minerals calcium,phosphorus,iron metabolism

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Information about minerals calcium,phosphorus,iron metabolism
Science-Technology

Published on March 10, 2014

Author: ganeshbond1

Source: authorstream.com

Minerals : Minerals Dr. ganesh , Dept of biochemistry. Minerals : Minerals Minerals…: Minerals… A few minerals are essential for the normal growth, development and maintenance of health. Therefore, they must be included in the diet .  When the intake in the diet of these minerals is below the required amount, deficiency symptoms appear. Minerals..classification : Minerals..classification Macrominerals Requirement is more than 100mg/day Ca ++ , P, S, Mg, Cl, Na, K. Microminerals Requirement is less than 100mg/day Fe, Cu, Zn, Mo, I, Fl , Cr, CO, Mn Minerals : Minerals Calcium Phosphorous Iron Copper Iodine Zinc Fluoride Magnesium Manganese Selenium Minerals which are toxic: Minerals which are toxic Certain minerals are toxic to the body. They are- lead, mercury, arsenic, aluminium and cadmium. Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body..: Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body.. Calcium : Calcium Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body Human body contain about 1-1.5 kg of calcium Calcium : Calcium Sources of calcium: Sources of calcium Sources of calcium: Sources of calcium milk (cow’s milk – 100 mg/100ml) cereals, fish, leafy vegetables, beans etc . Meat is a poor source of Ca . Daily Requirements of Calcium: Daily Requirements of Calcium Children 1000mg/day Adults 500mg/day Pregnancy and lactation 1500mg/day Functions of Calcium : Functions of Calcium Formation of bone and teeth Nerve conduction Muscle contraction Activation of enzymes Blood coagulation Secretion of hormones As a second messenger Action on myocardium Functions of Calcium : Functions of Calcium Calcium is needed for the formation of bones and teeth. Calcium is present in bones along with phosphate as calcium hydroxy apatite . Calcium as compound of phosphate occurs in the bone matrix and, the enamel, dentin and cementum of teeth and renders physical strength to them. Constituent of Bones and Teeth Functions of Calcium : Functions of Calcium Ca interacts with troponin c triggering muscle contraction. It also activates enzyme ATPase and increases the interaction between actin and myosin.   Muscle Contraction   Functions of Calcium : Functions of Calcium Ca (coagulation factor IV) mediates several reactions of blood coagulation cascade . Blood Coagulation   Functions of Calcium : Functions of Calcium Ca2+ is needed for the direct activation of enzymes such as lipase, ATPase, succinate dehydrogenase, etc. Certain other enzymes get activated via a regulatory protein – calmodulin .   Activation of Enzymes   Functions of Calcium : Functions of Calcium Ca is necessary for nerve impulse transmission from presynaptic to postsynaptic region . Nerve Impulse Transmission     Functions of Calcium : Functions of Calcium Ca2+ reduces membrane permeability and thereby decreases neuromuscular excitability . A fall in serum Ca2+ raises the neuromuscular excitability producing spasms of muscles in hands, feet, face and larynx – hypocalcemic tetany . Neuromuscular Excitability     Functions of Calcium : Functions of Calcium Ca acts as second messenger( also third messenger) for certain hormones to mediate their action. E.g. Epinephrine. It also acts as third messenger for certain other hormones e.g. ADH . Acts as Second Messenger in Hormone Action   Functions of Calcium : Functions of Calcium Ca is also needed for the secretion or release of certain hormones such as insulin, PTH, calcitonin . Secretion of Hormone   Functions of Calcium : Functions of Calcium Ca acts on myocardium and prolongs systole . Action on Heart     Functions of Calcium : Functions of Calcium Ca regulates microfilament and microtubule mediated processes such as endocytosis, exocytosis and cell motility.   