Modalverbsofobligation 120507164938-phpapp02

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Information about Modalverbsofobligation 120507164938-phpapp02
Education

Published on March 16, 2014

Author: virpardo

Source: slideshare.net

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Grammar - English -
Adapted from another ppt found here.

Modal verbs of obligation

must or have to

must or have to modal

must or have to indicative „helping verb‟

be careful with +ive —ive ?ive

be careful with +ive —ive ?ive in both form and meaning

form

I must go. I have to go. +ive

He must go. He has to go. +ive

You mustn‟t go. I don‟t have to go. —ive

Must she go? Does she have to go? ?ive

- She had to go. past

meaning

+ive

I must wash my hair.

You must arrive early.

must [+ive] expresses strong personal obligation

personal obligation means: - dictated by people - imposed by a 1st or 2nd person - what the speaker or listener wants

Must is also used in formal regulations and warnings Bookings must be made at least seven days before departure.

I have to get up early tomorrow.

Policemen have to wear a uniform.

In tennis, you have to hit the ball over the net.

have to [+ive] expresses strong impersonal obligation

impersonal obligation means: - dictated by circumstance - dictated by a 3rd person - other people‟s wishes - laws - rules

—ive

You mustn‟t smoke in here.

You mustn‟t tell anyone.

must [—ive] expresses strong negative obligation or prohibition

We don‟t have to get up early at weekends.

You don‟t have to tell your parents if you don‟t want.

have to [—ive] expresses absence of obligation

have to [—ive] expresses absence of obligation —there‟s no need—

we can express the same concept (with different emphasis) using „can‟

We don‟t have to get up early at weekends. We can get up early if we want.

?ive

Must I eat the vegetables?

must [?ive] is rare between adults

must [?ive] is used when children talk to figures of authority (parents, school teachers, etc) with the meaning: “is it really necessary for me to do this thing?”

you can ignore must [?ive]

Do I have to do my homework for next Monday?

Do they have to book the exam?

have to [?ive] is used for (almost) all questions about obligations

past

I must go to the dentist next week. I had to go to the dentist last week.

I must go to the dentist next week. I had to go to the dentist last week.

+ive —ive ?ive must personal obligation I must wash my hair negative obligation You mustn‟t tell anyone. not used - have to impersonal obligation I have to go to the dentist. absence of obligation We don‟t have to get up early. all questions Do I have to do it for Monday?

Practice 1 must go to bed 2 must find out 3 don‟t have to answer 4 has to vote 5 must throw out 6 mustn‟t hit your opponent 7 must come round 8 have to get

9 have to take off 10 must turn down 11 have to pay taxes 12 don‟t have to go to work taken from Oxford English Grammar Course by Michael Swan & Catherine Walter

http://oald8.oxfordlearnersdictio naries.com/dictionary/have-to http://www.englishgrammarsecr ets.com/musthaveto/menu.php

www.davidnicholson.it adapted by V. Pardo

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