Published on March 11, 2014
1. What is material management? Material Management Materials management is part of logistics and refers to the location and movement of the physical items or products. There are three main processes associated with materials management: spare parts, quality control, and inventory management. Materials management is important in large manufacturing and distribution environments, where there are multiple parts, locations, and significant money invested in these items. Material management is a scientific technique, concerned with Planning, Organizing &Control of flow of materials, from their initial purchase to destination. Determining what materials are needed Receiving quotes from suppliers Developing purchase orders Ordering materials Managing the delivery of materials Identifying storage locations for materials Material Management Process Order Approval Process Fabrication & Delivery Process Installation Process 2. What are the advantages of Office automation? The term office automation refers to all tools and methods that are applied to office activities which make it possible to process written, visual, and sound data in a computer-aided manner. Office automation is intended to provide elements which make it possible to simplify, improve, and automate the organisation of the activities of a company or a group of people (management of administrative data, synchronisation of meetings, etc.). Considering that a company organization requires increased communication, today, office automation is no longer limited to simply capturing handwritten notes. In particular, it also includes the following activities: exchange of information management of administrative documents handling of numerical data meeting planning and management of work schedules
Office suite tools The term "office suite" refers to all software programs which make it possible to meet office needs. In particular, an office suite therefore includes the following software programs: word processing a spreadsheet a presentation tool a database a scheduler Office Activities Documents preparation Data Management ( Structured / Unstructured) Scheduling / Planning of activities Presentation Dissemination of Information Communication / Correspondence 3. What are the advantages of creating database in Ms Access? Microsoft Access is a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS), designed primarily for home or small business usage. Access is known as a desktop database system because it's functions are intended to be run from a single computer. This is in contrast to a server database application (such as SQL Server), where it is intended to be installed on a server, then accessed remotely from multiple client machines. Microsoft (or MS) Access is a software package that you install just like any other software package, and is bundled as part of the Microsoft Office suite. The advantages of using access include: Enter data quickly and accurately Recalculate data easily Perform a what-if analysis Change the appearance of information Create charts Share information with other users Create new worksheets from existing ones quick
4. What is DBMS? Data Base Management System (DBMS): Data Base Management System (DBMS) is a software package that allows data to be effectively stored, retrieved and manipulated and the data stored in a DBMS package can be accessed by multiple users and by multiple application programs like (SQL Server, Oracle, Ms- Access). The advantages of DBMS It represents complex relationships among different data items. 1. Keeps a tight control on data redundancy. Control of data redundancy - Data consistency - More information from the same amount of data - Sharing of data - Improved data integrity - Improved security - Enforcement of standards - Economy of scale 2. Enforces user defined rules to ensure the integrity of data in a table form. 3. Maintains data dictionary for the storage of information pertaining to data fields and data manipulation. 4. Ensures that data can be shared across all applications. 5. Enforces data access authorization. 6. Has an automatic intelligent backup and recovery procedure of data. 7. Have different interfaces through which users can manipulate data. 8. Data independence 9. Security Management 10. Improved consistency 5. What are the advantages of using forms? Forms A graphical interface used to interact with the database is called form. Forms are used to enter data in the database. A form consists of text boxes, labels, buttons and other graphical objects. These objects enable the user to interact with the database easily. The user can also retrieve, change, delete and update data by using forms. The application programmers create the user interface by designing the forms in different ways.
Advantages Some important advantages of forms are as follows: 1. Forms are easy to use. 2. They use graphical interface that is attractive. 3. The user can interact with database without technical knowledge. 6. What are Reports? Reports Reports are the output of data base application. Reports are used to retrieve and present data in a formatted way. The information on reports is arranged in different ways. A report may also contain graphs, charts and tables etc. The user can generate different types of reports by manipulating database. Some reports are simple a list of the records in database. Advantages 1. Reports provide quick result from database. 2. It helps in making important decision. 3. It can be printed or emailed easily Anonymous. 7. Explain in detail application of MIS in Hospitality Industry? Applications of MIS With computers being as ubiquitous as they are today, there's hardly any large business that does not rely extensively on their IT systems. However, there are several specific fields in which MIS has become invaluable. * Strategy Support While computers cannot create business strategies by themselves they can assist management in understanding the effects of their strategies, and help enable effective decision-making. MIS systems can be used to transform data into information useful for decision making. Computers can provide financial statements and performance reports to assist in the planning, monitoring and implementation of strategy. MIS systems provide a valuable function in that they can collate into coherent reports unmanageable volumes of data that would otherwise be broadly useless to decision makers. By studying these reports decision-makers can identify patterns and trends that would have remained unseen if the raw data were consulted manually.