Endocytosis, Exocytosis and Cell Motility     Functions of Calcium : Functions of Calcium Ca2+ influences the transport of water and several ions and thus nfluences membrane structure .   Membrane Transport and Structure     Metabolism of calcium: Metabolism of calcium Metabolism of Calcium - Absorption: Metabolism of Calcium - Absorption Factors affecting Calcium Absorption: Factors affecting Calcium Absorption Calcium absorption is increased by Calcitriol PTH High protein diet Optimum Ca:P ratio Acidic pH Bile salts Absorption is decreased by Alkaline pH Phytates and oxalates Steatorrhea Vitamin D deficiency Excess phosphate in diet Mechanism of Calcium absorption: Mechanism of Calcium absorption Calcium absorption occurs by 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 mediated mechanism . Enters nucleus of int.mucosal cell Stimulates the synthesis of mRNA Synthesis of CALBINDIN( Ca binding protein) Binds with Ca Active form of Vit D Absorption of Ca Mechanism of Calcium absorption: Mechanism of Calcium absorption Calcium absorption occurs by 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 mediated mechanism . Excretion of calcium: Excretion of calcium Stools Unabsorbed calcium in the diet 60 – 70% Urine 50-200mg/day Sweat 15mg/day Distribution and storage of Calcium: Distribution and storage of Calcium Human body contain about 1-1.5 kg of calcium 99% present in bone and teeth 1% in soft tissue and extracellular fluid Plasma calcium : 9-11mg/100ml distribution of plasma calcium: distribution of plasma calcium Regulation of plasma calcium: Regulation of plasma calcium Ca level in blood is maintained at a narrow range of 9 – 11mg/ dL . Regulation of plasma calcium-by 3 hormones: Regulation of plasma calcium-by 3 hormones Vitamin D PTH Calcitonin Hypocalcemic Hypercalcemic Regulation of plasma calcium: Regulation of plasma calcium Regulation of plasma CALCIUM: Regulation of plasma CALCIUM VIT D Increases bone mineralisation by ++ osteoblasts Increases the renal reabsorption Increases plasma Ca Increases absorption from intestine by calbindin Regulation of plasma CALCIUM: Regulation of plasma CALCIUM PTH mobilises Ca from bones to blood, bone demineralisation by ++ osteoclasts Increases plasma Ca Increases absorption from intestine by Formatn of active Vit D In Kidney Increases the renal reabsorption by Formatn of active Vit D In Kidney Regulation of plasma CALCIUM: Regulation of plasma CALCIUM Calcitonin inhibiting resorption of bones, by increasing the activity of osteoblasts and decreasing activity of osteoclasts.   Decreases plasma Calcium Disorders of calcium metabolism: Disorders of calcium metabolism Hypocalcemia : Hypocalcemia Hypocalcemia : Hypocalcemia CAUSES Inadequate intake , rickets Accidental surgical removal of parathyroid glands Alkalosis Hypocalcemia - Features : Hypocalcemia - Features Muscle cramps and tetany Laryngospasm Convulsion Cardiac arrhythmias Prolongation of QT interval Tetany: Tetany When Ca level is less than 7 mg % it results in a life threatening condition, tetany . Symptoms of tetany – spasms of muscles in hands, feet, face, larynx, etc and convulsions – are due to increased neuromuscular irritability. Hypocalcemia – Signs of Tetany : Hypocalcemia – Signs of Tetany Hypocalcemia - Treatment: Hypocalcemia - Treatment Hypercalcemia : Hypercalcemia Hypercalcemia When serum Ca level is more than 11 mg % it is known as hypercalcemia. : Hypercalcemia When serum Ca level is more than 11 mg % it is known as hypercalcemia . CAUSES Hyperparathyroidism-increased PTH H