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Mobile System Generations

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Information about Mobile System Generations
Science-Technology

Published on September 18, 2007

Author: lokesht

Source: authorstream.com

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Slide1:  UMTS and Beyond Prof. Hamid Aghvami Centre for Telecommunications Research - King’s College London Wireless Multimedia Communications Ltd Mobile System Generations:  Mobile System Generations First Generation (1G) mobile systems were designed to offer a single service, i.e., speech. Second Generation (2G) mobile systems were also designed primarily to offer speech with a limited capability to offer data at low rates. Third Generation (3G) mobile systems are expected to offer high-quality multi-media services and operate in different environments. 3G systems are referred to as Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) in Europe and International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT2000) worldwide. Slide4:  UMTS Main Requirements (3 Ms) Multi-media Multi-environment Multi-operator Virtual operators Slide5:  Mobile Multimedia Services Slide6:  Different Environments for UMTS Slide7:  Europe has decided to adopt an evolutionary approach for the UMTS core network based on migration from the GSM/GPRS infrastructure. For the actual air interface, a revolutionary approach has been chosen. That is a new radio air interface for UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA). There is another parallel activity concerning the UMTS air interface using an evolutionary approach (an intermediate approach). First phase of UMTS Slide8:  Evolution approach based on GSM Infrastructure Evolution Approach New Radio Access (UTRAN) NSS And GSN’s PSTN N-ISDN B-ISDN IP-based Networks Radio Access GSM Infrastructure Public Network Dual-mode Dual-mode Evolved GSM Radio Access (GERAN) Slide9:  In this approach the GSM air interface has evolved within GSM phase 2+ to support higher rate data services. The most important developments in this approach are: 1. General Packet Radio Services (GPRS ) 2. High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD ) 3. Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE ) It is referred to GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN) Evolutionary approach for the GSM Air Interface Slide10:  SMSC/ VLR GMSC PSTN HLR PDN Internet GGSN SGSN RNC Circuit Switched (GSM) Packet Switched (GPRS) UTRAN Iu,ps Iu,cs Gs C Gn Gr Gc UMTS – Phase I D RNC Node B Node B Node B Node B Iu,cs Iu,ps …. … …… .….. …. … Slide11:  Applications & Services Legacy mobile signalling network Other PLMN Multimedia IP networks GGSN PSTN/ legacy/external SGSN SGSN HSS (HLR) GGSN EIR SGW MRF CSCF MGCF MGW Simplified architecture for the support of IP-based multimedia services in 3GPP release 5 Signalling interface Signalling and data transfer interface Gn Gp Mh Cx Mm Gi Mg Mc Gi Gi Mr Gc Ms Gn Gi Gr Gf TE MT GERAN TE MT UTRAN Iu-PS Uu Um R R Slide12:  New Functional Entities for the All IP Architecture Call State Control Function (CSCF) executes the call control. It is based on the IETF Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). Media GateWay (MGW) provides an inter-connection from GGSN to legacy circuit-switched networks such as PSTN. Media Gateway Control Function (MGCF) controls the MGW. Media Resource Function (MRF) performs multiparty call and multimedia conferencing functions. Signalling GateWay (SGW) performs signalling conversion to/from legacy mobile signalling network. Home Subscriber Server (HSS) is an evolved HLR. 4G Concept:  4G Concept Towards 4G User centric, user controlled services and context-aware applications Slide14:  What does “user controlled services” mean? “ The user has freedom and flexibility to select any desired service with reasonable QoS and affordable price, anytime, anywhere using any device in a secure manner” 4G Concept Slide15:  What does “context-aware applications” mean? “ A context-aware application means the behaviour of the application adapts itself to user context changes. User context includes: -user profile and preferences. -user device and access network capabilities. -user environment and mobility. ” 4G Concept Technologies:  Technologies Challenges Convergence/integration/inter-working of all existing and emerging fixed and mobile (wired and wireless) networks including broadcast Simple to select and easy to use desired services Universal and low cost terminals IP Technology Agent Technology Reconfigurable Technology Slide17:  Inter-working Concept Integration Concept Network Level Concepts Slide18:  Interworking/Integration For the design of next generation wireless networks two different approaches are currently being considered. They are: - Interworking with next generation Internet (tight coupling) - Integration within next generation Internet (very tight coupling) In the first approach, the access network and the core network use different IP protocols and mechanisms and only the core network is considered as a sub-network of the Internet. In the second approach, both the core and access networks use common IP based protocols and mechanisms and the access network is considered as a sub-network of the Internet. Slide19:  Signalling Gateway WAP Accounting UMTS Broadcast Networks (DAB, DVB-T) Satellite FES GSM / GPRS Context-aware information Centre Wireless LANs SIP Proxy Server Inter-Working Slide20:  General architecture of the IP-based IMT network platform Applications AP1 AP2 AP3 APn Middleware IP-based transport NW Location Accounting/billing Media conversion Distribution Basic network management sub-layer RRM MM C/SM Security QoS Service support sub-layer IP IP IP IP Radio Radio Radio IP IP IP ISDN/ PSTN Internet Integration Slide21:  Global coverage National coverage Local area coverage Wireless LANs DAB and DVB-T, DVB-S 2G, 3G and 4G Cellular Personal area coverage Hierarchical coverage layers for 4G Satellite Regional coverage Wireless PANs Vertical Handover Horizontal Handover IP-based backbone Slide22:  The complexity of the problem: user prospective From a user prospective Multiple Heterogeneous network operators part of Multiple user environments accessed using Multiple heterogeneous devices owned by heterogeneous users Slide23:  From a network prospective Multiple Heterogeneous network operators providing Multiple services through multiple access networks to users with heterogeneous devices The complexity of the problem: network prospective Slide24:  A Heterogeneous Network Architecture