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MLA Documentation

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Information about MLA Documentation
Education

Published on February 14, 2008

Author: Silvestre

Source: authorstream.com

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MLA Documentation:  MLA Documentation What is Plagiarism?:  What is Plagiarism? According to the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers: Plagiarism is the act of using another person’s ideas or expressions in your own writing without acknowledging the source. . . . To plagiarize is to give the impression that you have written or thought something that you have in fact borrowed from someone else (21). Why does plagiarism happen?:  Why does plagiarism happen? Students don’t understand how to cite sources Students don’t understand when to cite sources Students cheat Why should you document your sources?:  Why should you document your sources? Ethics Efficiency Authority What Should You Document?:  What Should You Document? Any source from which you use exact wording (quotes) Any source from which you adapt material in your own words (paraphrase) Any visual illustration: Charts, graphs, drawings, etc. Any paper you have submitted previously to another instructor. Common Knowledge. :  Common Knowledge. You do not need to document anything that is considered common knowledge. How Should You Document Your Sources?:  How Should You Document Your Sources? Borrowed material is cited twice, at the exact place in your essay you use the information (in-text citation) and at the end of your paper (list of works cited). Example:  Example Original Text The major concerns of Dickinson’s early and late poetry, her “flood subjects,: may be defined as the seasons and nature, death and a problematic afterlife, the kinds and phases of love, and poetry itself as the divine art. Plagiarized The chief subjects of Emily Dickinson’s poetry include nature and the seasons, death and the afterlife, the various types and stages of love, and poetry itself as a divine art. Correctly Documented:  Correctly Documented Gibson and Williams suggest that the chief subjects of Emily Dickinson’s poetry include nature and the seasons, death and the afterlife, the various types and stages of love, and poetry itself as a divine art (906). Or. . .:  Or. . . The chief subjects of Emily Dickinson’s poetry include nature and the seasons, death and the afterlife, the various types and stages of love, and poetry itself as the divine art (Gibson and Williams 906). The in-text citation corresponds with an entry in your list of works cited at the end of the paper. :  The in-text citation corresponds with an entry in your list of works cited at the end of the paper. Gibson, William M. and Stanley T, Williams “Experiment in Poetry: Emily Dickinson and Sidney Lanier.” Literary History of the United States. Ed. Robert E. Spiller et al. 4th ed. Vol. 1. New York: Macmillian, 1974. 899-916. Slide12:  If you have any doubt about whether or not you are committing plagiarism—cite your sources! What if I need to make some changes in the quotation so that it fits my sentence?:  What if I need to make some changes in the quotation so that it fits my sentence? If you need to make a change in the quotation, the change is indicated by brackets [ ] Example:  Example Original Text: I was just about ready for the land of nod, when I felt a sudden vibrating jar run through the ship. Quoted with alteration: “[Officer Boxal] was just about ready for the land of nod, when [he] felt a sudden vibrating jar run through the ship” (Beesley 284). Slide15:  While quotations are common and often effective in research papers, use them selectively. Quote only words, phrases, lines, and passages that are particularly interesting, vivid, unusual, or apt. Keep all quotations as brief as possible. Over quotation can bore your readers and might lead them to conclude that you are neither an original thinker nor a skillful writer. Quotes can go at the beginning of the sentence.:  Quotes can go at the beginning of the sentence. “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times,” wrote Charles Dickens of the eighteenth century (1). Quotes can go at the end of the sentence.:  Quotes can go at the end of the sentence. For Charles Dickens, the eighteenth century was both, “the best of times” and “the worst of times” (1). Quotes can be divided:  Quotes can be divided “He was obeyed,” writes Joseph Conrad of the company manager in Heart of Darkness, “yet he inspired neither love nor fear, nor even respect” (68). If a quotation runs more than four typed lines, it needs to be in block format.:  If a quotation runs more than four typed lines, it needs to be in block format. At the conclusion of Lord of the Flies, Ralph and the other boys realize the horror of their actions: The tears began to flow and sobs shook him. He gave himself up to them now for the first time on the island; great, shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to wrench his whole body. His voice rose under the black smoke before the burning wreckage of the island; and infected by that emotion, the other little boys began to shake and sob too. And in the middle of them, with filthy body, matted hair, and unwiped nose, Ralph wept for the end of innocence. (186) Quotation Marks or Underlines?:  Quotation Marks or Underlines? Underline Books Plays Long poems published as books Newspapers Magazines Films Television programs CD Quotation Marks Newspaper article Magazine article Encyclopedia article Essay in a book Short story Poem Song Episode of a television program Preparing the List of Works Cited:  Preparing the List of Works Cited In general, you will alphabetize entries in the list of works cited by the author’s last name. If the author’s last name is unknown, alphabetize by the first word in the title other than a, an, or the. Organization of an Entry:  Organization of an Entry An entry in the list of works cited has thee main divisions: author, title, and publication information. Each section ends with a period and two spaces. Example:  Example Lobdell, Jared. England and Always: Tolkein’s World of the Rings. Grand Rapids: Erdmans, 1981. Author: Jared Lobdell Title: England and Always: Tolkein’s World of the Rings. Publication: Grand Rapids: Erdmans, 1981. Order of Information:  Order of Information 1. Author’s name 2. Title of a part of the book. 3. Title of the book 4. Name of the editor, translator, or complier 5. Edition Used 6. Number of the volume used. 7. Name of the series 8. Place of publication, name of the publisher and date of publication 9. Page numbers 10. supplementary bilbliographic information and annotation Book by a single author:  Book by a single author Fairbanks, Carol. Prairie Women: Images in American and Canadian Fiction. New Haven: Yale UP, 1986. Book by two or more authors:  Book by two or more authors Berry, Jason, Jonathan Fosse, and Tad Jones. Up from the Cradle of Jazz: New Orleans Music since World War II. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1986. More than three authors:  More than three authors If there are more than three authors, you may name only the first and add et al. (and others), or you may give all names in full in the order in which they appear on the title page. More than Three Authors:  More than Three Authors Edens, Walter, et al., eds. Teaching Shakespeare. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1977. Periodicals:  Periodicals Periodicals are publications that appear regularly at fixed intervals. They include newspapers, magazines, and scholarly journals. An entry for an article in a periodical, like an entry for a book, has three main sections: author, title of the article, and publication information. Scholarly Journal:  Scholarly Journal Booth, Wayne C. “Kenneth Burke’s Way of Knowing.” Critical Inquiry 1 (1974): 1-22. Newspaper Articles:  Newspaper Articles When citing a newspaper, give the name as it appears on the masthead but omit any introductory article (New York Times, not The New York Times) More on Newspapers:  More on Newspapers If the city of publication is not included in the name of a locally published newspaper, add it in square brackets after the name. Press Telegram [Long Beach, CA] Even More on Newspapers:  Even More on Newspapers For nationally published newspapers--USA Today, Wall Street Journal, Chronical of Higher Education– you may omit the city of publication. One final thing on Newspapers:  One final thing on Newspapers Because different editions of the same newspaper contain different material, specify the edition (if one is given on the masthead). Newspaper Example:  Newspaper Example Fuerbringer, Jonathan. “Budgetary Rhythms.” New York Times 20 Mar. 1987, late ed.:A8+. Article in a Magazine:  Article in a Magazine Prince, Dinah. “Marriage in the ’80s.” New York 1 June 1987: 30-38. Monthly Magazine:  Monthly Magazine Ferrara, Jerry L. “Why Vultures Make Good Neighbors.” National Wildlife June-July 1987: 16-20. Online Sources:  Online Sources Online material from a computer service, such as AOL, Yahoo, or Earthlink or material from online databases. such as Lexis Nexis, ProQuest, Ebscohost provide material that may be revised continually or periodically. For this type of material, cite the publication information given in the source, the title of the database (underlined), the medium (Online), and the name of the computer service. More on Online Sources:  More on Online Sources Because it is often not possible to determine when material has been entered or updated in the service’s database, give the date on which you accessed the material. Online Source:  Online Source Bass, Alison. “Women Just as Spatial as Men.” Boston Globe 22 Feb. 1993, 3rd. Ed.: 25. Ebscohost. Online. Cerritos College. 19 Apr. 2006. Websites:  Websites The MLA Style Manual recommends including the URL for websites. The address should be given inside angle brackets: Website:  Website Simons, Mark. Thomas Hardy Resource Library. 19 Apr. 2006 <http:// pages.ripco.com/~mws/hardy.html> Quoting:  Quoting When you quote, you record the original source word for word, within quotation marks. You should only quote statements that are relatively short, well phrased, or authoritative. Be sure that the quote flows smoothly into your paper. Paraphrasing:  Paraphrasing When you paraphrase, you restate the entire passage in your own words. Paraphrase when you need to clarify a particularly important passage. You might consider putting the ideas in a new order, but be careful not to change the meaning of the original text. Important Note:  Important Note Whether you paraphrase or quote directly, you must give credit to the author of the original source by providing both an in-text citation and an entry in your list of works cited. Original Text:  Original Text When people keep doing what they’ve been doing even when it doesn’t work, they are action as Victims. When people change their beliefs and behaviors to create the best results they can, they are acting as Creators. Skip Downing, On Course Topic Sentence:  Topic Sentence As students, it is important to continually monitor our behaviors. Using a Direct Quote:  Using a Direct Quote As students, it is important to continually monitor our behaviors. If we pay attention to what we are doing, we can make changes. According to Skip Downing, “When people keep doing what they’ve been doing even when it doesn’t work, they are acting as Victims. When people change their beliefs and behaviors to create the best results they can, they are acting as Creators” (26). When we are able to recognize that the choices we are making are not working and make different choices, we are taking personal responsibility for our own success. Using a Paraphrase:  Using a Paraphrase As students, it is important to continually monitor our behaviors. If we pay attention to what we are doing, we can make changes. A Victim will continue making poor choices even if the choices cause problems. A Creator will recognize that the choices are not working and will change the unproductive behaviors (Downing 26). When we are able to recognize that the choices we are making are not working and make different choices, we are taking personal responsibility for our own success. Entry in the Works Cited.:  Entry in the Works Cited. Downing, Skip. On Course: Strategies for Creating Success in College and in Life. 4th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin 2005. Topic Sentence:  Topic Sentence In life, we often learn powerful lessons by overcoming adversity. Paragraph (blend of paraphrase and quote):  Paragraph (blend of paraphrase and quote) In life, we often learn powerful lessons by overcoming adversity. In Warriors Don’t Cry, Melba Patillo Beals must face daily harassment as she and eight other teenagers challenge the culture of segregation in Little Rock, Arkansas. As she looks back on her experiences, she realizes that: “The effort to separate ourselves, whether by race, creed, color, religion, or status is as costly to the separator as to those who would be separated” (312). The life philosophy Melba develops is support by Skip Downing, a modern day educator who claims: “Our lives are intertwined with the lives of many other people” (111). It is critical to our success to adopt the life pattern of a “Creator” and learn to ask for assistance when we need it and to give assistance when others ask us (Downing 111). In order to overcome the challenges presented to her, Melba must learn to trust a variety of people, including some who seem to be aligned with her enemies. Works Cited:  Works Cited Beals, Melba Pattillo. Warriors Don’t Cry. New York: Washington Square 1994. Downing, Skip. On Course: Strategies for Creating Success in College and in Life. 4th Ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin 2005.

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