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Published on December 1, 2007

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MICROQUASARS :  MICROQUASARS Felix Mirabel European Southern Observatory Santiago, Chile THE IDEA OF MICROQUASAR:  THE IDEA OF MICROQUASAR Mirabel, Rodriguez, et al, 1992 Black Hole Wang et al. ApJ 2002 Belanger, Goldwurm, Goldoni, ApJ 2003 INTEGRAL Chandra QUASAR-MICROQUASAR ANALOGY :  QUASAR-MICROQUASAR ANALOGY The scales of length and time are proportional to MBH Rsh = 2GMBH/c2 ; DT a MBH The maximum color temperature of the accretion disk is: Tcol a (M/ 10M)-1/4 (Shakura & Sunyaev, 1976) For a given accretion rate: LBol a MBH ; ljet a MBH ; j a MBH-1 ; B a MBH-1/2 (Sams, Eckart, Sunyaev, 96; Rees 04) QUASAR MICROQUASAR Mirabel & Rodriguez; Nature 1992, 94, 98 APPARENT SUPERLUMINAL MOTIONS IN mQSOs AS IN QSOs ? SUPERLUMINAL EJECTION IN A mQSO:  SUPERLUMINAL EJECTION IN A mQSO 1 arcsec Mirabel & Rodriguez, 1994 Vapp = 1.3c for a DISTANCE = 12 Kpc l3.6 cm THE PLASMA THAT RADIATES IN THE HARD X-RAYS IS BLOWN IN SUPERLUMINAL JETS VLA SUPERLUMINAL MOTIONS IN AGN & mQSOs:  SUPERLUMINAL MOTIONS IN AGN & mQSOs MOVE ON THE PLANE OF THE SKY ~103 TIMES FASTER JETS ARE TWO-SIDED WHICH ALLOWS TO SOLVE EQUATIONS BETTER AGN AT <100 Mpc. e.g. Collimation @ 30-100 Rsh in M87 (Biretta) WITH SAME BULK LORENTZ FACTORS Mirabel & Rodriguez, 1994 ACCRETION–JET CONNECTION :  ACCRETION–JET CONNECTION INFRARED & RADIO SYNCHROTRON EMISSION FROM THE JETS JETS APPEAR ~5 MIN AFTER DISAPPEARANCE OF THE INNER DISK THE ONSET OF THE JET IS AT THE TIME OF A “SPIKE” IN THE X-RAYS: SUDDEN REBUILT OF THE INNER DISK & LAUNCH A SHOCK THROUGH DT a MBH Mirabel et al. Nature 98; using RXTE + ESO + NRAO COMPACT STEADY JETS:  COMPACT STEADY JETS ~100 AU IN LENGTH PRESENT DURING PLATEAU STATE SPEED OF THE FLOW < 0.4c (Ribo, Mirabel & Dhawan 2005) LARGE SCALE JETS ARE SHOCKS PROPAGATING AT ~0.98c THROUGH THE SLOWER MOVING COMPACT JET THE COMPACT JET REAPPEARS HOURS AFTER FLARES Ribo, Mirabel, Dhawan 2005 Mirabel et. al, 1998 2.0 cm 3.6 cm ANALOGOUS ACCRETION-JET CONNECTION IN THE :  ANALOGOUS ACCRETION-JET CONNECTION IN THE SCALE-UP mQSO 3C 120 Marscher, Gomez, et al. Nature 2002 Red: X-rays Yellow: Radio DARK JETS FROM BLACK HOLES:  DARK JETS FROM BLACK HOLES (Dubner et al) X-rays: (Brinkmann et al) SS433/W50 ATOMIC NUCLEI MOVING AT 0.26c  MECHANICAL LUMINOSITY > 1040 erg/sec NON RADIATIVE JETS = “DARK” JETS 1o = 60 pc 1arcsec VLA l20cm LARGE-SCALE JETS IN GRS 1915+105 (TRIGGERING STAR FORMATION ?):  LARGE-SCALE JETS IN GRS 1915+105 (TRIGGERING STAR FORMATION ?) Rodriguez & Mirabel, 2000 Variable NT feature ? OTHER LARGE-SCALE JETS ?:  OTHER LARGE-SCALE JETS ? Cyg X-1 ( Gallo et al. Nature 2005) >50% OF THE RELEASED ENERGY IS NOT RADIATED Cyg X-3 (Marti et al.2005) MOVING X-RAY JETS IN A mQSO:  MOVING X-RAY JETS IN A mQSO mQSOs XTE J1550-564 & H1743-322 Corbel et al. (2002, 05) X-rays are produced by synchrotron  electrons accelerated to TeV energies MICROBLAZARS (Mirabel. & Rodriguez, ARAA 1999):  MICROBLAZARS (Mirabel. & Rodriguez, ARAA 1999) Due to relativistic beaming: Dt a 1/2g2 ; I a 8g3 e.g. If g = 5, Q < 10o  Dt < 1/50 and DI > 103 SHOULD APPEAR AS SOURCES WITH FAST AND INTENSE VARIATIONS