Published on February 21, 2014
Minerals Dr Mohamed Mostafa Omran Faculty of Sciences, Helwan University 2
What Are Minerals? • Inorganic elements essential to the nutrition of humans • Minerals are essential to body function – Play several key roles in overall health and well being • Help chemical reactions take place in cells • Help muscles contract • Keep the heart beating • Two groups – Major minerals – Trace minerals
What Are Minerals? • Major minerals – Need to consume > 100 milligrams per day – At least 5 grams of the mineral in the body – Calcium, sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphorus, magnesium, and sulfur
What Are Minerals? • Trace minerals – Need to consume > 20 milligrams per day – The body contains less than 5 grams total – Iron, zinc, copper, selenium, chromium, iodide, manganese, molybdenum, and fluoride
Mineral Balance • Body maintains tight control over mineral balance – GI tract Regulates absorption from food based on the body’s need Minerals in gastric juices and that slough-off intestinal cells are either excreted in the feces or reabsorbed through the large intestine – Kidneys Excretes excess and reabsorbs the minerals when the body needs them
Mineral Functions • Minerals work together to perform important functions in the body – Fluid and electrolyte balance – Blood formation – Building healthy bones – Maintaining a healthy immune system
Minerals Help Maintain Fluid Balance • Minerals play a key role in fluid balance in the cells – Extracellular minerals – sodium and chloride – Intracellular mineral – potassium with the help of calcium, magnesium, and sulfur.
Mineral Participate as Cofactors • Cofactor – substance that helps catalyze a reaction • Minerals serve as cofactors in – Antioxidant systems – Energy production – Muscle contraction – Nerve transmission
Minerals Make Up Bones and Teeth • Minerals make up the crystalline structure (hydroxyapatite) that gives strength to bones and teeth. – Major minerals • Calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium – Trace mineral • Flouride
Ca Food Sources • Milk • Cheese • Seafood
Thermolysin: is a thermostable neutral metalloproteinase enzyme produced by the +ve Gram bacteria Bacillus thermoproteolyticus. It requires one zinc ion for enzyme activity and four calcium ions for structural stability. Thermolysin specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds containing hydrophobic amino acids. Thermolysin use in the synthesis of aspartame. It is composed of aspartic acid and phenyl alanine. Aspartame which acts as sweetening agent being used in replacement of cane sugar.
Food sources of phosphorus The main food sources for phosphorus are foods containing protein. For example, egg, milk, meat, and soya
Fibroblast growth factor 23 or FGF23 • FGF23 is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family which is responsible for phosphate metabolism. • The main function of FGF23 seems to be regulation of phosphate concentration in plasma. • FGF23 is secreted by Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts in response to elevated Calcitriol. • FGF23 decreases the reabsorption and increases excretion of phosphate.
1. Calcitriol increases blood calcium levels ( [Ca2+] ) by promoting absorption of dietary calcium from the gastrointestinal tract and increasing renal tubular reabsorption of calcium thus reducing the loss of calcium in the urine. 2. Calcitriol also stimulates release of calcium from bones. 3. Calcitriol acts in concert with parathyroid hormone (PTH) in all three of these roles. For instance, PTH also indirectly stimulates osteoclasts. However, the main effect of PTH is to increase the rate at which the kidneys excrete inorganic phosphate (Pi), the counterion of Ca2+. The resulting decrease in serum phosphate causes Ca5(PO4)3OH to dissolve out of bone thus increasing serum calcium.
FGF23 decreases reabsorption increases excretion of phosphate
Magnesium functions • Important in energy metabolism catalyst through ATP production. • critical to heart function. • It activates, phosophate transferases, decarboxylases and acyl transferases.
POTASSIUM • • • • Potassium functions Potassium like sodium, chloride and bicarbonate ions, plays an important role in the osmotic regulation of body fluids. Sodium mainly found in the extracellular tissues, whereas potassium principally present in the cell (intracellular). It plays an important role in nerve and muscle excitability. It plays role in carbohydrate metabolism (cofactor of propionly CoA carboxlase). – energy metabolism, catalyst, ATP production critical to heart function.
Bones Extracellular Electrolyte
SODIUM • Most of the sodium of the human body is present in the soft tissues and body fluids; like potassium it is concerned with the acid base balance and osmotic regulation. • It is a chief cation of blood-plasma and other extracellular fluids of the body. Much of it is ingested as common salt and excreted in urine.