y p e rv i t a mi no s i s D Vit D toxicity Hypercalcemia - Features: Hypercalcemia - Features Hypercalcemia - Treatment: Hypercalcemia - Treatment Minerals…. PHOSPHORUS: Minerals…. PHOSPHORUS PHOSPHORUS: PHOSPHORUS About 80% of this occurs in combination with Ca in the bones and teeth about 10% found in muscles and blood in association with proteins and remaining 10% seen distributed in various chemical compounds of the bod y Adult body has about 1kg of phosphorus ( as phosphate ), and is seen in every cell of the body. PHOSPHORUS: PHOSPHORUS PHOSPHORUS - sources: PHOSPHORUS - sources PHOSPHORUS - RDA: PHOSPHORUS - RDA PHOSPHORUS-METABOLISM: PHOSPHORUS-METABOLISM PHOSPHORUS-ABSORPTION: PHOSPHORUS-ABSORPTION Factors affecting phosphorus absorption: Factors affecting phosphorus absorption Phosphorus absorption increased by Bile salts Acidity PTH and vitamin D Calcium Phosphorus absorption decreased by High Ca: P ratio Phytates Alkalinity Magnesium and aluminium PHOSPHORUS: PHOSPHORUS FUNCTIONS Formation of bone and teeth Production of high energy compounds DNA and RNA synthesis Synthesis of coenzymes Synthesis of phosphoproteins and phospholipids Activation of enzymes by phosphorylation Acid base balance POSPHORUS - DISTRIBUTION: POSPHORUS - DISTRIBUTION Plasma phosphorus : 3 – 4mg/100ml Plasma phosphorus: Plasma phosphorus Regulation of plasma PHOSPHORUS: Regulation of plasma PHOSPHORUS 3HORMONES Regulation of plasma PHOSPHORUS: Regulation of plasma PHOSPHORUS VIT D Increases absorption from intestine Increases the mobilization from bone Increases the renal reabsorption Increases plasma phosphorus Regulation of plasma PHOSPHORUS: Regulation of plasma PHOSPHORUS PTH Decreases the renal reabsorption Decreases plasma phosphorus Regulation of plasma PHOSPHORUS: Regulation of plasma PHOSPHORUS Calcitonin Inhibits bone resorption Decreases the renal reabsorption Decreases plasma phosphorus Disorders of phosphorus metabolism: Disorders of phosphorus metabolism Hypophosphatemia Hyperphosphatemia Hypophosphatemia : Hypophosphatemia HypOphosphatemia: HypOphosphatemia CAUSES Rickets (deficiency of vit D in children) Hyperparathyrodism Fanconi syndrome – increased urinary excretion of phosphate due to its defective renal reabsorption Hyperphosphatemia : Hyperphosphatemia Hyperphosphatemia: Hyperphosphatemia CAUSES Hypervitaminosis D Hypoparathyrodism Renal failure – due to decreased urinary excretion of phosphate   Hemolysis Minerals IRON: Minerals IRON -one of a trace element IRON: IRON Total body iron content is 3-5gms . 75% seen in blood, rest in liver, bone marrow and muscles . Heme is the most predominant iron containing substance . IRON containing substances..2types: IRON containing substances..2types heme iron Hemoglobin (Oxygen carrier) Myoglobin (Oxygen storage) Cytochromes cytochrome p450 Catalase tryptophan pyrrolase     Non heme iron Succinate DH Xanthine oxidase Aconitase Transferrin( transport of iron ) ,Ferritin(iron starage ), Iron suphur protein of mitochondrial ETC Iron : Iron Functions of iron: Functions of iron Iron exerts its functions through the compounds in which it is present. 1.Hemoglobin is required for the transport of O2 and CO2. Myoglobin for O2 storage in muscles. 