Published on December 3, 2008
Slide 1: Key Nutrition Actions for People Living with HIV/AIDS Nutrition and HIV/AIDS: A Training Manual Session 3 Purpose : Purpose To provide general nutrition and dietary guidelines to mitigate the effects of HIV on nutrition and reduce the progression of HIV/AIDS morbidity, mortality, and related discomfort Session Outline : Session Outline Goals of nutrition care and support in HIV/AIDS Essential components of nutrition care and support in HIV/AIDS Key actions for HIV-infected people Appropriate assessments, interventions, follow-up and review for nutritional care in HIV/AIDS Goals ofNutrition Care and Support : Goals ofNutrition Care and Support Improve nutritional status Maintain weight and prevent weight loss Preserve muscle mass Ensure adequate nutrient intake Improve eating habits and diet Replenish stores of essential nutrients Prevent food-borne illnesses Enhance quality of life Treat opportunistic infections Manage symptoms affecting food intake Provide palliative care Components ofNutritional Care and Support : Components ofNutritional Care and Support Nutritional assessment Intervention Follow up and review Slide 6: Nutritional Assessment Why Measure? : Why Measure? To identify and track body composition changes over time and trends Changes in weight Changes in body cell mass and fat-free mass Serum nutrient levels, cholesterol, etc. To use results to design appropriate interventions To address client concerns about their health To meet increasing emphasis on physical nutrition assessment as part of clinical trials What to Measure? : What to Measure? Anthropometry Laboratory tests Clinical assessments Diet history and lifestyle Anthropometric Measurementsin HIV/AIDS : Anthropometric Measurementsin HIV/AIDS To assess and monitor weight Weight and height Percentage of weight and/or body mass index changes over time To assess and monitor body composition Lean body mass Body cell mass Skinfold (triceps, biceps, mid-thigh) Circumferences (waist, mid-upper arm, hips [buttocks], mid-thigh, breast size for women, neck circumferencve (buffalo hump]) Laboratory Measurementsin HIV/AIDS : Laboratory Measurementsin HIV/AIDS To assess and monitor nutrient levels Serum micronutrients (e.g. retinol, zinc) Haemoglobin (and ferritin) To assess and monitor body composition Fasting blood sugar, Lipid profiles (e.g., cholesterol and triglycerides) Serum insulin Clinical Assessments in HIV/AIDS : Clinical Assessments in HIV/AIDS Symptoms and illnesses associated with HIV/AIDS Diarrhea and vomiting Fever (temperature) Mouth and throat sores Oral thrush Muscle wasting Fatigue and lethargy Skin rashes Edema Palm pallor Diet History in HIV/AIDS : Diet History in HIV/AIDS 24-hour food consumption or food frequency recalls can be used (in the absence of acute food stress) to assess Types and amounts of food eaten (including food access and utilization and food handling) Use of supplements and medications Factors affecting food intake (appetite, eating patterns, medication side effects, lifestyle, taboos, hygiene, psychological factors, stigma, economic factors) Slide 13: Interventions Stages of HIV Disease and Nutrition : Stages of HIV Disease and Nutrition Specific nutrition recommendations vary according to underlying nutritional status and HIV disease progression Early stage: No symptoms, stable weight Middle stage: Weight loss, opportunistic infections associated effects Late stage: Symptomatic AIDS Nutrition Care and Support Priorities by Stage of Disease : Nutrition Care and Support Priorities by Stage of Disease Asymptomatic: Counsel to stay healthy Encourage building stores of essential nutrients and maintaining weight and lean body mass Ensure understanding of food and water safety Encourage physical activity Middle stage – Counsel to minimize consequences Counsel to maintain dietary intake during acute illness Advise increased nutrient intake to recover and gain weight Encourage continued physical activity Late stage: Provide comfort Advise on treating opportunistic infections Counsel to modify diet according to symptoms Encourage eating and physical activity Nutrition Actions for HIV-Infected People : Nutrition Actions for HIV-Infected People To prevent weight loss Promote adequate energy and protein intake Individualize meal plan and modify to match medication regime or health changes Advise changing lifestyles that negatively affect energy and nutrient intake To improve body composition