OF FLUX  DIFFICULT TO FOLLOW AND TO FIND mblazars from HMXBs may appear as variable gamma-ray sources due to Inverse Compton on UV photons of donor (Romero, Kauffman, Mirabel 2002; Bosch-Ramon & Paredes, 2004) HAVE TWO MICROBLAZARS BEEN FOUND ? :  HAVE TWO MICROBLAZARS BEEN FOUND ? Paredes et al. 2004 LS 5039 Both inside EGRET error box (MeV-GeV) LS 5039 has HESS counterpart >100 GeV (Aharonian et al. Science 2005) Both are massive stars in eccentric orbits around compact objects of < 4 M Both are young runaway compact binaries (Ribo et al. 2002; Mirabel & Rodrigues 2004) X-ray time variability supports scenario of jets fed by disks (Massi; Bosch-Ramon et al. 2005) LSI +61 303 Massi et al.04 Alternative model: Relativistic wind from young pulsar e.g.: PSR B1259-63 in HMXB detected by HESS at periastron LS 5039 HOW ARE BLACK HOLE BINARIES FORM ? :  HOW ARE BLACK HOLE BINARIES FORM ? THERE ARE THEORETICAL MODELS e.g. Fryer & Kalogera ; Woosley & Heger (2002) BUT FEW OBSERVATIONS ! Mirabel & I. Rodrigues (2001-05) used the kinematics of mQSOs to find out: BIRTH PLACE & NATURE OF THE PROGENITOR STARS WHETHER THE PROGENITOR STAR ALWAYS EXPLODES AS AN ENERGETIC SUPERNOVAE Slide16:  GAMMA-RAY BURSTS OF LONG DURATION MARK THE BIRTH OF BLACK HOLES AT COSMIC DISTANCES Association with JETS, SN Ic & GRB @ Z=6.4  PROGENITORS OF GRB’s ARE MASSIVE BINARIES  SOME mQSOs ARE FOSSILS OF GRBs RUNAWAY BLACK HOLE:  RUNAWAY BLACK HOLE Mirabel, Irapuan Rodrigues et al. (A&A 395, 595, 2002) Proper motion with HST + radial velocity from ground RUNAWAY VELOCITY ~120 km/s MOMENTUM = 550 M km/s as in runaway neutron stars A LIKELY FOSSIL OF A GRBs FORMED IN AN HYPER-NOVA (Israelian et al. Nature 2001) LOW-MASS BLACK HOLE FORMED IN A LUMINOUS SUPERNOVA GRO J1655-40 MBH ~ 4 M ORBITS FOR THE LAST 230 Myrs Yellow: Sun White: BH binary THE HIGH MASS BLACK HOLE IN Cyg X-1 FORMED IN THE DARK :  THE HIGH MASS BLACK HOLE IN Cyg X-1 FORMED IN THE DARK V < 9 +/- 2 km/s  < 1 M ejected in SN Otherwise it would have shot out from the parent association MBH > 10 M MASSIVE STELLAR BH’s FORM PROMPTLY ? Mirabel & Rodrigues, Science (2003) A BLACK HOLE FORMED ~7 BILLONS YEARS AGO IN THE GALACTIC HALO :  A BLACK HOLE FORMED ~7 BILLONS YEARS AGO IN THE GALACTIC HALO Mirabel, Rodrigues et al. Nature, 2001 XTE J1118+480 MBH = 9 M l=158o b=+62o; D=1.9 kpc GALACTIC ARCHEOLOGY OF MASSIVE STARS PROBABLY ONE OF THE SEVERAL MILLONS BHs THAT ESCAPED FROM GLOBULAR CLUSTERS GALACTOCENTRIC ORBIT FOR THE LAST 230 Myrs Yellow: Sun White: BH binary Slide20:  THE mQSO/AGN ANALOGY IS CONFIRMED AND MAY BE USED TO GAIN KNOWLEDGE IF THE PHENOMENOLOGICAL CORRELATIONS mQSO/AGN 1) X-ray/radio/mass, 2) QPOs/mass, 3) Noise-spectrum/mass became robust, independently of the models ESTIMATE THE MASS OF BLACK HOLES ANALOGOUS SITUATION OF H-R DIAGRAM IN STELLAR ASTRONOMY Fe Ka LINES IN mQSOs:  Fe Ka LINES IN mQSOs Cygnus X-1 Miller et al. (2002) CHANDRA, XMM & Beppo-SAX Asymmetry: gravitational redshift, Doppler & transverse-Doppler shift Narrow component from outer disk ? Broad component from inner disk SPINNING BLACK HOLE? mQSOs MAY BE GOOD LABORATORIES TO STUDY IN SHORT TIME SCALES THE Fe Ka LINES AS A FUNCTION OF X-RAY STATE TO TEST MODELS ON THE ORIGIN OF