Sodium functions • • • • Transmission and conduction of nerve impulses Responsible for osmolality of vascular fluids Regulation of body fluid levels Assists with regulation of acid-base balance by combining with Cl or HCO3 to regulate the balance. • Sodium shifts into cells and potassium shifts out of the cells (sodium pump)
sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+ ATPase) • The sodium-potassium pump was discovered in the 1950s by a Danish scientist, Jens Christian Skou, who was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1997. • Failure of the Na-K pumps can result in swelling of the cell. • A cell's osmolarity is the sum of the concentrations of the various ion species and many proteins and other organic compounds inside the cell. • When this is higher than the osmolarity outside of the cell, water flows into the cell through osmosis. This can cause the cell to swell up and lyse. The Na-K pump helps to maintain the right concentrations of ions. Furthermore, when the cell begins to swell, this automatically activates the Na-K pump
The Sodium-Potassium Pump Slide number: 1 Extracellular fluid with high concentration of Na+ Na+ Na+ Cytoplasm with high concentration of K+ 1 Three Na+ bind to the cytoplasmic side of the protein. K+ P ATP ADP 2 Phosphate is transferred from ATP to the protein. P P 3 Phosphorylation changes the shape of the protein, moving Na+ across the membrane. 4 K+ binds to the protein, causing phosphate release. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. K+ 5 Release of phosphate changes the shape of the protein, moving K+ to the cytoplasm.
04.10 The Sodium-Potassium Pump Slide number: 2 Extracellular fluid with high concentration of Na+ Three Na+ bind to the 1 cytoplasmic side of the protein. Na+ Cytoplasm with high concentration of K+ Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
04.10 The Sodium-Potassium Pump Slide number: 3 Extracellular fluid with high concentration of Na+ Three Na+ bind to the 1 cytoplasmic side of the protein. 2 Phosphate is transferred from ATP to the protein. P ATP ADP Cytoplasm with high concentration of K+ Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
04.10 The Sodium-Potassium Pump Slide number: 4 Extracellular fluid with high concentration of Na+ Three Na+ bind to the 1 cytoplasmic side of the protein. 2 Phosphate is transferred from Na+ ATP to the protein. 3 Phosphorylation changes the shape of the protein, moving Na+ across the membrane. P Cytoplasm with high concentration of K+ Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
04.10 The Sodium-Potassium Pump Slide number: 5 Extracellular fluid with high concentration of Na+ Three Na+ bind to the 1 cytoplasmic side of the protein. 2 Phosphate is transferred from K+ ATP to the protein. 3 Phosphorylation changes the shape of the protein, moving Na+ across the membrane. + 4 K binds to the protein, causing P phosphate release. Cytoplasm with high concentration of K+ Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
04.10 The Sodium-Potassium Pump Slide number: 6 Extracellular fluid with high concentration of Na+ Three Na+ bind to the 1 cytoplasmic side of the protein. 2 Phosphate is transferred from ATP to the protein. 3 Phosphorylation changes the shape of the protein, moving Na+ across the membrane. + 4 K binds to the protein, causing phosphate release. K+ Cytoplasm with high concentration of K+ 5 Release of phosphate changes the shape of the protein, moving K+ to the cytoplasm. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)
Chlorine Extracellular Electrolyte
Food Sources • Salt • Seafood
CHLORIDE • Chloride is principle anion of body fluids. • It is associated with sodium and potassium in acid-base balance and osmosis. • plays an important role in gastric secretion (hydrochloric acid) and digestion. • It is excreted in urine and in perspiration with sodium and potassium. • Sources: Chloride is part of sodium chloride. • With exception of fish and meat meals, the chloride contents of most of the foods is very low. • rarely lacking, dehydration due to water deficiency.
Chloride Functions • • • • • Found in extracellular fluids Changes the blood osmolality Goes with Na in retention of water Assists with regulation of acid-base balance Chloride combines with hydrogen to form hydrochloric acid in the stomach
Iron • Essential nutrient, vital to many of the cell’s activities. • Iron forms : Incorporated into Hemoglobin (80%), Myoglobin, Enzymes, Cytochromes (20 %) • *Hemoglobin protein in the red blood cells and myoglobin protein in the muscle cells. – Iron present in Hb is Fe 2+ state, – Organic/heme iron (10%) Fe2+ (more soluble). – Inorganic/non-heme iron (90%) Fe3+ (less soluble)
Role of iron in the body Iron has three main functions : 1. carrying oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. 2. Aiding energy production. Iron is constituent of several enzymes including : iron catalase, peroxidase, and cytochrome enzymes.
