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Published on January 28, 2008

Author: Tutu1

Source: authorstream.com

Mixed  Media in the LDCs:  Mixed  Media in the LDCs Michael.Minges@itu.int IP Connectivity in LDCs ITU, Geneva, April 11-12, 2002 Index:  Index The L factor What is mixed media? 3 snapshots: Wireless wonder: Cambodia Guns for radios: Niger Small is beautiful: Cape Verde Conclusions The L factor :  The L factor LDC—Least Developed Nations face special barriers Lack of infrastructure—shortage of electricity, telephone lines and PCs to access the Internet Low income—low incomes means that Internet access will not be affordable Landlocked—raises costs of international Internet connectivity Literacy—relatively low rates of literacy is a barrier to using a text-based medium such as the Internet Languages—in many LDCs, Internet content in local languages is not widely available Larur—LDCs are predominantly rural and agricultural impacting both distribution and relevance of Internet information Major impediment to conventional Internet access in LDCs Mixed Media:  Mixed Media Mass media: medium of communication (newspapers, radio, television, Internet) aimed at large numbers of people Mixed media: combining various communication media to enhance the dissemination of information Mixed media is an attractive way of spreading benefits of Internet in least developed countries Media-mixes are more effective than a single medium—Neil McKee Media in LDCs:  Media in LDCs “The radio will probably do more to bring information, education and social progress to … the developing world than any other device for a generation.” — The Times of London, 10 August 1995 Source: ITU. Mixed Media in Action:  Mixed Media in Action Internet content downloaded to radio station Internet information broadcast over radio in local languages Cellphone with radio Content providers call radio station with information Cambodia:  Cambodia 11.4 million population GNP per capita US$ 260 84% rural, 82% of population and 50% economy in agriculture Main language Khmer (95%), 65% literacy Media in Cambodia:  Media in Cambodia Note: Radio and television refer to 1999, others 1996. Source: National Institute of Statistics, Ministry of Planning. Cambodia Internet:  Cambodia Internet Full connection in May 1997 6 Mbps in, 3.5 Mbps out of international connectivity (all satellite) ~ 8’000 users (June 2001), 0.07% population Wireless wonder:  Wireless wonder First nation where more mobiles than fixed Mobile used to transmit pricing information in city markets TMS2Mail and WEM Wireless broadband Niger:  Niger One of world’s poorest nations: GNI per capita US$180, 161/162 HDI Landlocked 79% rural; Agriculture: 39% of economy 84% illiteracy 20 languages in use Source: World Bank, Ethnologue Niger Internet:  Niger Internet Full connection to Internet in May 1997 via VSAT 128 kbps international bandwidth Nationwide dial-up number ~12’000 users (0.1% of population) Bankilare, Niger:  Bankilare, Niger The Bankilare Community Information Center was built in 1999 by community members with help from the Niger government, UNDP & SNV (Netherlands Agency). It houses a community radio station equipped with a WorldSpace receiver. The encircled object is a WorldSpace antenna enclosed in tea box for protection. Radio broadcaster in the Bankilare Community Information Center. The center downloads programming from the Africa Learning Channel for rebroadcast. The CIC often translates the programs into the local language before rebroadcasting them. Satellite Radio:  Satellite Radio Freeplay stories:  Freeplay stories Rwanda South Africa Malawi Small is beautiful?:  Small is beautiful? Internet & Population in LDCs Higher Internet penetration Smaller population Cape Verde:  Cape Verde 4th highest Internet penetration in LDCs (3% of population) 434’812 population (2000 Census) 55% homes have electricity 53% urban, agriculture 12% of GDP 2 languages, 74% literacy Media in Cape Verde:  Media in Cape Verde Note: Data from 1998. Source: INE. Internet in Cape Verde:  Internet in Cape Verde Pre-commercial launch: October 1996, commercial launch a year later 1 Mbps international Internet connectivity ~ 12’000 users (2.8% population) Conclusions:  Conclusions Because of income, literacy and linguistic issues, mixed-media may be a more effective way of disseminating information on the Internet to LDCs More small-scale, grass-roots, community-based projects are needed in LDCs There appears to be relationship between the size of a nation and the level of Internet access suggesting that moves to decentralize in larger nations may yield higher rates of ICT use What about Internet radio? References:  References Bruce Girard. The Challenges of ICTs and Rural Radio. <www.fao.org/docrep/003/x6721e/x6721e16.htm#P5_1> The Bankilare Experience: An Example of a Successful Collaborative Effort to Bridge the Digital Divide. <www.worldspace.org/related.html> Andrew W. Shepherd. Farm Radio as a Medium for Market Information Dissemination. <www.fao.org/sd/2001/radio/papers.htm> ITU. Cambodia, Cape Verde Internet Case Studies. <www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/cs>

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