2.Cytochromes and certain non- heme iron proteins are necessary for electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation 3.As a component of many enzymes like Peroxidase , Xanthine oxidase, tryptophan pyrrolase etc Iron - sources: Iron - sources Green leafy vegetables Liver and organ meat Egg Jaggery Pulses Cereals Milk is a poor source Iron - RDA: Iron - RDA 10 mg/day Adult male 40mg/day Pregnancy 20 mg/day Adult female Iron - metabolism: Iron - metabolism Iron - absorption: Iron - absorption Factors affecting iron absorption: Factors affecting iron absorption Phytates and phosphate Gastrointestinal diseases Ferrous form Ascorbic acid Cysteine HCl Factors increasing iron absorption Factors decreasing iron absorption Antacid, achlorhydria Mechanism of iron absorption: Mechanism of iron absorption PowerPoint Presentation: Ferric Iron Fe +++ Ferrous Iron Fe ++ Heme iron Vit C Hcl Fe ++ Fe +++ Ferritin Apoferritin Heme iron Fe ++ Fe ++ Fe +++ Transferrin Fe +++ Lumen Mucosal cell Blood Ceruloplasmin Apotransferrin Ferroxidase Ferroreductase diet Storage of iron: Storage of iron Excretion of iron: Excretion of iron Normal excretion Very little About 1mg/day Stool 0.7mg/day Physiological loss Menstruation 20-30mg/cycle Delivery 750mg Excretion of iron: Excretion of iron Excretion of iron is very negligible. Iron is the only element whose level in the body is controlled at absorption level (not by excretion ) Hence iron is aptly called as “ONE WAY ELEMENT” Regulation of Iron absorption: Regulation of Iron absorption Mucosal block theory : Mucosal block theory Regulation of body iron is at the level of absorption at INTESTINAL MUCOSAL CELLS As per this theory, iron absorption is mediated by intracellular Fe carrier protein . Mucosal block theory : Mucosal block theory Presence of sufficient amounts of Fe in the body, Keeps this protein in saturated state Consequently, Fe absorption into mucosal cell is blocked . Mucosal block theory : Mucosal block theory When there is Fe deficiency state this protein is in unsaturated state Fe absorption into mucosal cell is favoured . Mucosal block is removed Disorders of iron metabolism: Disorders of iron metabolism Iron deficiency.. anemia : Iron deficiency.. anemia Iron deficiency - Causes : Iron deficiency - Causes Decreased intake Malnutritn Decreased absorption Achlorhydria and chronic diarrhea Increased loss Bleeding, hookworm infestation,repeated pregnancy Increased requiremnt Pregnancy, infancy Iron deficiency - Causes : Iron deficiency - Causes Malnutrition Achlorhydria and chronic diarrhea Bleeding, hookworm infestation , repeated pregnancy Pregnancy, infancy Decreased intake Decreased absorption in creased loss in creased requirement Iron deficiency – features : Iron deficiency – features Pallor Fatigue Dizziness Dyspnea Palpitation Angular stomatitis Pica Iron deficiency – lab findings: Iron deficiency – lab findings Hematological findings Decreased hemoglobin Microcytic hypochromic anemia Biochemical findings Decreased serum iron Increased serum total iron binding capacity Decreased plasma ferritin Microcytic hypochromic anemia: Microcytic hypochromic anemia Normal RBCs Small sized RBCs containing less Hb Iron deficiency – treatment: Iron deficiency – treatment Treatment of underlying causes Treating Hookworm Controlling bleeding Administration of iron preparations Orally I.V Iron overload- Causes: Iron overload- Causes Repeated blood transfusions Genetic-- increased absorption of iron from intestine Eg : A frican Bantu tribe hemosiderosis —they cook and brew beer in iron pots Eg : for thalassemia, hemophilia etc. Iron overload…2 types: Iron overload…2 types Haemosiderosis Increase in iron stores as haemosiderin Without associated with tissue injury Haemochromatosis Excessive deposition of iron in the tissue Associated with tissue injury Hemochromatosis : Hemochromatosis Deposition of hemosiderin in organs leading to organ damage. Liver cirrhosis liver Bronze pigmentation of skin skin Diabetes pancreas Heart failure heart Bronze diabetes : Bronze diabetes skin pigmentation , diabetes mellitus liver cirrhosis triad of -Seen in hemochromatosis Iron overload..treatment: Iron overload..treatment Desferoxamine - a chelating agent phlebotomy

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