Published on May 27, 2009
MindWing’s 1st USTREAM.tv LIVE Presentation: Narrative Intervention for Improving Language, Cognitive & Social Skills in Children with Asperger’s Syndrome & High Functioning Autism: MindWing’s Hands-on Approach Presenter: Maryellen Rooney Moreau, M.Ed., CCC-SLP President and Founder of MindWing Concepts, Inc.
“Asperger’s Syndrome is a disorder along the Autism Spectrum characterized by a pattern of problems in the areas of social interaction and communication.” (Klin et al, 2000) Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 1 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
Children diagnosed with Asperger’s Syndrome & High Functioning Autism often experience problems with: Social interaction and the formation of friendships Non-verbal communication, Telling longwinded monologues; narrow topics of conversation Literal interpretations of figurative language Abrupt transitions, changes of topic Failure to provide context for conversation/story Misinterpretation and use of facial and gestural body language High levels of anxiety, especially if a social situation does not happen/go as expected; not knowing what to do if a plan changes abruptly Sense of being “different”…especially problematic, almost traumatic, as an adolescent High levels of Alexithymia: Difficulty identifying and describing one’s emotions. Up to 40% of persons with Asperger’s Syndrome have Alexithymia. (Way, I et.al (2007). Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 2 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
In general, INTERVENTIONS center around: ● Social Interactions and the development of friendship. ● Communication Aspects of Language: Pragmatics and Discourse ● Visual Cueing ● Meta-cognitive Strategies for Communication. Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 3 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
Today’s presentation will focus on: Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 4 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
The Personal Narrative Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 5 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 6 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 7 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 8 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
Narrative discourse is particularly problematic to more able children with autism, given that it involves the blending of cognitive, linguistic and social knowledge: • Seeing things in “black and white” • Difficulty understanding the intentions and viewpoints of others, • Problems with inferential reasoning, and the • Literal interpretation of behavior. Wetherby, A. & Prizant, B. (2004). Autism Spectrum Disorders: A transactional developmental perspective. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 9 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
Why is narrative intervention so important in the lives of children with Asperger’s Syndrome & High Functioning Autism? Because, the NARRATIVE is the HUMAN mode of thought – our actions, our emotions and the consequences. -Jerome Bruner Narrative intervention, however, is a means to provide instruction and intervention on the blend of linguistic, cognitive and social knowledge. Wetherby, A. & Prizant, B. (2004). Autism Spectrum Disorders: A transactional developmental perspective. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing * Jerome Bruner Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 10 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
“We dream, remember, anticipate, hope, despair, love, hate, believe, doubt, plan, construct, gossip and learn in narrative.” Westby, C. (1985, 1991). Learning to talk, talking to learn: Oral-literate language differences. In C. Simon (Ed.), Communication skills and classroom success. Eau Claire, WI: Thinking Publications, Inc. Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 11 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
NARRATIVES are the way to connect language, cognitive and social interactive components for children with Asperger’s Syndrome & High Functioning Autism. Narrative language is both emotional and literate. Narratives offer opportunities to support language use, emotional expression and social-cognition in an integrated social and academic context. Westby, C. (1994). • Oral story telling • Pragmatics: Tone of Voice, Volume, • Written story telling Facial Expressions and Body language • Personal narratives • Interpretation of pictures and pictured • Poetry scenes in stories. • Draw • Critical Thinking Triangle™ Activities • Pantomime • Thought bubbles • Music • Conversation bubbles • Feelings (internal response) vocabulary • Social Stories™ (C. Gray) • Cartoons • Social Thinking (M. Garcia Winner) 12
Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 13 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
Language Competence at the Discourse Level Broad: Beyond phonemic awareness and vocabulary De-contextualized, the “here and now” (personal experience narratives) vs the “there and then”. Literate: elaborated noun phrases, conjunctions, adverbs, mental state verbs, linguistic verbs. Strands of Language Pragmatics Phonology Semantics Syntax & Morphology Discourse Metalinguistics Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 14 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
DISCOURSE LEVEL OF LANGUAGE: Narrative Development - personal and fictional Episodic Thinking: helps children code and remember personal “happenings” and emotions connected to them and to reflect upon these “happenings” in the future. 1. Naming and describing the “who” and “where” of the action. 2. Understanding that “where” is more than a time or a place. 3. Reporting, then Sequencing the events of the story. Tunes children into a language form that can be used to help them regulate their own behavior, as in Social Stories (Carol Gray) 4. Become aware of reasons for characters’ behaviors (actions) in books. This “reasoning” helps children to become aware of their own behavior. 5. Becomes aware of feelings, thoughts and plans of self and of characters in stories or play (others): assists students in taking perspective and becoming “planful”. 6. Become able to predict the consequences of actions. Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 15 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
MACRO-STRUCTURE & MICRO-STRUCTURE Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 16 Copyright • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com 1-888-228- 9746 © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. •
Sentence Complementation using mental state verbs: the Broad Strand of advanced sentence structure to incorporate and express mental state verbs within the Theory of Mind. Lauren, age 5 years 2 months upon giving me a mint to eat. “I was going to get it for myself but I realized you would want a mint because I know you like mints”. • Her own intent/need: to get a mint for herself (intrapersonal) • Pronomial referent: “it”. She realized the actual item need not be named since “it” was being presented to the communicative partner in real time. • Conjunction: but • Mental State Verb: Realized • Nana’s perspective taken: Nana would want a mint. • Mental State Verb: Know you like mints (from a prior experience involving episodic memory when Nana communicated verbally or nonverbally that she liked mints. • Conjunction: because used to provide a reason for the “realization”. • Embedding of clauses within the sentence. Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 17 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
Baron-Cohen (1995) coined the term “Mindblindness” to characterize the difficulty that people with autism have with reading the mental states of others: thoughts, feelings and beliefs…. Baron-Cohen, S. (1995). Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. The “Theory of Mind” is the ability to reason about the thoughts, feelings, and intentions of self and others. (Premack & Woodruff 1978) Types of Theory Of Mind: • Intrapersonal: Thinking about or reflecting on one’s own thoughts and feelings and plans. • Interpersonal: Thinking about what someone else or a character in a story is thinking or feeling, needing or planning. Problems here extend to reading comprehension and interpretation and analysis of oral and written information (Minshew et al., 1995) • Cognitive: Recognizing and understanding the thoughts of others • Affective: Recognizing and understanding the feelings of others • A Clinician’s/Teacher’s Theory of Mind: Awareness of the students’ view of the world, his/her intents and affective states allow the clinician/teacher to anticipate the students’ reactions to life! Lucariello, J. (2004). New insights into the functions, development, and origins of theory of mind: The functional multilinear socialization (FMS) model. In J.M. Licariello, J.A. Hundon, R. Fivush, & P.J. Bauer (Eds.), The development of the mediated mind: Sociocultural context and cognitive development. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Westby, C. (2009). Personal Communication, Oswald, P. (1996). The effects of cognitive and affective perspective taking on empathic concern and altruistic helping, Journal of Social Psychology (5), 613-626., Minshew et al. (1995). Speech and language in high-functioning autistic individuals. 18 Neuropsychology, 9, 255-261.
