MMT Audio

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Information about MMT Audio
Education

Published on January 27, 2009

Author: apisake

Source: slideshare.net

Text Audio Image/Graphics Movie Animation

Audio

Agenda • Properties of sound • Analog audio • Digital audio • Audio file formats • Sound recording • Sound editing

Introduction • Audio is the reproduction of sound - important means of communication. • There are a number of advantages of using audio. • most obvious: interface for visual disabilities

Properties of Sound • Sound is a pressure wave created by successively vibrating matter back and forth. • The sound wave is in the form of a sine wave.

Frequency • The number of air pressure oscillations per second at a fixed point by a sound wave • Measured in Hertz (Hz) - number of waves per second • Audible range (human) = 20 Hz - 20 kHz • this is where the sensation of pitch originates

Frequency & Pitch

Frequency & Pitch Frequency Pitch

Frequency & Pitch Frequency Pitch Frequency Pitch

Frequency & Pitch Frequency Pitch Frequency Pitch

Wavelength • The distance between waves

Amplitude • The height of the wave • Measured in decibels (dB or dBA)

Intensity vs. Loudness • Amplitude can be thought of as the intensity of sound and is measurable. • Loudness of sound is a perception. • Sound can be perceived differently at the various frequencies (1 kHz-4 kHz is more sensitive than the lower and the higher) • Individuals also have different hearing capacities. What is loud to one person may not be loud to another, which why loudness is a perception and cannot be measured.

dBA Sound 10 Normal breathing 20 Whispering at 5 ft 30 Soft whispering 50 Rainfall 60 Normal conversation 110 Shouting in the ear 120 Thunder 110-120 Rock concert 130 Air raid 180 Rocket launching from pad

Analog Audio • analog = the measurement of continuous change or movement over a period of time

Digital Audio • The reproduction of sound using digital information • The value of the signal is sampled at regular intervals by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC)

Basic Terminology & Properties of DA • Channels • Sampling rate • Bit depth • Quality and file size • Compression • Audio codecs

Channels Stereo Mono

Channels Stereo re s s e d i l l p u n c om a l file w An it re o dig t h e s i ze o f s te e e t w ic o n o file . b am Mono

Sampling Rate • ADC - the signal is sampled at regular intervals • The value of each sample is rounded to the nearest integer in a scale that varies according to the resolution of the signal

Sampling Rate • The accuracy the reproduction to the source depends on how often the sample is taken.

Common DA Sampling Rate 8,000 Hz telephone, adequate for human speech 22,050 Hz radio 32,000 Hz miniDV digital camcorder CD, commonly used with MPEG-1 audio 44,100 Hz (VCD, SVCD, MP3) digital sound used for digital TV, DVD, 48,000 Hz DAT, films and professional audio 96,000 or 192,400 Hz DVD-audio and HD-DVD audio tracks

Bit Depth • The number of bits used to describe each of the samples taken from the sampling rate • the potential accuracy of a digital audio • Higher bit-depth audio will sound better than lower one

Quality & File Size • Make the highest level (if possible) ~ 16-bit 44kHz Stereo • this produces a large file size, however, high audio clarity • Chances to manipulate such file (to make it smaller) : • reduce the sampling rate • make it mono

Compression • Digital audio files can also be compressed to reduce file size • MPEG-1 Audio layer-3 (MP3) is a common

Compression • Digital audio files can also be compressed to reduce file size • MPEG-1 Audio layer-3 (MP3) is a common

Compression Audio Quality • Digital audio files can also be compressed to reduce file size • MPEG-1 Audio layer-3 (MP3) is a common

Compression Audio Quality • Digital audio files can also be compressed to reduce file size • MPEG-1 Audio layer-3 (MP3) is a common

Compression Audio Quality • Digital audio files can also be compressed to reduce file size • MPEG-1 Audio layer-3 (MP3) is a common File Size

Compression Audio Quality • Digital audio files can also be compressed to Lossless reduce file size WMA • MPEG-1 Audio layer-3 (MP3) is a common File Size

Compression Audio Quality • Digital audio files can also be compressed to Lossless reduce file size WMA Lossy • MPEG-1 Audio layer-3 MP3 Real Audio (MP3) is a common File Size

Compression Audio Quality “later editing” • Digital audio files can also be compressed to Lossless reduce file size WMA Lossy • MPEG-1 Audio layer-3 MP3 Real Audio (MP3) is a common File Size

Compression Audio Quality “later editing” • Digital audio files can also be compressed to Lossless reduce file size WMA Lossy • MPEG-1 Audio layer-3 MP3 Real Audio (MP3) is a common “transmission” File Size

Audio Codecs • An audio codec is a piece of (coder/decoder) software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system.

Audio Codecs • An audio codec is a piece of (coder/decoder) software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system.

Audio Codecs • An audio codec is a piece of (coder/decoder) software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system. codec x

Audio Codecs • An audio codec is a piece of (coder/decoder) software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system. codec x

Audio Codecs • An audio codec is a piece of (coder/decoder) software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system. codec x

Audio Codecs • An audio codec is a piece of (coder/decoder) software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system. codec y codec x

Audio Codecs • An audio codec is a piece of (coder/decoder) software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system. codec y codec x

Audio Codecs • An audio codec is a piece of (coder/decoder) software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system. ✘ codec y codec x

Audio Codecs • An audio codec is a piece of (coder/decoder) software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system. ✘ codec y codec x codec x

Audio Codecs • An audio codec is a piece of (coder/decoder) software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system. ✘ codec y codec x ✔ codec x

Audio Codecs • An audio codec is a piece of (coder/decoder) software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system. ✘ codec y codec x ✔ codec x Audio codecs

Audio File Formats • • An audio file format is a WAV format container format for storing • data on a computer system. Microsoft’s audio format • AIF format • also one of the most • developed by Apple common format on Computer the web • • supported by most MP3 web browsers • most widespread • AU format form of audio on the Internet • one of the most • common format on playable on various the web players • created by Sun Microsystems

MIDI Format • Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) is typically used to play music. • MIDI files contain a set of instruction that the computer sends to a sound card, synthesizer, or other device. • Such instructions (note and instrument description) describe how to play the sound, rather than recording an actual rendition of the sound.

Sound Recording

Sound Recording

Sound Recording sound recorder (mic, tape recorder, MD, etc)

Sound Recording sound recorder (mic, tape recorder, MD, etc)

Sound Recording sound recorder (mic, tape recorder, MD, etc)

Sound Editing • Audacity - it’s GNU GPL license, it’s free, it’s cross platform. • Tracks • Waveform display • Selection • Trim • Amplify • Pitch • and many more....

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