• Iron Absorption and Metabolism – Free iron is toxic to cells as it acts as a catalyst in the formation of free radicals. Hence, within cells, iron is stored in a protein complex as ferritin (major) or hemosiderin. – Apoferritin can take up to 4300 atoms of iron per molecule. – Blood transferritin: transfers the iron to the rest of the body. Transferrin receptors are present on most body cells, especially on cells which synthesize heme.
• Absorption-Enhancing Factors: – MFP factor: a factor associated with the digestion of Meat, Fish, and Poultry that enhances nonheme iron absorption. – Vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Ascorbate increases absorbtion (by reducing). – Citric acid and lactic acid from foods and HCl acid from stomach. – Sugars. • Absorption-Inhibiting Factors: – – – – – Phytate and fibers (grains and vegetables). Oxalates (spinach). Calcium and phosphorus (milk). EDTA (food additive). Tannic acid (and other polyphenols in tea and coffee).
Iron Absorption Average percentage of iron absorbed from selected foods by healthy adults.
Iron Absorption from Food People absorb more iron from foods and supplements when body stores of iron are low than when stores of iron are high.
Macrophages engulfs old RBCs and releases heme. Heme oxygenase separates them and Fe is then stored as ferritin.
Human hemochromatosis protein also known as the HFE protein is a protein which in humans is encoded by the HFE gene. this protein functions to regulate iron absorption by regulating the interaction of the transferrin receptor With transferrin.
Iron Deficiency Anemia Normal Red Blood Cells Iron Deficiency Anemia-Small microcytic and pale hypochromic cells contain less hemoglobin.
Sulfur Components of some proteins
Food Sources Protein-rich foods
formation of collagen -connective tissue Keratin- helping to give strength, shape, hardness of skin and hair Taurine is found in bile acids, used in digestion Glutathione (glutamic acid+cysteine+glycine), protects against hemolysis of RBC by breaking H2O2 which causes cell damage (antioxidant). The mucopoly-saccharides may contain chondroitin sulfate, which is important to joint tissues.
red meat Oysters poultry dairy products
Zinc functions • It helps with the human immune system, DNA synthesis, and cells. • It plays a vital role in growth and developmental functions in pregnant woman, children and adolescents. • It is required for proper sense of taste and smell. • Essential for proper reproduction in males, requires for spermatogenesis Growth and Development Immune System DNA Synthesis
Zinc deficiency • A deficiency is Zinc may cause : – growth retardation – loss of appetite – impairment of immune functions. – hair loss – Low sperm count
drink water seafood cheese Tea
Fluorine • Fluorine prevents tooth decay and cavities and strengths the enamel. • If there is a deficiency of fluorine during the growing period, it will result in dental caries and tooth decay. • Discoloration and pitting of tooth enamel caused by excess fluoride during tooth development.
Copper Red Blood Cells
Food Sources • Nuts • Shellfish • Liver
1. Enzymes catalyze the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron are copper enzyme 2. Helps in the absorption of iron absorption of iron and Synthesis of hemoglobin. 3. Superoxide dismutases is Cu enzyme that catalyze the hydrolysis of superoxide (O2−) into O2 and H2O ( antioxidant).
Food Source Iodized Salt
Absorption Transport Storage Excretion Upper small intestine Binding loosely to plasma proteins 80% in thyroid gland 2/3rd in urine
Required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones T4 and T3
Chemistry of Thyroid hormones • Thyroid hormones are derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine bound covalently to iodine.
Soybeans Vegetables Fruits
1. It may activate certain enzymes related to glucose. 2. It aid in prolactin production, and thus be involved in human breast milk production.
Wholegrains dark chocolate, mushrooms nuts
Chromium (closely with insulin ) 1. It is very important in order for insulin to function 2. It works closely with insulin to facilitate the uptake of glucose into cells (Glucose Tolerance Factor). 3. It participates in the in the transport of amino acids into the cells (Heart, Liver).
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