Module 02

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Published on November 18, 2008

Author: cv.mogol

Source: slideshare.net

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Psychology and Science

Module 2 Psychology & Science

ANSWERING QUESTIONS Research methods Survey Case study Experiment

Research methods

Survey

Case study

Experiment

ANSWERING QUESTIONS (CONT.) Researchers use all three methods survey case study experiment each method provides a different kind of information

Researchers use all three methods

survey

case study

experiment

each method provides a different kind of information

SURVEYS Survey way to obtain information by asking many individuals answer a fixed set of questions about particular subjects

Survey

way to obtain information by asking many individuals

answer a fixed set of questions about particular subjects

SURVEYS (CONT.) Disadvantages information can contain errors results can be biased Advantage efficient way to obtain much information from a large number of people

Disadvantages

information can contain errors

results can be biased

Advantage

efficient way to obtain much information from a large number of people

CASE STUDY Case study an in-depth analysis of the thoughts, feelings, beliefs, experiences, behaviors, or problems of a single individual Personal Case Study: Testimonial statement in support of a particular viewpoint based on detailed observation of a person’s own personal experience Error and Bias: Self-fulfilling Prophecy A strong belief or making a statement (prophecy) about a future behavior and then acting, usually unknowingly, to fulfill or carry out the behavior

Case study

an in-depth analysis of the thoughts, feelings, beliefs, experiences, behaviors, or problems of a single individual

Personal Case Study: Testimonial

statement in support of a particular viewpoint based on detailed observation of a person’s own personal experience

Error and Bias: Self-fulfilling Prophecy

A strong belief or making a statement (prophecy) about a future behavior and then acting, usually unknowingly, to fulfill or carry out the behavior

CASE STUDY (CONT.) Disadvantage detailed information about a particular person may not apply to others Advantage detailed information allows greater understanding of a particular person’s life

Disadvantage

detailed information about a particular person may not apply to others

Advantage

detailed information allows greater understanding of a particular person’s life

EXPERIMENT Experiment a method for identifying cause-and-effect relationships by following a set of rules and guidelines that minimize the possibility of error, bias, and chance occurrences

Experiment

a method for identifying cause-and-effect relationships by following a set of rules and guidelines that minimize the possibility of error, bias, and chance occurrences

EXPERIMENT (CONT.) Disadvantage information obtained in one experimental situation or laboratory setting may not apply to other situations Advantage has the greatest potential for identifying cause-and-effect relationships with less error and bias than either surveys or case studies

Disadvantage

information obtained in one experimental situation or laboratory setting may not apply to other situations

Advantage

has the greatest potential for identifying cause-and-effect relationships with less error and bias than either surveys or case studies

CULTURAL DIVERSITY: USE OF PLACEBOS Placebo intervention, such as taking a pill, receiving and injection, or undergoing an operation, that resembles medical therapy but which in fact, has no medical effects Placebo effect change in the patient’s illness that is attributable to an imagined treatment rather than to a medical treatment

Placebo

intervention, such as taking a pill, receiving and injection, or undergoing an operation, that resembles medical therapy but which in fact, has no medical effects

Placebo effect

change in the patient’s illness that is attributable to an imagined treatment rather than to a medical treatment

CULTURAL DIVERSITY: USE OF PLACEBOS (CONT.) researchers believe that placebos work by reducing tension and distress and by creating powerful self-fulfilling prophecies individuals think and behave as if the drug, actually a placebo, is effective

researchers believe that placebos work by reducing tension and distress and by creating powerful self-fulfilling prophecies

individuals think and behave as if the drug, actually a placebo, is effective

CULTURAL DIVERSITY: USE OF PLACEBOS (CONT.) Placebo examples Rhino Horn Bear Gallbladders Tiger Bones Cough Medication

Placebo examples

Rhino Horn

Bear Gallbladders

Tiger Bones

Cough Medication

CORRELATION Correlation an association or relationship between the occurrence of two or more events Correlation coefficient a number that indicates the strength of a relationship between two or more events: the closer the number is to –1.00 or +1.00, the greater is the strength of the relationship

Correlation

an association or relationship between the occurrence of two or more events

Correlation coefficient

a number that indicates the strength of a relationship between two or more events: the closer the number is to –1.00 or +1.00, the greater is the strength of the relationship

CORRELATION

CORRELATION (CONT.) Perfect positive correlation coefficient +1.00 means that an increase in one event is always matched by an equal increase in a second event Positive correlation coefficient indicates that as one event tends to increase, the second event tends to, but does not always, increase increases from +0.01 to +0.99 indicate a strengthening of the relationship between the occurrence of two events

Perfect positive correlation coefficient

+1.00 means that an increase in one event is always matched by an equal increase in a second event

Positive correlation coefficient

indicates that as one event tends to increase, the second event tends to, but does not always, increase

increases from +0.01 to +0.99 indicate a strengthening of the relationship between the occurrence of two events