MIS systems can also use these raw data to run simulations – hypothetical scenarios that answer a range of ‘what if’ questions regarding alterations in strategy. For instance, MIS systems can provide predictions about the effect on sales that an alteration in price would have on a product. These Decision Support Systems (DSS) enable more informed decision making within an enterprise than would be possible without MIS systems. The following are examples of some of the information system products that are available to hotel operators: LodgingTouch Property Management System (by Hotel Information Systems) The system is divided into various modules which can interact with the front office, group sales, guest history, accounts receivable, travel agencies, and yield management. Hoteliers can search and retrieve guest information by various fields, including name, address, confirmation numbers, and other fields. In addition, the system allows users to search for accounts using any criteria. Paragon AS/400 Front Office System (by Hotel Information Systems) Planning for a guest's stay includes managing accommodations, aggressive pricing, marketing, forecasting, and implementing reporting controls. The Paragon system claims a flexible system that provides information in order to achieve optimal standards. The system provides information and feedback to measure financial impact and quality. Paragon can manage the complete hotel system. Paragon can be integrated with Paragon Back Office, Central Reservations, and complementary products. Some benefits claimed by the Paragon include improved customer service, efficient internal operations, and control over financial data integrity. Other key features include: Easy reservation input. Optimal return on rooms by providing flexible rate configuration and maximum room occupancy. Access availability by room type, total hotel and group. Provide confirmation letters and pre-printed registration cards. Capture additional guest information through hotel configurable fields. Maintain wait lists. Provide flexible package configurations. CLS Software Property Management System (by Hotel Information Systems) This system can support properties of all sizes, from 50 to 1,000 rooms. They also claim a comprehensive integrated modular system that links together all aspects of the hotel function. The system comes in domestic and international versions. Other key features include: Ease of data entry
Over 200 interface solutions Technical Support - 24-hours a day, 7-days a week, 365-days a year Over 25 years of experience. 8. Write shot notes on: (a) Information system (b) Electronic Communication System a) Information system An information system (IS) is any combination of information technology and people's activities using that technology to support operations, management, and decision-making.In a very broad sense, the term information system is frequently used to refer to the interaction between people, algorithmic processes, data and technology. In this sense, the term is used to refer not only to the information and communication technology (ICT) an organization uses, but also to the way in which people interact with this technology in support of business processes. It consists of computers, instructions, stored facts, people and procedures. ISs can be categorized in three parts: 1. Management Information System (MIS). 2. Decision Support System (DSS). 3. Executive Information System (EIS). b) Electronic Communication System Electronic communication system is the science and technology of electronic phenomenon. Electronic communication system means communication by computer or by using electronic devices. Transmission - communication by means of transmitted signals. Data communication, digital communication - electronic transmission of information that has been encoded digitally (as for storage and processing by computers) e-mail, electronic mail, email - (computer science) a system of world-wide electronic communication in which a computer user can compose a message at one terminal that can be regenerated at the recipient's terminal when the recipient logs in; "you cannot send packages by electronic mail" Electronic messaging, messaging - the sending and processing of e-mail by computer Command prompt, prompt - (computer science) a symbol that appears on the computer screen to indicate that the computer is ready to receive a command
9. Explain the role of computers in MIS. Role of MIS MIS generally has the following role. a. Management oriented: Beyond any doubt is the fact that MIS is a management oriented system. This could be understood from the terminology itself. The information processing carried out by MIS if always attempting at helping the management. b. Management directed: Similarly, all the activities of MIS are initiated by the management. It is the management’s need that the MIS strives to satisfy. Hence, MIS is management directed. c. User-machine system: The concept of user-machine system implies that some tasks of MIS are done by the users while others are best done by machines. There is co-existence of both men and machines in MIS. d. Integrated system: MIS hopes to provide the basis of integration of information processing. This leads to common data flows. Even tough applications in a system are implemented one at a time, their design is guided by an overall plan. In essence information system is designed as a federation of small systems. e. Involves large planning: The concept of MIS goes only with planning. There is a huge amount planning coupled with the installation and maintenance of MIS f. Sub systems: Naturally, a vast system like the MIS will be having plenty of sub systems which are mutually related with defined with definite relationships and properly ordered. It is based on subsystem concept. g. Use of models: MIS uses scientific and mathematical models for planning, organizing, directing and controlling for its analysis. h. Data base: One of the pre-requisites for installing, implementing and successful operating of MIS is data. Hence, there has to be a way to maintain data in data in data bases and there has to be a central database. i. Information as a resource: MIS transforms data into information and the management is behind MIS. MIS provides procedure for measuring and matching cost of obtaining and using information. j. Flexibility in use: MIS is so designed that it is flexible and adaptable to user requirements. k. Others: MIS is predictive and related to organizational levels.