Promote regular exercise to preserve muscle mass Promote steroids To improve immunity and prevent infections Promote increased vitamin and mineral intake Promote food safety Promote use of ARVs to reduce viral load Algorithm for Managing Weight Loss in Patients with HIV/AIDS : Algorithm for Managing Weight Loss in Patients with HIV/AIDS Source: Adapted from Hellerstein and Kotler 1998 Promote AdequateNutrient Intake : Promote AdequateNutrient Intake Identify locally available and acceptable foods Promote a diet adequate in energy, protein and other essential nutrients Increase energy intake by 10%-15% Increase protein intake Increase eating a variety of foods (especially more fruits and vegetables) and/or promote multiple micronutrient supplements for improved immune function Support Individualized Meal Plans : Support Individualized Meal Plans Consider Stage of illness and symptoms Food security (availability and accessibility of basic foods) Resources (money, time, other caretakers) Food likes and dislikes Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (especially traditional dietary taboos) Modify Meal Plans to Suit Medication and Health Status : Modify Meal Plans to Suit Medication and Health Status Flexibility to change depending on client context Possible food and drug interactions Changes in medication regimens Absence of opportunistic infections and other infections that may affect food intake or utilization Changes in food accessibility in terms of quality and quantity (especially in resource-poor settings) Consider Promote Lifestyle Changes for Nutritional Well-being : Promote Lifestyle Changes for Nutritional Well-being Eliminate foods and practices that aggravate infection Raw eggs and unpasteurized dairy products Foods not thoroughly cooked, especially meats Unboiled water or juices made from unboiled water Avoid foods that may affect food intake Alcohol and coffee “Junk” foods with little nutritional value Foods that aggravate symptoms related to diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, bloating, loss of appetite, and mouth sores (e.g., expired foods, fatty foods) Recommend Regular Exercise : Recommend Regular Exercise Muscle loss can be restored by reducing viral load or maintaining physical activity Physical activity improves Lean body mass Body composition Bone density Strength Functional capacity Quality of life Appetite Therapeutic Regimensfor HIV-Related Weight Loss : Therapeutic Regimensfor HIV-Related Weight Loss Source: Adapted from Hellerstein and Kotler 1998 ExercisesThat Build Muscle Mass : ExercisesThat Build Muscle Mass Weight bearing exercises Resistance training Weight training Exercises generating high force on bone Aerobics Jogging Stair climbing Hiking Skipping Relaxation exercises Yoga IncreaseVitamin and Mineral Intake : Strategies to increase vitamin and mineral intake to replenish or build body stores and optimize immune function Food-based approaches Include local vegetables, vitamin-enriched or fortified local products (maize meal, wheat or soy flour, margarine, cereals) Have no undesirable side effects Are affordable Nutrient supplements Are more absorbable by sick person Multivitamin and multiple-micronutrient supplements are better than than single vitamins and minerals IncreaseVitamin and Mineral Intake Suggested Nutrient Supplement Intake in HIV/AIDS : Suggested Nutrient Supplement Intake in HIV/AIDS Source: Serono 1999; Tang et al 1996. Excerpts from Eat up Adverse Effects of Too Much Intake of Nutrient Supplements : Adverse Effects of Too Much Intake of Nutrient Supplements Vitamin E: Malabsorption of vitamins A and K and gastrointestinal upsets Vitamin C: Gastrointestinal upsets, iron overabsorption and abdominal bloating Iron: Gastrointestinal bleeding (manifested by vomiting and bloody diarrhea) and possible stimulation of viral replication Zinc: Gastric distress, nausea, reduced immune function that favors viral replication (HDL reported in supplements of > 300mg/day) Vitamin B: Gastrointestinal upsets Selenium: Skin lesions, nausea, and vomiting Source: Afacan et al 2002, Tang et al 1996; Ziegler and Filler 1996 Promote Food Safetyto Prevent Food-Borne Illness : Promote Food Safetyto Prevent Food-Borne Illness Educate clients to avoid products that Contain raw or undercooked meat Have expired Are in damaged or bulging packing Are displayed unsafely (e.g., mixing raw and cooked foods or meats with fruits and vegetables) Are sold in unsanitary