CORRELATION (CONT.) Zero correlation indicates that there is no relationship between the occurrence of one event and the occurrence of a second event Negative correlation coefficient indicates that as one event tends to increase, the second event tends to, but does not always, decrease -0.01 to -0.99 indicates a strengthening in the relationship of one event increasing and the other decreasing

Zero correlation

indicates that there is no relationship between the occurrence of one event and the occurrence of a second event

Negative correlation coefficient

indicates that as one event tends to increase, the second event tends to, but does not always, decrease

-0.01 to -0.99 indicates a strengthening in the relationship of one event increasing and the other decreasing

CORRELATION (CONT.) Perfect negative correlation coefficient -1.00 means that an increase in one event is always matched by an equal decrease in a second event correlations such as –1.00 are virtually never found in applied psychological research

Perfect negative correlation coefficient

-1.00 means that an increase in one event is always matched by an equal decrease in a second event

correlations such as –1.00 are virtually never found in applied psychological research

DECISIONS ABOUT DOING RESEARCH What is the best technique for answering a question? Questionnaires and interviews Laboratory experiments Standardized tests Animal models

What is the best technique for answering a question?

Questionnaires and interviews

Laboratory experiments

Standardized tests

Animal models

DECISIONS ABOUT DOING RESEARCH (CONT.) Interview technique for obtaining information by asking questions, ranging from open-ended to highly structured, about a subject’s behaviors and attitudes, usually in a one-on-one situation Questionnaire technique for obtaining information by asking subjects to read a list of written questions and check off specific answers

Interview

technique for obtaining information by asking questions, ranging from open-ended to highly structured, about a subject’s behaviors and attitudes, usually in a one-on-one situation

Questionnaire

technique for obtaining information by asking subjects to read a list of written questions and check off specific answers

DECISIONS ABOUT DOING RESEARCH (CONT.) Laboratory experiments techniques to gather information about the brain, genes, or behavior with the least error and bias by using a controlled environment that allows careful observation and measurement Standardized tests technique to obtain information by administering a psychological test that has been given to hundreds of people and shown to reliably measure thought patterns, personality traits, emotions, or behaviors

Laboratory experiments

techniques to gather information about the brain, genes, or behavior with the least error and bias by using a controlled environment that allows careful observation and measurement

Standardized tests

technique to obtain information by administering a psychological test that has been given to hundreds of people and shown to reliably measure thought patterns, personality traits, emotions, or behaviors

DECISIONS ABOUT DOING RESEARCH (CONT.) Animal Models involves examining or manipulating some behavioral, genetic, or physiological factor that closely approximates some human problem, disease, or condition Example: human stem cell transplants in mice with spinal cord injuries

Animal Models

involves examining or manipulating some behavioral, genetic, or physiological factor that closely approximates some human problem, disease, or condition

Example:

human stem cell transplants in mice with spinal cord injuries

DECISIONS ABOUT DOING RESEARCH (CONT.) Choosing research settings Naturalistic setting Laboratory setting

Choosing research settings

Naturalistic setting

Laboratory setting

DECISIONS ABOUT DOING RESEARCH (CONT.) Naturalistic setting relatively normal environment in which researchers gather information by observing individuals’ behaviors without attempting to change or control the situation Laboratory setting involves studying individuals under systematic and controlled conditions, with many of the real-world influences eliminated

Naturalistic setting

relatively normal environment in which researchers gather information by observing individuals’ behaviors without attempting to change or control the situation

Laboratory setting

involves studying individuals under systematic and controlled conditions, with many of the real-world influences eliminated

SCIENTIFIC METHOD: EXPERIMENT Advantages of scientific method Scientific Method approach of gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized

Advantages of scientific method

Scientific Method

approach of gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized

SCIENTIFIC METHOD: EXPERIMENT (CONT.) Conducting an Experiment: seven rules Rule 1: Ask Rule 2: Identify Rule 3: Choose Rule 4: Assign Rule 5: Manipulate Rule 6: Measure Rule 7: Analyze

Conducting an Experiment: seven rules

Rule 1: Ask

Rule 2: Identify

Rule 3: Choose

Rule 4: Assign

Rule 5: Manipulate

Rule 6: Measure

Rule 7: Analyze

SCIENTIFIC METHOD: EXPERIMENT (CONT.) Rule 1: Ask hypothesis educated guess about some phenomenon stated in precise, concrete language to rule out any confusion or error in the meaning of its terms

Rule 1: Ask

hypothesis

educated guess about some phenomenon stated in precise, concrete language to rule out any confusion or error in the meaning of its terms

SCIENTIFIC METHOD: EXPERIMENT (CONT.) Rule 2: Identify independent variable a treatment or something that the researcher controls or manipulates dependent variable one or more of the subjects’ behaviors that are used to measure the potential effects of the treatment or independent variable