10. How will you create forms and queries in ms- access? Explain. Forms: Microsoft Access forms provide a quick and easy way to modify and insert records into your databases. They offer an intuitive, graphical environment easily navigated by anyone familiar with standard computer techniques. Queries In general, a query (noun) is a question, often required to be expressed in a formal way. The word derives from the Latin quaere (the imperative form of quaerere, meaning to ask or seek). In computers, what a user of a search engine or database enters is sometimes called the query. To query (verb) means to submit a query (noun). A database query can be either a select query or an action query. A select query is simply a data retrieval query. An action query can ask for additional operations on the data, such as insertion, updating, or deletion. Creation of forms and queries in Ms Access: Step1 Start Programs Ms Office Ms Access Now the Ms Access Window is opened.
Step 2 Go to File New (or) On the objects bar, click forms. Step 3 Double click create form by using wizard to display the first page of the form wizard.
Click the down arrow to the right of the tables and click table. To display the fields from that table in the available fields list. Click the button to move all the fields from the available fields list to the selected fields list, and then click next.
Step 4 The second page of the form wizard appears, in which you choose the layout of the fields in the new form. When they select an option on the right side of the page, the preview area on the left side shows what the form layout will look like with that option applied. Step: 5 Select columnar, and than click next. Step 6 Then third page of the wizard appears, in which they can select a style option to see how the style will look when applied to the form. Click the “industrial” style in the list and click next.
Then click finish. Step 7 Now the Room booking details form opens, displaying the first guest record in room booking details. Step 8 Use the navigation controls at the bottom of the form to scroll through a few of the records. Step 9 Close the form. 11. What are the advantages of using computers for creating database? Explain. The Advantages of Using a Database The advantages of using a database are considerable. Without them, you would be hard- pressed to find a decent system of keeping and managing information. In recent years, the
increased flexibility and user-friendliness of databases make these systems a crucial business component. Many database solutions are available for any type of business need, ranging from storing a customer information matrix to hosting a Word Press blog. Here are the top reasons for using a database: Databases Save Time Instead of rummaging through endless piles of paperwork, a database pulls up information with simple query. A user can enter in specific keywords in order to recall information. The database becomes a more efficient solution than paper files held in a file folder. Databases Aid Communication Larger companies can benefit from databases when information must be spread to various users. For example, if a company has two branches but must share central information, it would be prudent to implement a central database that can be viewed by all employees of that company. This way, once information is added, it is viewable by all, aiding in a cohesive work environment. By looking at database records and how data has changed over time, you can also track important trends, such as which product is most popular with your customers, which can make your business more competitive. Databases Are More Secure File cabinets can be compromised. They can be stolen, accidentally destroyed, or lost. Databases add another level of security to valuable information. Not only can a database be stored in a remote facility unaffected by devastating events such as fire or thievery, but a database can also be password protected. This locks out any eyes that should not view sensitive reports. Databases Are Inexpensive Managers Smaller businesses are always looking for ways to cut costs without cutting quality. A database can be a hefty investment initially, but, over the long term, it will save money by improving the efficiency of all employees, impressing customers who will not need to repeat their information and saving on paper costs. Other uses of database: Reduced data redundancy Reduced updating errors and increased consistency Greater data integrity and independence from applications programs Improved data access to users through use of host and query languages Improved data security Reduced data entry, storage, and retrieval costs Facilitated development of new applications program It means all of the information is together. The information can be portable if on a laptop. The information is easy to access at any time. It's more easily retrievable. Many people can access the same database at the same time.
Improved data security. Reduced data entry, storage, and retrieval costs. 12. Explain the steps involved in designing reports. Reports: Reports are the output of data base application. Reports are used to retrieve and present data in a formatted way. The information on reports is arranged in different ways. A report may also contain graphs, charts and tables etc. The user can generate different types of reports by manipulating database. Some reports are simple a list of the records in database. Creating reports in Ms Access Step 1 Start Programs Ms Office Ms Access Now the Ms Access Window is opened. Step 2
Go to File New (or) On the objects bar, click reports.
Step 3 Double click create form by using wizard to display the first page of the report wizard. Step 4 Click the down arrow to the right of the tables and click table. To display the fields from that table in the available fields list. Click the button to move all the fields from the available fields list to the selected fields list, and then click next.
