Published on March 9, 2014
N MOTIVATION HUMA MR ARNEL A. DIEGO MA. Ed. Social Sciences Cluster
In the grasslands, somewhere on the African continent, success can be defined in terms of life and death, Survival is a strong motivator. Here’s a short story …
When the light comes in the Eastern sky and you sense that the sun will soon steal the comfort and security of the night, the gazelle starts to stir. He knows that if, during this day, he does not run faster than the fastest cheetah, he may be caught and then he will be killed. Not far away, the cheetah stretches out this powerful muscles and thinks of the day ahead, He knows that if he does not run faster than the slowest gazelle, he will surely starve. The moral of this story …
It doesn’t matter whether you are a gazelle or a cheetah … …when the sun is up … … you had better be running.
GROUP ACTIVITY NO .1 Instruction: 1.The students will count off from 1 – 7 2.Those who have the same number form a group 3.Each group will be given 15 min. to do the task 4.Present it in class (1-3 min. only)
Problem situation • You and your group-mates are friends who share one ticket in a contest. You have won the grand prize – a round the world trip for one person, all expenses paid. The prize cannot be encashed. Neither can any of you afford to pay the share of the others, so that only one of you can take the tour. Decide what to do with the prize. You have 15 min. to come up with a decision or else the prizes will be forfeited.
What is MOTIVATION • Factors within and outside an organism that cause it to behave a certain way at a certain time. • An inner state (either a need or desire) that energizes & directs us and keeps us moving toward our goals – why we do – what we do
MOTIVATIONAL CYCLE MOTIVE GOAL INTRUMENTAL BEHAVIOR Huitt (2001)
OUTLINE: Theories of Motivation • Instinct—motives are innate • Drive—biological needs as motivation • Incentive—extrinsic things push or pull behavior • Arousal—people are motivated to maintain optimum level of arousal • Humanistic—hierarchy of needs
1. INSTINCT THEORY • Inherited tendencies to produce organized and unalterable responses to particular stimuli. • Inborn pattern of behavior that are biologically determined rather than learned
2. DRIVE THEORY • A motivation that pushes you to reach a goal. • Motivational tension induced to fulfill a need by need example: Food, water, sex
Drives as Tissue Needs • Goal is to reduce the tension and restore homeostasis HOMEOSTASIS - the constancy of internal conditions that the body must actively maintain or maintain a steady internal state. • Equilibrium – preserving tendency is needed for the body to survive and function • However, homeostasis cannot explain all drives
Energy Homeostasis Basic metabolic Rate (BMR)--the rate a body at rest uses for vital life functions or rate at which body burns calories just to stay alive • Positive energy balance--when caloric intake exceeds amount of caloric energy expended • Negative energy balance--when caloric intake falls short of amount of caloric energy expended
3. INCENTIVE THEORY • External goal that “pulls” or “pushes” behavior. • People are motivated to behave in ways that produce a valued incentive
4. Arousal Theory • People are motivated to maintain an optimum level of arousal—neither too high nor too low • Studies show that too little arousal and we get bored; too much arousal and we withdraw, in an effort to lower our levels of arousal
Sensation Seeking A person high in sensation seeking tends to look for exciting (and sometimes risky) activities
5. Humanistic Theories Abraham Maslow suggested that motives are divided into several levels from basic survival needs to psychological and self-fulfillment needs.
• Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Self-actualization Cognitive & Aesthetic needs Esteem Belongingness & Love Safety & Security Physiological
Examples of MOTIVES
Short-Term Eating Signals Physiological- slight increase in blood insulin Psychological - classical and operant conditioning surrounding eating behavior Satiety- signals from the stomach, chemical (CCK), and stretch receptors
Basal Metabolic Rate • The rate at which the body uses energy for vital functions while at rest. • Factors that influence BMR – Age – Sex – Size – Genetics – Food intake
Excess Weight and Obesity • Obesity—condition characterized by excessive body fat and a BMI equal to or greater than 30.0 • Overweight—condition characterized by BMI between 25.0 and 29.9
Factors in Obesity • Positive incentive value of palatable food • Super-size it! • Cafeteria diet effect • BMR changes over the life span • Sedentary lifestyle
Factors Contributing to Being Overweight • Highly palatable food—we eat because it tastes so good • SuperSize It—food portions are larger than necessary for health • Cafeteria Diet Effect—more food and more variety lead us to eat more • Snacking—does not cause us to eat less at dinner • BMR—changes through the lifespan • Sedentary lifestyles
Eating Disorders ANOREXIA NERVOSA • Characterized by excessive weight loss, irrational fear of gaining weight, and distorted body image. • People refuse to eat while denying that their behavior and appearance – which can become skeletonlike.