Rule 2: Identify

independent variable

a treatment or something that the researcher controls or manipulates

dependent variable

one or more of the subjects’ behaviors that are used to measure the potential effects of the treatment or independent variable

SCIENTIFIC METHOD: EXPERIMENT (CONT.) Rule 3: Choose random selection each participant in a sample population has an equal chance of being selected for the experiment Rule 4: Assign experimental group those who receive the treatment control group participants who undergo all the same procedures as the experimental participants except that the control participants do not receive the treatment

Rule 3: Choose

random selection

each participant in a sample population has an equal chance of being selected for the experiment

Rule 4: Assign

experimental group

those who receive the treatment

control group

participants who undergo all the same procedures as the experimental participants except that the control participants do not receive the treatment

SCIENTIFIC METHOD: EXPERIMENT (CONT.) Rule 5: Manipulate double blind procedure neither participants nor researchers know which group is receiving which treatment Rule 6: Measure by manipulating the treatment so that the experimental group receives a different treatment than the control group, researchers are able to measure how the independent variable (treatment) affects those behaviors that have been selected as the dependent variables

Rule 5: Manipulate

double blind procedure

neither participants nor researchers know which group is receiving which treatment

Rule 6: Measure

by manipulating the treatment so that the experimental group receives a different treatment than the control group, researchers are able to measure how the independent variable (treatment) affects those behaviors that have been selected as the dependent variables

SCIENTIFIC METHOD: EXPERIMENT (CONT.) Rule 7: Analyze statistical procedures used to determine whether differences observed in dependent variables (behaviors) are due to independent variables (treatment) or to error or chance occurrence

Rule 7: Analyze

statistical procedures

used to determine whether differences observed in dependent variables (behaviors) are due to independent variables (treatment) or to error or chance occurrence

APPLICATION: RESEARCH CONCERNS Concerns about being a subject human and animal Code of ethics the American Psychological Association publishes a code of ethics and conduct for psychologists to follow when doing research, counseling, teaching, and related activities

Concerns about being a subject

human and animal

Code of ethics

the American Psychological Association publishes a code of ethics and conduct for psychologists to follow when doing research, counseling, teaching, and related activities

APPLICATION: RESEARCH CONCERNS (CONT.) Debriefing includes explaining the purpose and method of the experiment, asking participants their feelings about being participants in the experiment, and helping the participants deal with possible doubts or guilt that arise from their behaviors

Debriefing

includes explaining the purpose and method of the experiment, asking participants their feelings about being participants in the experiment, and helping the participants deal with possible doubts or guilt that arise from their behaviors

APPLICATION: RESEARCH CONCERNS (CONT.) Role of deception one way that researchers control for participants’ expectations is to use bogus procedures or instructions that prevent participants from learning the experiment’s true purpose researchers must justify the deceptive techniques by the scientific, educational, or applied value of the study and can only use deception if no other reasonable way to test the hypothesis is available

Role of deception

one way that researchers control for participants’ expectations is to use bogus procedures or instructions that prevent participants from learning the experiment’s true purpose

researchers must justify the deceptive techniques by the scientific, educational, or applied value of the study and can only use deception if no other reasonable way to test the hypothesis is available

APPLICATION: RESEARCH CONCERNS (CONT.) Ethics of animal research How many animals are used in research? estimated over 25 million animals are used each year in biomedical research Are research animals mistreated? of the millions of animals used in research, only a few cases of animal mistreatment have been confirmed researchers support the Animal Research Act

Ethics of animal research

How many animals are used in research?

estimated over 25 million animals are used each year in biomedical research

Are research animals mistreated?

of the millions of animals used in research, only a few cases of animal mistreatment have been confirmed

researchers support the Animal Research Act

APPLICATION: RESEARCH CONCERNS (CONT.) Ethics of animal research Is the use of animals justified? researchers are currently using animals to study epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, fetal alcohol syndrome, schizophrenia, AIDS, and transplantation of brain tissue none of which is possible with human subjects Who checks on the use of animals in research? U. S. Department of Agriculture universities hire veterinarians universities have animal subject committees

Ethics of animal research

Is the use of animals justified?

researchers are currently using animals to study epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, fetal alcohol syndrome, schizophrenia, AIDS, and transplantation of brain tissue

none of which is possible with human subjects

Who checks on the use of animals in research?

U. S. Department of Agriculture

universities hire veterinarians

universities have animal subject committees

APPLICATION: RESEARCH CONCERNS (CONT.) Ethics of animal research How do we strike a balance? many experts in the scientific, medical, and mental health communities believe that the conscientious and responsible use of animals in research is justified and should continue

Ethics of animal research

How do we strike a balance?

many experts in the scientific, medical, and mental health communities believe that the conscientious and responsible use of animals in research is justified and should continue

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