Slide25:  Inter-working between two radio access networks Open coupling Slide26:  Inter-working between two radio access networks Loose coupling Slide27:  Inter-working between two radio access networks Tight coupling Slide28:  Inter-working between two radio access networks Very tight coupling Slide29:  Inter-working examples - caching Slide30:  Content Delivery Notification Content: video clip(15MB) Service: Music Clips Company: MTV Please select delivery options Send to PDA (5 eur) –15min Send to office PC (10 eur) –7min Send to STB (20 eur)-2min Delivery options Network provides device delivery options including cost and delivery times User selects desired destination Slide:30-40 Inter-working examples user centric Slide31:  Load balancing i.e. Using DVB to multicast or broadcast to large number of users Handovers i.e. Users in train moving outside the coverage of a network Slide:31-40 Inter-working examples – network centric Network Selection:  Network Selection Most Appropriate Network Selection Criteria User Context Service Type Available Resources - Data rate - QoS - Environment (When and Where) - Mobility - User preferences Slide33:  Convergence Convergence of Cellular Mobile Networks and WLANs Benefits For cellular mobile operators Higher bandwidths. Lower cost of networks and equipment. The use of licence-exempt spectrum. Higher capacity and QoS enhancement. Higher revenue. For users Access to broadband multimedia services with lower cost and where mostly needed (e.g. in Central Business Districts and Business Customer Premises). Inter-network roaming. Slide34:  Convergence Convergence of Mobile Communications and Broadcasting Drivers From broadcaster point of view Introducing interactivity to their unidirectional point-to-multipoint broadcasting systems. That is, a broadband downlink based on DAB/DVB-T and a narrowband uplink based on 2G/3G cellular systems. From the cellular mobile operator point of view Providing a complementary broadband downlink in vehicular environments to support IP-based multi-media traffic which is inherently asymmetrical. Slide35:  Convergence Benefits Broadcasters will benefit from the use of cellular mobile systems to adapt the content of their multi-media services more rapidly in response to the feedback from customers. Cellular operators will benefit from offering their customers a range of new broadband multi-media services in vehicular environments. Users will benefit from faster access to a range of broadband multi- media services with reasonable QoS and lower cost. Slide36:  IP Layer Model Slide37:  Additional IP Functions Mobility Management Quality of Service AAA IP Sec Ad-Hoc Routing etc. Native IP Functions: Routing Addressing Packet Formatting and Handling Lower Layers Higher Layers IP Network Layer IP Convergence Layer Data Interface Error Control Buffer Management QoS Support Segmentation/Reassembly Header Compression Multicast Support Control Interface Configuration Management Address Management QoS Control Handover Control Idle Mode Support Security Management IP Layer Model for WLANs Slide38:  IP Layer Model The functionalities and structure of the IP layer model are not sufficient and/or efficient to achieve the requirements of future inter-worked or integrated networks. No fundamental changes have been made in the design of IPV6. The question is: “ Are some radical changes needed to the IP layer model in order to offer better solutions to the convergence issue?” If yes, what are the consequences and implications? Slide39:  “ An agent is a software component (object) that is situated within an execution environment (e.g. computers) and acts autonomously on behalf of a user or process and has specific goal.” Agent Definition Slide40:  Agent Technology Mandatory features Reactive: senses changes in the environment and reacts in accordance. Autonomous: has control over its own actions Goal-driven: is pro-active Optional features Collaborative: communicates/negotiates with other agents Mobile: travels from one host to another Learning: adapts in accordance with previous experience Believable: appears believable to the end-user. Mobile vs. Static Agents:  Mobile vs. Static Agents Client Server Client Server request respond request respond “Software components that can migrate under their own control from host to host in a network or between networks” Mobile Agents:  Mobile Agents Mobile agents have already been used for network monitoring and service delivery including education at a distance. In an ever-increasing world of service providers and service packages, a user demands a simple approach to the selection of the desired service and its delivery mechanism in real-time with least effort. This can be achieved through the use of mobile agents. The use of mobile agents can also overcome the constraints imposed on applications by the limited processing power and speed of mobile terminals. Slide43:  An open question: Static or mobile agents for wireless networks? What are the pros and cons? Agent Technology Slide44:  Re-configurable Technology What does Reconfiguration mean? “Reconfiguration refers to the software re-definition and/or adaptation of every element within each layer of the communication chain.” Baseband Processing User Data RF Front End Slide45:  Re-configurable Technology Benefits Users Operators Manufacturers - Select network depending on service requirements and cost. - Connect to any network – Worldwide roaming. -Access to new services. - Respond to variations in traffic demand (load balancing). - Incorporate service enhancements and improvements. - Correction of software bugs and upgrade of terminals. - Rapid development of new personalised and customised services - Single platform for all markets. - Increased flexible and efficient production. Slide46:  Re-configuration Procedures Reconfiguration Trigger Mode Identification Mode Negotiation Software Download Mode Switch Decision Mode Monitoring Reconfigure Terminal Initiated by network operator or user Download software modules that are required for the target mode What networks are available? What is the most suitable network (based on QoS, user preferences etc.)? Decision on preferred mode Slide47:  Re-configurable Technology CHALLENGES Regulatory and Standardisation issues. Business models. User preference profiles. Inter-system handover mechanisms and criteria. Software download mechanisms. Flexible spectrum allocation and sharing between operators. Enabling Technologies (RF and antenna elements, ADC/DAC etc.) Slide48:  Conclusion

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