• Bulimia nervosa — characterized by binges of extreme overeating followed by self-induced purging such as vomiting, laxatives
Unrealistic standards of “beauty” may contribute to high incidence of eating disorders
Sexual Motivation and Behavior • Sex—the biological category of male or female; sexual intercourse • Gender—cultural, social, and psychological meanings associated with masculinity or femininity • Gender roles —behaviors, attitudes, and personality traits designated either masculine or feminine in a given culture • Gender identity —A person’s psychological sense of being male or female • Sexual orientation —direction of a person's emotional and erotic attractions
Sexual Orientation Sexual orientation —direction of a person's emotional and erotic attractions – Heterosexual —sexual attraction for the opposite sex – Homosexual —sexual attraction for the same sex – Gay —typically used to describe male homosexuals – Lesbian —typically used to describe female homosexuals – Bisexual —sexual attraction for both sexes
Human Sexual Response • Stage 1: Excitement—beginning of sexual arousal • Stage 2: Plateau—increased physical arousal • Stage 3: Orgasm—male ejaculates, female vaginal contractions • Stage 4: Resolution—arousal subsides
Sexuality in Adulthood • Majority of adults (80%) report having none or one sexual partner in the past year (marriage factor) • Majority of men ages 18-59 have sex about seven times per month • Majority of women ages 18-59 have sex about six times per month • Vaginal intercourse is nearly universal as the most widely practiced sexual activity among heterosexual couples • 50 percent of older Americans reported sexual activity at least once per month.
Sexual Disorders and Problems • Sexual dysfunction —consistent disturbance in sexual desire, arousal, or orgasm that causes psychological distress and interpersonal difficulties • Low desire and arousal problems common among women • Premature ejaculation and erectile problems common among men
Social Motives Optimal human functioning can occur only if the psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness are met • Autonomy—need to determine, control, and organize one’s own behavior and goals • Competence—need to effectively learn and master challenging tasks • Relatedness—need to feel attached to others
Need for Affiliation • Interest in establishing and maintaining relationship with other people • Need to associate with others & maintain social bonds
Need for Power • Tendency to seek impact, control, or influence over others and to be seen as a powerful individual.
Need for Achievement • Need to master difficult challenges, outperform others, & meet high standards • Behavior aimed at excelling, succeeding, or outperforming others at some activity – Behavior depends on: • Incentive value • Expectancy
SOCIAL NEEDS VS BIOLOGICAL NEEDS
Should you study late for an exam and satisfy your SOCIAL NEED TO ACHIEVE or to go bed at regular time and satisfy your BIOLOGICAL NEED FOR SLEEP?
References: Feldman, Robert S. (2008). Understanding Psychology (5th Mc Graw Hill International edition). Gaerlan, Josefina, Limpingco Delia & Tria Geraldine. General Psychology (5th edition). Ken Incorporated
Assignment 1. Make a drawing that shows an ideal day in the life you would like 10 years from now. BE CREATIVE. Consider the following in your drawing • A. What are you? • B. Where are you? • Who do you live with? • What are you doing? • How do you feel about your life?
2. At the back of your drawing in two columns, write your answers to the following: FIRST COLUMN SECOND COLUMN What made you aspire What steps will you for such life? take to achieve the kind of life
Concept of Emotion • A class of subjective feelings elicited by stimuli that have high significance to an individual – stimuli that produce high arousal generally produce strong feelings – are rapid and automatic – emerged through natural selection to benefit survival and reproduction
Basic Emotions • Fear, surprise, anger, disgust, happiness, sadness • Basic emotions are innate and “hard-wired” • Complex emotions are a blend of many aspects of emotions • Classified along two dimensions – Pleasant or unpleasant – Level of activation or arousal associated with the emotion
Physical Arousal and Emotions • Sympathetic nervous system is aroused with emotions (fight-orflight response) • Different emotions stimulate different responses – Fear—decrease in skin temperature (cold-feet) – Anger—increase in skin temperature (hot under the collar)
Brain and Emotions Amygdala – evaluates the significance of stimuli and generates emotional responses – generates hormonal secretions and autonomic reactions that accompany strong emotions – Direct connection to thalamus allows for rapid reaction to potentially dangerous situations
Emotion and Facial Expressions • Each basic emotion is associated with a unique facial expression • Facial expressions are innate and “hard-wired” • Innate facial expressions the same across many cultures • Display rules—social and cultural rules that regulate emotional expression, especially facial expressions.
Cognitive-Mediational Theory • Emotions result from the cognitive appraisal of a situation’s effect on personal well-being • Similar to two-factor, but cognitive mediational theory’s emphasis is on the cognitive appraisal as the essential trigger of the emotional response
Determination of Sexual Orientation • Genetics—role suggested by twin and family studies • Brain structure—differences found in hypothalamus of homosexual and heterosexual men • Hormonal – adrogenized females • Complex issue with no clear answers
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