective science generally agreed-upon consensus today recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes not universally accepted by all schools of thought today Classical Conditioning:  Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and naturally--triggers a response Unconditioned Response (UCR) unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus salivation when food is in the mouth Classical Conditioning:  Classical Conditioning Conditioned Stimulus (CS) originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response Conditioned Response (CR) learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus Classical Conditioning:  Classical Conditioning Acquisition the initial stage in classical conditioning the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response Classical Conditioning:  Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning:  Classical Conditioning Extinction diminishing of a CR in classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS in operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced Slide17:  Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning:  Classical Conditioning Spontaneous Recovery reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR Generalization tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses Classical Conditioning:  Classical Conditioning Discrimination in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS Generalization:  Generalization Nausea Conditioning in Cancer Patients:  Nausea Conditioning in Cancer Patients Classical Conditioning:  Classical Conditioning

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