Module 04

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Information about Module 04
Education

Published on December 20, 2008

Author: cvmogol

Source: authorstream.com

Module 4 : Module 4 Incredible Nervous System GENES & EVOLUTION : GENES & EVOLUTION Genetic information brain and body developed according to complex chemical instructions that were written in a human cell no larger than a grain of sand Fertilization Zygote Chromosomes Chemical alphabet Genes and proteins Genome Genetic factors GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.) : GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.) Fertilization human life has its beginnings when a father’s sperm, which contains 23 chromosomes, penetrates a mother’s egg, which contains 23 chromosomes GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.) : GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.) GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.) : GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.) Zygote the largest human cell, about the size of a grain of sand a zygote is a cell that results when an egg is fertilized a zygote contains 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.) : GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.) Chromosomes a short, rodlike, microscopic structure that contains a tightly coiled strand of the chemical DNA, which is an abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.) : GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.) GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.) : GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.) Chemical alphabet each chromosome contains a long, coiled strand of DNA, which resembles a ladder that has been twisted over and over upon itself each rung of the DNA ladder is made up of four chemicals the order in which the four different chemicals combine to form rungs creates a microscopic alphabet GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.) : GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.) GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.) : GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.) Genes and proteins Gene a specific segment on the long strand of DNA that contains instructions for making proteins Proteins chemical building blocks from which all the parts of the brain and body are constructed GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.) : GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.) Genome The Human Genome Project began in 1995 and cost over $2.7 billion reached its first goal in 2003 of mapping all the human genes researchers found only about 30,000 human genes instead of the estimated 100,000 GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.) : GENES & EVOLUTION (CONT.) Genetic factors researchers are discovering how genetic factors interact with the environment to result in the development of mental retardation, emotional and personality traits, mental disorders, and various cognitive abilities Fragile X syndrome an inherited developmental disability, is due to a defect in the X chromosome EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN BRAIN : EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN BRAIN Evolution of the human brain 1859 Charles Darwin published the Origin of Species Theory of Evolution says that different species arose from a common ancestor and that those species that survived were best adapted to meet the demands of their environment humans and chimpanzees share at least 98% of their DNA EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN BRAIN : EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN BRAIN EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN BRAIN : EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN BRAIN Australopithecus (Lucy) 3-4 million years ago brain weight 500 grams (size of a chimp) no tools, no language, no fire Homo erectus 1.5 million years ago brain weight 1,000 grams Stone tools (possibly language) Homo sapiens 400,000 years ago brain weight 1350 grams or 3 pounds STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN : STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN Brain scans techniques that can look through the thick skull and picture the brain with astonishing clarity yet cause no damage to the extremely delicate brain cells researchers are mapping a variety of cognitive functions: attention, language, memory, motor skills MRI and fMRI STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN (CONT.) : STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN (CONT.) MRI magnetic resonance imagery involves passing nonharmful radio frequencies through the brain fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging measures the activity of specific neurons that are functioning during cognitive tasks, such as thinking, listening STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN (CONT.) : STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN (CONT.) STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN (CONT.) : STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN (CONT.) Brain scans and Cognitive Neuroscience PET scan positron emission tomography involves injecting a slightly radioactive solution into the blood and then measuring the amount of radiation absorbed by brain cells called neurons STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN (CONT.) : STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN (CONT.) Brain scans and Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroimaging PET and fMRI scans are used to identify and map the living brain’s neural activity as a person performs complex behavioral and cognitive tasks, such as: seeing moving thinking speaking empathizing trusting even reacting to TV violence STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN (CONT.) : STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN (CONT.) STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN (CONT.) : STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN (CONT.) Tools versus Animals naming animals naming tools STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN (CONT.) : STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN (CONT.) STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN (CONT.) : STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN (CONT.) ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN : ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN Divisions of the Nervous System Major divisions of the nervous system central nervous system - CNS peripheral nervous system - PNS ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) : ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) Central nervous system - CNS made up of the brain and spinal cord ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) : ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) : ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) Peripheral nervous system - PNS includes all the nerves that extend from the spinal cord and carry messages to and from various muscles, glands, and sense organs located throughout the body Subdivisions of the PNS somatic nervous system autonomic nervous system - ANS sympathetic division parasympathetic division ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) : ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) Somatic nervous system network of nerves that connect either to sensory receptors or to muscles that you can move voluntarily, such as muscles in your limbs, back, neck, and chest nerves contain two kinds of fibers Afferent sensory fibers; carry information to the brain Efferent motor fibers; carry information from brain or spinal cord to the muscles ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) : ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) Autonomic nervous system - ANS regulates heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, digestion, hormone secretion, and other functions Sympathetic division triggered by threatening or challenging physical or psychological stimuli, increases physiological arousal and prepares the body for action Parasympathetic division returns the body to a calmer, relaxed state and is involved in digestion ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) : ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) Major Parts of the Brain Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain pons medulla cerebellum ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) : ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) : ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) Forebrain largest part of the brain has right and left sides called hemispheres hemispheres are responsible for a number of functions, including learning and memory, speaking and language, emotional responses, experiencing sensations, initiating voluntary movements, planning, and making decisions ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) : ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) Midbrain has a reward or pleasure center, which stimulated by food, sex, money, music, looking at attractive faces, and some drugs (cocaine) has areas for visual and auditory reflexes contains the reticular formation, which arouses the forebrain so that it is ready to process information from the senses ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) : ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) Hindbrain Has three distinct structures: Pons Medulla Cerebellum ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) : ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.) Pons functions as a bridge to interconnect messages between the spinal cord and brain Medulla located on top of the spinal cord includes a group of cells that control vital reflexes, such as respiration, heart rate, and blood pressure Cerebellum located in the very back and underneath the brain involved in coordinating motor movements but not in initiating voluntary movements CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES Wrinkled cortex a thin layer of cells that essentially covers the entire surface of the forebrain CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES PLAY VIDEO CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) Four lobes Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Occipital lobe Temporal lobe CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) Frontal lobe involved with personality, emotions, and motor behaviors Parietal lobe involved with perception and sensory experiences Occipital lobe involved with visual processing Temporal lobe involved with hearing and speaking CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) Frontal lobe: functions Phineas Gage Frontal Lobotomy A surgical procedure in which about one-third of the front part of the frontal lobe was cut away from the rest of the brain CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) Frontal lobe: functions motor cortex narrow strip of cortex that is located on the back edge of the frontal lobe and extends down its side involved in the initiation of all voluntary movements right side controls left left side controls right organization and function of motor cortex CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) Other functions of frontal lobe much knowledge of other frontal lobe functions comes from individuals who had damage to that area frontal lobes are involved in paying attention, organizing, planning, deciding, and carrying out various cognitive tasks and social-emotional behaviors executive function CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) Parietal lobe: function location of somatosensory cortex narrow strip of cortex that is located on the front edge of the parietal lobe and extends down its side CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) Other functions of parietal lobe involved in several cognitive functions, including recognizing objects, remembering items, and perceiving and analyzing objects in space CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) Temporal lobe: functions primary auditory cortex located on top edge of each temporal lobe, receives electrical signals from receptors in the ears and transforms these signals into meaningful sound sensations, such as vowels and consonants CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) Temporal lobe: functions auditory association area located directly below the primary auditory cortex transforms basic sensory information, such as noises or sounds, into recognizable auditory information, such as words or music CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) Temporal lobe: functions Broca’s area - frontal lobe