Published on February 18, 2014
Environmental Science A Study of Interrelationships Thirteenth Edition Enger & Smith Chapter 12 Land-Use Planning Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
12.1 The Need for Planning Once converted to intensive human use, • unavailable for other uses Present land use in the United States: • 52% - Crops and livestock • 44% - Forests and natural areas • 4% - Intensive human use
12.2 Historical Forces That Shaped Land Use North America rural • industrial growth began in last third of the 1800s. Cities grew because of: • Industrial Revolution – farms to industrial jobs in cities • European immigrants – Congregated in cities – jobs were available
Migration from the Central City to the Suburbs As cities grew, • certain sections within city deteriorated • Pollution and crowding – made cities undesirable In the early 1900s, • people moved out of cities • 1950 - 60% urban population lived in central cities. • 1990 - 30% urban population lived in central cities.
Migration from the Central City to the Suburbs Rural-to-urban population shift
Migration from the Central City to the Suburbs Rural-to-urban population shift
Migration from the Central City to the Suburbs Urban sprawl • Spread low-density, auto-dependent development • On rural land outside compact urban centers (suburban) • Characteristics: – Excessive land consumption. – Lack of choice in ways to travel. – Fragmented open space (scattered appearance). – Lack of choice in housing – Segregation of commercial and housing – Lack of public spaces
12.4 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Death of the Central City • less than 10% work in the central city. Loss of Sense of Community • feeling isolated Higher Infrastructure Costs • Extension of municipal services more costly
12.4 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Transportation • As cities grew, – little thought given to transportation corridors. – constant road building. – Large Metro – 40 hours/year stuck in traffic
12.4 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Loss of Open Space and Farmland
12.4 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Air Pollution • traffic increases, so does air pollution. • public transportation difficult with highly dispersed population. Water Pollution – high runoff and potential flooding.
12.4 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Floodplain (low areas near rivers) • flooding • Many cities on floodplains – originally established along waterways. – Flat land is attractive to developers – Flood control structures – Forces water downstream – floodplain zoning ordinances – Restrict building in floodplain
12.4 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Flooding in Floodplain
12.4 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Wetlands (like estuaries) • areas periodically covered with water. • Many have been drained, filled, or used as landfills. – U.S. lost 53% of wetlands since the European immigration – Reproductive phase of many organisms. – Provide sediment filtration.
12.5 Land-Use Planning Principles Land-use planning • • • • process of evaluating: needs and wants of a population, the land characteristics and value, various alternative solutions to land uses before changes are made. • A basic rule should be to make as few changes as possible.
12.7 Special Urban Planning Issues Urban Transportation Planning • Four goals: – Conserve energy and land resources. – Provide efficient and inexpensive transportation, – Provide efficient transportation to suburban. – Reduce urban pollution.
12.7 Special Urban Planning Issues Urban open space; recreation planning • nature centers
12.7 Special Urban Planning Issues Smart growth • Developing “livable” cities and towns. • Quality of environment directly affects quality of life. Principles: • • • • • Mix land uses. compact building designs (multistory) Walkable neighborhoods Preserve open space Variety of transportation choices.
12.7 Special Urban Planning Issues Smart growth • building of “green buildings.” • using recycled materials, • ensuring better ventilation in buildings, • reducing water and energy use
Environmental Science A Study of Interrelationships Thirteenth Edition Enger & Smith Chapter 14 Agricultural Methods and Pest Management Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
14.1 The Development of Agriculture Development of agriculture • manipulating environment to produce food • increase in human population. Mechanized monoculture agriculture • manufacture pesticides and fertilizer
14.1 The Development of Agriculture Problems with mechanized monoculture agriculture: • Increases soil erosion. • Little genetic differentiation – increased pesticide use. • No crop rotation depletes soil nutrients, – increasing fertilizer use.
14.3 Agricultural Chemical Use A pesticide • any chemical used to kill or control populations of unwanted fungi, plants, or animals (pests). Based on the organisms they control. • • • • • Insecticides -- insect populations. Fungicides---fungal pests. Rodenticides---mice and rats. Herbicides --plant pests. Biocides
14.3 Agricultural Chemical Use The discovery of chemicals that could kill insects • major advance in the control of disease and the protection of crops. • Mosquitoes In 1942, DDT became the first synthetic organic insecticide produced.
14.3 Agricultural Chemical Use Organophosphates and carbamates • short-lived pesticides • do not persist in the environment. Affect the nerve cells of humans and other vertebrates Must use special equipment receive special training in safe application practices.
14.3 Agricultural Chemical Use Herbicides • • • • • control unwanted plants heavily used in genetically modified crops. 60% of all pesticides used in U.S. Weeds compete with crops for soil nutrients Traditional weed control methods – expensive in terms of time and energy.
14.3 Agricultural Chemical Use Fungicides • protect agricultural crops from spoilage • prevent spread of disease • protect seeds from rotting in the ground – Methyl mercury is extremely toxic to humans. Rodenticides prevent poisoning non-target organisms Especially humans
14.4 Problems with Pesticide Use Persistent pesticides (DDT) • attached to small soil particles • easily moved by wind or water. • distributed throughout the world from local applications. • Discovered in polar ice • present in the bodies of animals, including humans, throughout the world.