Theory of Mind is also called Perspective Taking “Perspective taking is needed for Social Interaction, Academic Success and Personal Problem Solving as an adult.” Winner, M. (2003). Perspective taking and the School and Adult Years for Persons with Social Cognitive Deficits, www.socialthinking.com/philosophy/htm In general education classrooms the term is Point of View. Reminder from MindWing’s Workshops – There are 3 perspectives in the Paper Bag Princess by Robert Munsch 19 Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228-
Executive Functions The term executive function describes a set of cognitive abilities that control and regulate other abilities and behaviors. Executive functions are necessary for goal-directed behavior. (Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders) Executive Functions Include: • Mental Planfulness • Organization • Perspective Taking • Holding Plans in Memory Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 20 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
Intra-personal Social Stories™ - Carol Gray, 1991 “A Social Story™ describes a situation, skill, or concept in terms of relevant social cues, perspectives, and common responses in a specifically defined style and format. The goal of a Social Story™ is to share accurate social information in a patient and reassuring manner that is easily understood by its audience.” (www.thegraycenter.org) Example: Michael & Story Grammar Marker® Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 21 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
Inter-Personal Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 22 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
PRAGMATICS Non-Linguistic Linguistic Narrative Social Conventions Related Components Eye Contact Feedback Do you watch the speaker’s mouth and eyes? Are you giving the speaker feedback to indicate interest? (Non-verbal nods, smiles, knitted brows, and Noise verbal comments such as “okay,” “yes,” “I’ve been there.”) Are you making extra noise? Turn Taking Space Is it your turn to talk or listen? How do you use the space around you to Topic Maintenance communicate? Are you a space invader? Are you talking about what I’m talking about? Body Language Comments Do you show interest in what is being said? Do you use gestures? Can you make suggestions in a positive way? Tone of Voice Clarification What message is your voice giving? Can you ask the speaker to explain what s/he means? Can you, as the speaker, repair your message so your communication partner can understand it? 23
Social Thinking – Michelle Garcia Winner www.socialthinking.com Using words to express emotions that represent feelings of self or feelings of others emerges around the age of 2. They first develop single words for separate emotions such as happy, mad, sad, surprised, scared…and disgusted. These together are called the Universal Feelings. There is growing recognition that emotion and cognition are intertwined. Emotions are theorized to shape how children interpret their environment, what goals they seek and what kind of attributions they make to peer’s interactions. Children who have been exposed to adequate language during their preschool years are generally able to tell stories, describe their emotions and thoughts, engage in reciprocal conversation and understand the intent of others when they begin school. Baron, N. (1992). Growing up with language: How children learn to talk. Reading, MA.: Addison Wesley., Way et al Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 24 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 25 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
Maryellen will now demonstrate 2 Lessons: One, using Three Billy Goats Gruff and one on “Feelings.” Both of these lessons will be in Maryellen’s new book on using MindWing’s Methodology & Tools for Children with Asperger’s Syndrome and High Functioning Autism. (This presentation was a FREE mini-preview to this new book. If you would like a copy of these 2 lessons as an additional free preview AND if you would like a DISCOUNT CODE for a 20% Discount on the book when it comes out this Fall, please email email@example.com and mention that you saw this presentation and would like a copy of the lessons & the discount code.) Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 26 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
Mental State connected to the kick-off and feeling: The three Billy Goats Gruff knew that on the hell, beyond the river, grew sweet green grass. But under the bridge lived a great ugly troll with eyes as big as saucers and a nose as long as a poker. And the troll was hungry too. PLAN: Notice the entire page devoted to the plan: What to do? (Create a mental image here through attention to dialogue, gesture and facial expression!) They wonder What to do! They want the grass.. They know that the troll would like to eat them. They do not want the troll to eat them. They know that the troll would prefer to eat a big goat. They realize that the biggest goat is the strongest goat of the three of them. They think that the strongest goat has the best chance to overcome the troll. They remember that trolls are sly and feisty. In order to get to the meadow, the goats have to work as a group and trick the troll. ● They must use what they think, know, remember and realize things, to trick the troll. ●They must take the troll’s perspective about his thinking about them? ●They show that they have taken the perspective of the troll: ●They decide to go over the bridge in order of size, hoping that the greedy troll with want the biggest goat to eat. ●They dress up in costumes, each for their own purpose. ●They use tone of voice and body language for their purpose 30