THESE LINES IN SEYFERTS FOUND IN ~6 MICROQASARS QSO - mQSO - GRB ANALOGY:  QSO - mQSO - GRB ANALOGY HAVE THE SAME 3 BASIC INGREEDIENTS (Mirabel & Rodriguez, S&T 2002) AN UNIVERSAL MAGNETO-HYDRODINAMIC MECHANISM FOR JETS ? neutron star no no ? CONCLUSION Microquasars have provided insight into: :  CONCLUSION Microquasars have provided insight into: THE PHYSICS OF RELATIVISTIC JETS FROM BH’s THE CONNECTION BETWEEN ACCRETION & EJECTION THE FORMATION OF STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLES Microquasars could provide insight into: A LARGE FRACTION OF ULXs IN NEARBY GALAXIES GRBs OF LONG DURATION IN DISTANT GALAXIES X-RAY - RADIO CORRELATIONS IN LOW-POWER BHs OF ALL MASSES:  X-RAY - RADIO CORRELATIONS IN LOW-POWER BHs OF ALL MASSES Radio-X-ray correlation in low-hard state mQSOs (Corbel et al. 02; Gallo, Fender & Pooley, 03; Maccarone et al.03) The power output of quiescent BHs is jet-dominated In high-soft X-ray state the radio jets are quenched. Also in AGN. Sgr A*, LINERs, FR I & BL Lac are analogous to mQSOs in the low-hard state (Falcke,et al. 04) Relation between X-ray, radio & mass of BHs 5 GHz & 2-10 keV core emission (Merloni, Heinz & Di Matteo 03) From radiativelly inefficient accretion rather than thin synchrotron Radio/bolometric luminosity larger in AGN (Heinz & Sunyaev 2003) If more robust, independently of the model THE MASS OF BLACK HOLES COULD BE INFERRED TIME VARIATIONS SEEM TO SCALE WITH BLACK HOLE MASS:  TIME VARIATIONS SEEM TO SCALE WITH BLACK HOLE MASS 1) Duration of X-ray flares in Cyg X-1 and Sgr A* In Cyg X-1 and other BHXRBs: 1-10 ms (Gierlinski & Zdziarski, 03) In Sgr A* 400-10,000 s (Baganoff et al. 01; Goldwurm et al. 03) 2) 3:2 twin peak kHz QPO in mQSOs and the spin of BHs In 3 mQSOs a = J/(GM/c2) = 0.6-0.9 (Remillard 2004) Due to gravitational cyclic modes (Abramowicz et al. 2004) Observations in Sgr A* : IR QPOs of ~17 min  a = 0.52 (Genzel et al. Nature. 04) X-ray QPOs that include twins of 12 & 19 min (Aschenbach et al. 04). DT ratio ~ MSgrA BH / Mstellar BH = 105-6 Independently of the model The BH mass in ULXs may be derived Strohmayer GRS 1915+105 APERIODIC VARIABILITY IN AGN & mQSOs :  APERIODIC VARIABILITY IN AGN & mQSOs The break time scale in the power spectral density of black holes seems to scale linearly with the mass of the BH (Uttley & McHardy, 2001) The NLS1 NGC 4051 scales better with Cyg X-1 in the soft-high state (Lbol ~ 0.3 Ledd) The broad band Sey 1 NGC 3516 scales linearly with Cyg X-1 in the low-hard state (McHardy, 04) Most of the aperiodic variation in Cyg X-1 is due to the harder component (Churazov, Gilfanov, Revnivtsev, 2001) Propagating perturbations in the accreting flow (Uttley, 2004) THE MASS OF BLACK HOLES IN ULXs COULD BE DETERMINED QPOs AND GENERAL RELATIVITY:  QPOs AND GENERAL RELATIVITY GRS 1915+105 (Strohmayer) nmax = f(MBH, Spin)  DETERMINE THE SPIN OF BLACK HOLES THE BH SPIN & DISK TEMPERATURE SUGGEST THAT JETS MAY BE POWERED BY THE BH SPIN (Zhang et al.; Wang) High frequency QPOs (e.g. 40 & 67 Hz repeat in GRS) This 3:2 ratio now found in 4 BHXBs (Remillard et al.)  must depend on fundamental properties of black hole Tagger; Chakrabarti, Zhang

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