Step 4 The second page of the report wizard appears, in which you choose the layout of the fields in the new report. When they select an option on the right side of the page, the preview area on the left side shows what the report layout will look like with that option applied. Step: 5 Select tabular, and than click next.
Step 6 Then third page of the wizard appears, in which they can select a style option to see how the style will look when applied to the report. Click the “corporate” style in the list and click next.
Then click finish. Step 7 Now the Revenue Report opens, displaying the details of revenue of the housekeeping.
Step 8 Use the navigation controls at the bottom of the report to scroll through a few of the records. Step 9 Close the report. 13. Critically examine the steps in creating sales MIS reports for a hotel. Reports: Reports are the output of data base application. Reports are used to retrieve and present data in a formatted way. The information on reports is arranged in different ways. A report may also contain graphs, charts and tables etc. The user can generate different types of reports by manipulating database. Some reports are simple a list of the records in database. MIS Reports Consumption by product and by category Inventory value by product and by category Consumption compared to sales – by category Combined inventory value of locations and stockroom Product list by sequence Purchase orders by Supplier Stock Receipt reports for each Purchase Order Request and Issues reports for activity between Storerooms and Sales Centers. Product list by cost price Product list by sales price Full/empty bottle weight list Discontinued product list Value on hand for combined product locations Consumption compared to sales by category Products below PAR by supplier Steps to create a MIS reports in Ms Access
Step 1 Start Programs Ms Office Ms Access Now the Ms Access Window is opened. Step 2 Go to File New (or) On the objects bar, click reports.
Step 3 Double click create form by using wizard to display the first page of the report wizard.
Step 4 The second page of the report wizard appears, in which you choose the layout of the fields in the new report. When they select an option on the right side of the page, the preview area on the left side shows what the report layout will look like with that option applied. Step: 5 Select tabular, and than click next. Step 4 The second page of the report wizard appears, in which you choose the layout of the fields in the new report. When they select an option on the right side of the page, the preview area on the left side shows what the report layout will look like with that option applied. Step: 5 Select tabular, and than click next.
Step 6 Then third page of the wizard appears, in which they can select a style option to see how the style will look when applied to the report. Click the “formal” style in the list and click next.
Then click finish.
Step 7 Now the MIS Report 2010 opens, displaying the details of MIS. Step 8 Use the navigation controls at the bottom of the form to scroll through a few of the records. Step 9 Close the report. LAN VS. WAN LAN Network LAN stands for Local Area Network. Local Area Network (LAN) is method of connecting more than one computer. The scope of local area network is private network, single building or small area up to few kilometers. To exchange information in different companies or schools or universities used to connect personal computers and workstations. WAN Network A WAN (wide area network), is not restricted to a geographical location, although it might be confined within the bounds of a state or country. A WAN connects several LANs, and may be limited to an enterprise (a corporation or an organization) or accessible to the public. The technology is high speed and relatively expensive. The Internet is an example of a worldwide public WAN.
LAN vs. WAN S.No Headings LAN WAN 1 Ownership: Typically owned, controlled, and managed by a single person or organization WANs (like the Internet) are not owned by any one organization but rather exist under collective or distributed ownership and management over long distances 2 Example: Network in an organization can be a LAN Internet is the best example of a WAN 3 Technology: Tend to use certain connectivity technologies, primarily Ethernet and Token Ring WANs tend to use technology like ATM, Frame Relay and X.25 for connectivity over the longer distances 4 Maintenance costs: Because it covers a relatively small geographical area, LAN is easier to maintain at relatively low costs. Maintaining WAN is difficult because of its wider geographical coverage, and and is its maintenance costs. 5 Definition: LAN (Local Area Network) is a computer network covering a small geographic area, like a home, office, or group of buildings WAN (Wide Area Network) is a computer network that covers a broad area (e.g., any network whose communications links cross metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries over a long distance 6 Set-up costs: If there is a need to set-up a couple of extra devices on the network, it is not very expensive to do that In this case since networks in remote areas have to be connected hence the set-up costs are higher 7 Connection: one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves Computers connected to a wide-area network are often connected through public networks, such as the telephone system. They can also be connected through leased lines or satellites
S.No Headings LAN WAN 8 Geographical spread: Have a small geographical range and do not need any leased telecommunication lines Have a large geographical range generally spreading across boundaries and need leased telecommunication lines 9 Data transfer rates: LANs have a high data transfer rate WANs have a lower data transfer rate as compared to LANs 10 Coverage Area A LAN (local area network) is a group of computers and network devices connected together, usually within the same building A WAN (wide area network), is not restricted to a geographical location, although it might be confined within the bounds of a state or country.
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