Why Use Tools Such As Story Grammar Marker® & Braidy, the StoryBraid™ in the classroom & in therapy for children with Autism? 1. Our colorful, explicit, visual, kinesthetic icons and materials appeal to children with Autism – making it easier for you to help them to engage. 2. The linear iconic design of our tools helps to facilitate working memory allowing students to track narrative components and reflect on them for comprehension and expression. 3. MindWing’s non-linguistic representation of language helps children create mental models and explain their own and others’ mental states. Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 31 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
Ways to find us online: Our Website Our Blog Become a Fan! http://mindwingconcepts.wordpress.com www.mindwingconcepts.com 32
Professional Bibliography (limited): Astington, J. (2005). Introduction: Why language matters. In J. W. Astington & J. A. Baird (Eds.), Why language matters for theory of mind.(p. 3-25). NY: Oxford University Press. Cain, K and Oakhill (2007). Introduction of comprehension Development. In K. Cain and Oakhill (Eds.) Children’s Comprehension Problems in Oral and Written Language. (pages 3- 40) Gray, C. (1998). Social Stories and comic strip conversations with students with Asperger syndrome and high functioning autism. In E. Schopler (Ed.), Asperger Syndrome or high- functioning autism. NY: Plenem Press. Gray, C. (1994). Comic strip conversations. Jenison, MI: The Morning News. Guajardon, N. & Watson, A. (2002). Narrative discourse and theory of mind development. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 163(3), 305-325. Hutchins, T., & Prelock, P. (2008). Supporting Theory of Mind Developement: Considerations and Recommendations for Professionals Providing Services to Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Topics in Language Disorders, 28, 4, 340-364. Klin, A., Volkmar, F., Sparrow, S. (2000). Asperger syndrome. NY: Guilford. Moreau, M. at MindWing Concepts, Inc. Story Grammar Marker® and Braidy, the StoryBraid™www.mindwingconcepts.com Springfield, Massachusetts. Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com 33
Myles, B., and Simpson, R. (1998). Asperger syndrome: A guide for educators and parents. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. Pellegrini and Galda (2001). “I’m So Glad I’m Glad” In A. Goncu and E. Klein (Eds.) Children in Play, Story and School. HY: Guilford Press. -Mental States, plans and goals in young children’s play. Stone, C., Silliman, E., Ehren, B., & Apel, K. (2004). Handbook of Language and Literacy. NY: Guilford Press. Way, I., Yelsma, P. VanMeter, A. & Black-Pond, C. (School of Social Work, Western Michigan University). (2007). Understanding Alexithymia and language Skills in Children: Implications for Assessment and Intervention. Speech/Language/Hearing Services in Schools, 38, 2. Westby, C. The Oral Literate Continuum.(1991a) In C. Simon (Ed). Communication Skills and Classroom Success: Therapy methodologies for Language-Learning Disabled Children. San Diego: College-Hill Press. Winner, M. www.socialthinking.com Tishman, S. et al (1995). The Thinking Classroom: Learning and teaching in a culture of thinking. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Topics in Language Disorders (2008). Supporting Social communication, Perspective taking and Participation in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders. Nickola Wolf Nelson, Ed. www.massadvocates.gov Helping Traumatized Children Learn. Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 34 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
MindWing Concepts’Children’s Books for Perspective Taking, Development of Feelings and Critical Thinking: Books depicting multiple feeling words and their causes (kick-off/initiating events): Anholt. What makes me happy? Curtis, J. Today I feel Silly and Other Moods that Make My Day Emberley, E. & Midranda, A. Glad Monster, Sad Monster. Viorst, J. Alexander and the Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day. Zolotow, C. The Quarreling Book. (Verbal and nonverbal kick-offs causing multiple quarrels). One kick-off (initiating event) causes feelings, the results of which cause other kick-offs and feelings. Cain. Double Dip Feelings This book pictures that a person (character) may have two feelings at the same time about one experience. Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 35 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