conditions or by workers with poor personal hygiene or food handling practices Slide 29: Follow up and Review Monitor the Client’s Well-being : Monitor the Client’s Well-being Follow up Integrate with other care and support activities where available Do continuously in facility and home Include monitoring of health, nutrition, and dietary indicators Include counseling to address barriers to good nutrition Offer support and encouragement Review Meal plans Exercise regimens Use of medicines Compliance with meal requirements Slide 31: Factors to Consider in Care and Support of People Living with HIV/AIDS Factors in Design and Implementation : Factors in Design and Implementation Social: Support, stigma, gender roles, education, information, traditions, beliefs Economic: Household resources, food security, financial access to health and nutrition Client rights: Privacy, nondiscrimination in public services Quality of support and care: Counseling, infrastructure, consistency, access to VCT and ARVs, information on ARVs Slide 33: Nutritional and Antiretroviral Therapy Common Antiretroviral Drugs : Common Antiretroviral Drugs Reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, or NRTIs: Zidovudine (AZT,ZDV), Lamivudine (3TC), Abacavir (ABC) Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, or NNRTIs: Nevirapine (NVP), Efavirenz (EFV), Delavirdine (DLV) Protease inhibitors (PIs) Saquinavir (SQV) Ritonavir (RTV) Indinavir (IDV) Often taken in combination to increase effectiveness and reduce resistance Promote Use of ARVs : Promote Use of ARVs Reduces viral load, associated opportunistic infections, and immunity to other infections Reduces HIV-related wasting and the negative effects on body composition Reduces deficiencies of micronutrients such as zinc and selenium (Rousseau et al 2000) Educate on Nutrition-Related Side Effects of ARVs : Educate on Nutrition-Related Side Effects of ARVs Lipodystrophy (fat maldistribution) Hyperglycemia/insulin resistance Hyperlipidemia Lipodystrophy : Means fat maldistribution Is observed in 6%-80% of patients on ARVs Is caused by metabolic changes associated with immune reconstitution and ARV mitochondrial toxicity Results in Hyperlipidemia Hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance Peripheral wasting (extremities, face) Visceral and subcutaneous central adiposity (buffalo hump, breast enlargement) Managed by exercise training Lipodystrophy Hyperglycemiaand Insulin Resistance : Hyperglycemia: Increased blood sugar levels from pancreatic problems or insulin resistance Insulin resistance (impaired message system) reported in 28%-35% of adult patients on ARVs Few cases of diabetes (3%-9%) Management with Antidiabetic agents Antioxidants (e.g., vitamin C and selenium) to support glutathione, which is crucial in insulin action Hyperglycemiaand Insulin Resistance Hyperlipidemia : Changes triglycerides or cholesterol with or without fat maldistribution Is caused by ARV interference with normal cellular proteins involved with lipid metabolism Increases levels of triglycerides or cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular problems and pancreatitis Is managed by Lipid-lowering drugs Decreased fat intake Exercise Lifestyle changes (e.g., quitting smoking) Hyperlipidemia Nutritional Care and Support Strategies with ARV Therapy : Promote a nutritionally adequate diet (quality, diversity, and quantity) Promote safe water, food, and hygiene practices Discourage excessive fat intake (promote modest fats, starches, and sugars and high-protein food but fewer fried eggs and yolks), fatty meats, and animal fats Prevent muscle wasting with regular exercise to burn fat and build muscle mass (anabolic agents?) Encourage increased fluid intake Address nutritional consequences of drug-nutrient interactions and side effects of medications Nutritional Care and Support Strategies with ARV Therapy Conclusions : Conclusions Good nutrition and healthy lifestyle can preserve health, improve quality of life, prolong independence, and delay disease progression Appropriate physical activity, increases energy, stimulates appetite, and preserves and builds lean body mass Preventing food- and water-borne infections reduces the risk of diarrhea (a common cause of weight loss), malnutrition, and HIV disease progression Antiretroviral therapy can help improve quality of life, but patients should be educated on adverse nutrition-related effects
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