14.4 Problems with Pesticide Use Bioaccumulation • process of accumulating higher and higher amounts of material within an organism’s body. – build up in fat tissues. Biomagnification • process of acquiring increasing levels of a substance in bodies of higher trophic-level organisms. – DDT, mercury, and PCBs
The biomagnification of DDT
14.4 Problems with Pesticide Use Pesticide resistance • Insecticides only kill susceptible individuals. • Surviving individuals – characteristics allowed them to tolerate the pesticide. – Survivors pass on genetic characteristics for tolerance. – Subsequent pesticide applications less effective.
14.4 Problems with Pesticide Use Most pesticides are not species-specific • kill beneficial species as well as pest species. • Many kill predator and parasitic insects – normally control pest insects. • Insecticides may change the population structure – species not previously a problem may become a serious pest.
14.4 Problems with Pesticide Use Short-term and long-term health effects Acute poisoning during application WHO • 1 million and 5 million acute pesticide poisonings a year • resulting in 20,000 deaths. • Farmers exposed to pesticides over many years – higher levels of certain kinds of cancers
Environmental Science A Study of Interrelationships Thirteenth Edition Enger & Smith Chapter 15 Water Management Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
15.5 Kinds of Water Use Urban domestic water uses
15.6 Kinds and Sources of Water Pollution Disease-causing organisms • pollution problem in most of the world. Source of these organisms • Untreated or inadequately treated human or domesticated animal waste • Sewage treatment and drinking-water treatment plants – reduce this public health problem.
15.6 Kinds and Sources of Water Pollution Point source • source of pollution readily located… identified. • Municipal and industrial waste (discharge pipes). Nonpoint sources • • • • Difficult to identify and control. Pollutants from agricultural land Pollutants urban paved surfaces Acid rain
15.6 Kinds and Sources of Water Pollution Protect surface and ground waters from nonpoint pollution: • Use less toxic or nontoxic alternatives to home chemicals. • Buy chemicals only in the amount you need, apply as directed. • Unwanted household chemicals to hazardous waste collection centers. – not pour them down the drain.
15.6 Kinds and Sources of Water Pollution Municipal Water Pollution • Waste from homes – organic matter from garbage, food preparation, cleaning of clothes and dishes, and human waste. – Fecal coliform bacteria Agricultural activities are the primary cause of water pollution. • Excessive fertilizer • Runoff from animal feedlots carries nutrients, organic matter, and bacteria.
15.6 Kinds and Sources of Water Pollution Factories and industrial complexes • frequently dispose of waste in municipal sewage systems. • may require special wastewater treatment. Mining – Industrial water pollution. • Chemical run-off is released into streams. • Water draining from mines is highly acidic.
Environmental Science A Study of Interrelationships Thirteenth Edition Enger & Smith Chapter 16 Air Quality Issues Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
16.3 Categories of Air Pollutants Primary air pollutants • released directly into the atmosphere • sufficient quantities to pose a health risk. They are: • Carbon monoxide • Volatile organic compounds (hydrocarbons) • Particulate matter • Sulfur dioxide • Oxides of nitrogen
16.3 Categories of Air Pollutants Carbon monoxide • organic materials are burned with insufficient oxygen. • The single largest source is the automobile. – Remainder from burning, i.e., power plants, leaves, etc. • Binds to hemoglobin in blood – makes the hemoglobin less able to carry oxygen. • It is most dangerous in enclosed spaces
16.3 Categories of Air Pollutants Sulfur dioxide (SO2) • compound of sulfur and oxygen produced when sulfurcontaining fossil fuels are burned. • Burning coal releases SO2. • coal-burning power plants. – U.S. levels of SO2 decreased 56% between 1990 and 2007.
16.3 Categories of Air Pollutants Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are formed when fossil fuels are burned. • Nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) most common. • Burning fossil fuels in internal combustion engines – Primary source of nitrogen oxides. – Automobiles produce 38% – Non-road motorized equipment produces 21%
16.7 Global Warming and Climate Change Climatic records indicate over the past 160,000 years • close correlation between greenhouse gas concentration and global temperatures. • Climate change report (2007) – Average temperature on Earth has increased 0.56 to 0.92°C (1.0-1.7° F) in the past 100 years – Sea level is rising about 1.8 mm/yr or 18 cm in 100 years
Changes in Average Global Temp
16.7 Global Warming and Climate Change .A strong correlation exists between temperature increase and amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. • Human activity increases greenhouse gases in atmosphere. – Greenhouse gases increased 70% btw 1970 and 2004
16.7 Global Warming and Climate Change Greenhouse effect: • Greenhouse gases allow sunlight to penetrate the atmosphere. • Sunlight is absorbed by Earth’s surface. • It is reradiated as infrared energy (heat). • The heat is absorbed by gases in the atmosphere.
16.7 Global Warming and Climate Change Greenhouse effect
16.7 Global Warming and Climate Change Carbon dioxide--most abundant of the greenhouse gases. • Deforestation contributes to the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Methane • comes from biological sources and • from some fossil-fuel burning activities. Nitrous oxide • from fossil fuels and fertilizers. Chlorofluorocarbons from refrigerants, and propellants.
16.7 Global Warming and Climate Change Small increase in the average temperature may seem trivial • set in motion changes that could significantly alter the climate • Affect: – hydrologic cycle – sea level, – human health, – survival and distribution of organisms – use of natural resources by people.
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