Specific feeling words: Waber, B. Ira Sleeps Over (the feeling of “scared”) Fox, M. Wilfred Gordon McDonald Partridge (development of empathy: feeling of sadness about the plight of another human, and the plan to do something about it.) Mayer, M. I was so mad. (one of the six universal feelings: happy, sad, mad, scared, surprised, disgusted) Bang, M. When Sophie gets angry…really, really angry Sophie is very angry. She makes pictures to get her feelings out! The value of drawing. Couple this with Derolf, S. The Crayon box that Talked, referenced below. Bourgeois, P, Franklin in the Dark Franklin is scared and seeks other animals’ thoughts on being scared. Mental State Words: Mayer, M. I just forgot (mental state verb) Fox, M. Wilfred Gordon McDonald Partridge The mental state word “remember” is2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228-this picture book. Copyright © utilized throughout 36 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
Perspective Taking: A. These two books are utilized by Kathleen Becker, CCC/SLP with students along the autism spectrum to show inner and outer personality characteristics: Clements, A. Big Al (Ugly on the outside but friendly and nice on the inside.) Pfister. Rainbow Fish (Pretty on the outside but mean/unfriendly on the inside) B. The two following books are helpful in showing that characters may look different from others AND ALSO that characters may look the same as others but their actions make them different: pragmatic focus Van Genechten, G. Flop-Ear This rabbit has one ear that flops. He tries to fix the problem. His friends grow to understand and to help him accept himself. Emphasis is to show physical differences. Lester, H. Tacky the Penguin Tacky looks like the other penguins but he wears different clothing and ACTS differently. He is not pragmatically appropriate for certain situations, but ends up saving the day because of his attitude! Couple the two above, with Cannon, J. Stellaluna (bats/birds) C. Other Perspective Taking Modeling Books: Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 37 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
Hall and Moser. I Am the Dog. I Am the Cat Character differences Van Allsburg, Two Bad Ants Setting differences. The ants embark on a journey taking them to a “strange” land. Young, E. Seven Blind Mice Use this book to help children note the differences in perspectives on the same kick-off, or initiating event. Many children with Theory of Mind difficulties, do not realize that all people (mice) do not come away from the same experience with similar feelings etc… Raschka, C. Yo! Yes! Tone of voice and body language (pictures) communicate thoughts of two characters. Try it with several children, divide them into two “characters”… Use thought bubbles to help conceptualize the idea of thoughts is back of the single words. Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 38 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
Planning: Mayer, M. Just for you. For young students, the word “want” a planning word is used throughout this book. The Little Critter’s plan changes as he goes from place to place in the yard and house. As a further activity, draw the childrens’ attention to the mom and her facial expressions and body language: What is SHE thinking? Stevens, J. The Three Billy Goats Gruff Planning, is the feature of this picture book. The goats are pictured in a conference, making a plan to get to the green meadow. Their dialogue is not witten, it must be inferred, making this a great book to use. Derolf, S. The Crayon box that Talked The girl in this book makes a plan which the reader/listener must infer. Naming the plan, discussing it while holding thought bubbles is valuable. Waber, B. Ira Sleeps Over Ira plans to go to sleep at Reggie’s house. Changes in his thinking and his resultant planning occur throughout the book, making it a great one to use over time with multiple students. Ira shifts from “scared” to confident and back to “scared”. Reggie makes many plans about what to do at the sleepover…. Copyright © 2009, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- 39 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
Personality Traits: Steig, W. Dr. DeSoto Dr. DeSoto is a mouse/dentist who must deal with a fox patient. Because he knows the personality traits and thought pattern of a fox, he is able to outsmart the fox while taking care of his tooth! Munsch, R. The Paper Bag Princess Elizabeth shows the traits of dependability, friendship, compassion, empathy. What about Ronald and the Dragon? Personality Traits books for adolescents DiTerlizzi, T. The Spider and the Fly The personality traits shown in this book could be considered negative traits: Calculating, Crafty, Cunning, Deceitful, Devious, Dishonest, Scheming, Sly, Wily. Finding evidence for each one expands vocabulary for personality traits and assists in perspective taking. Schanzer, R. George vs. George: The American Revolution as seen from Both Sides Brown, A. Voices in the Park Human and animal voices are “heard” in the park. Time must be spent in determining what each is thinking (for fourthCopyright ©fifth MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228- and 2009, graders). 40 9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
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