located in left frontal lobe necessary for combining sounds into words and arranging words into meaningful sentences damage: Broca’s aphasia person cannot speak in fluent sentences but can understand written and spoken words CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) Wernicke’s area located in the left temporal lobe necessary for speaking in coherent sentences and for understanding speech Damage: Wernicke’s aphasia difficulty in understanding spoken or written words and a difficulty in putting words into meaningful sentences CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) Occipital lobe: functions vision primary visual cortex located at the very back of the occipital lobe receives electrical signals from receptors in the eyes and transforms these signals into meaningless basic visual sensations, such as lights, lines, shadows, colors, and textures CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) Occipital lobe: functions visual association area transforms basic sensations, such as lights, lines, colors, and textures, into complete, meaningful visual perceptions, such as persons, objects, or animals CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) Visual agnosia individual fails to recognize some object, person, or color has ability to see and even describe pieces or parts of some visual stimulus CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) Neglect Syndrome refers to the failure of a patient to see objects or parts of the body on the side opposite the brain damage may dress only on one side of body may deny that opposite body parts are theirs CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) : CONTROL CENTERS: FOUR LOBES (CONT.) LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN : LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN group of about half a dozen interconnected structures that make up the core of the forebrain involved with regulating many motivational behaviors such as obtaining food, drink, and sex organizing emotional behaviors such as fear, anger, and aggression; storing memories Structures and functions Hypothalamus Amygdala Thalamus Hippocampus LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN : LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN Structures and functions Hypothalamus Amygdala Thalamus Hippocampus LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN (CONT.) : LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN (CONT.) LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN (CONT.) : LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN (CONT.) Hypothalamus regulates many motivational behaviors, including eating, drinking, and sexual responses; emotional behaviors such as arousing the body when fighting or fleeing, and secretion of hormones, such as occurs at puberty Amygdala located in the tip of the temporal lobe receives input from all the senses evaluates the emotional significance of stimuli and facial expressions, especially those involving fear, distress, or threat LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN (CONT.) : LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN (CONT.) Thalamus gathers and processes information from the senses involved in receiving sensory information, doing some initial processing, and then relaying the sensory information to areas of the cortex Hippocampus curved structure inside the temporal lobe Involved in saving many kinds of fleeting memories by putting them into permanent storage in various parts of the brain LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN (CONT.) : LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN (CONT.) Autonomic nervous system Sympathetic Parasympathetic LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN (CONT.) : LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN (CONT.) LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN (CONT.) : LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN (CONT.) Autonomic nervous system Sympathetic triggered by threatening or challenging physical or psychological stimuli Physiological responses increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, and dilated pupils fight or flight LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN (CONT.) : LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN (CONT.) Autonomic nervous system Parasympathetic decreases physiological arousal returns the body to a calmer, more relaxed state stimulates digestion during eating Physiological responses decreases heart rate lowers blood pressure stimulate digestion body returns to more relaxed state LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN (CONT.) : LIMBIC SYSTEM: OLD BRAIN (CONT.) Autonomic nervous system Homeostasis sympathetic and parasympathetic systems work together to keep the body’s level of arousal in balance for optimum functioning ENDOCRINE SYSTEM : ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Endocrine System Made up of numerous glands that are located throughout the body. Glands secrete various chemicals called hormones Pituitary Pancreas Thyroid Adrenal glands Gonads ENDOCRINE SYSTEM (CONT.) : ENDOCRINE SYSTEM (CONT.) ENDOCRINE SYSTEM (CONT.) : ENDOCRINE SYSTEM (CONT.) Pituitary gland hangs below the hypothalamus divided into anterior and posterior Posterior rear portion regulates water and salt balance Anterior front portion regulates growth through secretion of growth hormone produces hormones that control the adrenal cortex, pancreas, and thyroid and pancreas ENDOCRINE SYSTEM (CONT.) : ENDOCRINE SYSTEM (CONT.) Pancreas regulates the level of sugar in the bloodstream by secreting insulin Thyroid located in the neck regulates metabolism through secretion of hormones ENDOCRINE SYSTEM (CONT.) : ENDOCRINE SYSTEM (CONT.) Adrenal glands adrenal cortex (outside part) secretes hormones that regulate sugar and salt balance adrenal medulla (inside part) secretes two hormones that arouse the body to deal with stress and emergencies epinephrine (adrenaline) norepinephrine (noradrenaline ENDOCRINE SYSTEM (CONT.) : ENDOCRINE SYSTEM (CONT.) Gonads Females ovaries produce hormones that regulate sexual development, ovulation, and growth of sex organs Males testes produce hormones that regulate sexual development, production of sperm, and growth of sex organs

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