milestone6 action

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Information about milestone6 action
Entertainment

Published on November 27, 2007

Author: Clown

Source: authorstream.com

Action: An Annotation Framework for Events in Video:  Action: An Annotation Framework for Events in Video Melanie Feinberg Ryan Shaw Topics:  Topics Project motivation. Project goals. Taxonomic framework. Taxonomy examples. Partonomic framework. Partonomy example. Future work. Project Motivation:  Project Motivation Determine how to describe events in video in a semantically rich way. Investigate use of the Resource Description Framework (RDF) for describing multimedia. Combine perspectives from information science (classification) and artificial intelligence (knowledge representation). Atomic Action Representation:  Atomic Action Representation In Media Streams, this fight scene from Kill Bill is annotated as a series of abstract arm actions with knives and frying pans. There is no sense that the Bride and Vernita are fighting. How do we search for this footage? Annotation by Angie Dilg Project Motivation:  Project Motivation Determine how to describe events in video in a semantically rich way. Investigate use of the Resource Description Framework (RDF) for describing multimedia. Combine perspectives from information science (classification) and artificial intelligence (knowledge representation). Use Cases:  Use Cases Multimedia retrieval. Superior to keyword annotation; enables retrieval at multiple levels of detail, from soccer game to corner kick. Context-enhanced capture and automated editing. Cameras and editing software can “know” the structure of captured content, such as the parts of a wedding. Collaborative annotation. Shared indexing and discussion of video content by multiple users: anthropologists dissecting fieldwork video. Project Goals:  Project Goals Using the conceptual framework from last semester, determine a data model for describing events, taxonomically and partonomically, for video annotation. Implement framework in RDF. Identify areas for future work. Taxonomy:  Taxonomy An Aeron. . . which IS A kind of furniture. IS A chair. . . Partonomy:  Partonomy A section... which is part of a book. is part of a chapter... Project Goals:  Project Goals Using the conceptual framework from last semester, determine a data model for describing events, taxonomically and partonomically, for video annotation. Implement framework in RDF. Identify areas for future work. Taxonomic Framework:  Taxonomic Framework We use a taxonomy to define the IS A part of the event description (the paradigmatic aspect of the definition), from more general to more specific. To gather event terms for taxonomy development, used sources such as: Human-Related Area Files thesaurus. Art and Architecture thesaurus. Daily life sources (such as watching TV and noting events). Taxonomic Framework:  Taxonomic Framework We originally planned to implement the taxonomy as a single hierarchy. Event Performance Music Dance Initial approach Taxonomic Framework:  Taxonomic Framework We discovered that event definitions were too complex for a single hierarchical format. Event Performance Music Dance Practice Music Dance This approach was wrong. Taxonomic Framework:  Taxonomic Framework We decided to use a faceted structure. Purpose Performance Practice Activity Artistic Expression Music Dance This approach was better. Taxonomic Framework:  Taxonomic Framework A manageable taxonomy required delineation of event. Logical and philosophical definitions were not helpful for our purposes. Adopted pragmatic heuristic for determining events, inspired from Goffman: an event as a “social occasion,” such as a night at the opera (but not an aria from the opera). Taxonomic Framework:  Taxonomic Framework Our eventual taxonomy includes these facets: Time (boundaries, order, recurrence, duration). Physical effect. Focal point (time, space, character). Organization. Style. Activity. Purpose. Taxonomy Examples:  Taxonomy Examples African Drumming Concert Strict boundaries and duration, highly structured and organized, focus on performers, African style. Drum Circle Loose boundaries and duration, loosely structured. Someone Practicing Drums Loose boundaries and duration, loosely structured, purpose of practice. Partonomic Framework:  Partonomic Framework We use a partonomy to define the syntagmatic (part of) aspect of the event definition. The partonomy specifies the parts (actions, agents, and objects) involved in each event and the relations between these parts. We decided to base our partonomic structure on Lagoze and Hunter’s ABC ontology. Partonomy Examples:  Partonomy Examples To illustrate a partonomic framework using the ABC ontology we used the example of a birthday party: Partonomic Limitations:  Partonomic Limitations At a birthday party, guests arrive many times. But a cake ceremony occurs only once (if at all). The ABC Ontology has no way to express cardinality (if an entity can be optional, the number of occurrences, and so on). Partonomic Limitations:  Partonomic Limitations We want to describe kinds of things that can happen rather than specific things that happened. Future Work:  Future Work Integrate with other schemas (Wordnet, OpenCyc). Better distinctions between concepts, classes, and instances. Test and expand faceted classification. Use Ontolog to annotate and query video using our framework. Analyze additional semantic levels: affective and interpretive descriptors, for example. Thank You:  Thank You Melanie Feinberg http://www.sims.berkeley.edu/~feinberg/ Ryan Shaw http://aeshin.org/

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