Middle Eastern Culture & History

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Information about Middle Eastern Culture & History

Published on February 9, 2009

Author: bradleybergey

Source: slideshare.net

Modern Middle East 20 th Century World History B. Bergey

Factors to consider Religion: Jew? Christian? Muslim? If Muslim? Sunni or Shi’a Ethnicity Arab? Persian? Turk? Kurd?

Religion:

Jew? Christian? Muslim?

If Muslim? Sunni or Shi’a

Ethnicity

Arab? Persian? Turk? Kurd?

Islam Practitioner called Muslim Islamic is adjective (not used with people) Shares roots with Judaism & Christianity 5 Pillars "There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger" Prayer 5 times a day Charity Fasting (Ramadan) Hajj, pilgrimage to Mecca

Practitioner called Muslim

Islamic is adjective (not used with people)

Shares roots with Judaism & Christianity

5 Pillars

"There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger"

Prayer 5 times a day

Charity

Fasting (Ramadan)

Hajj, pilgrimage to Mecca

Sunnis & Shi’a Some wanted Ali (cousin & brother-in-law) with blood tie to Muhammad Shi’a means “party of Ali” Minority in Islam (globally) Believe Imams are infallable Reject supplementary narratives Perceive themselves as persecuted and martyrs Emphasize Equity Social justice Dignity of individual Leader selected from bloodline Majority wanted Abu Bakr--No blood tie Sunni means “one who follows in the tradition of Muhammad Most Muslims world wide are Sunni Imams are fallible Refer to supplementary teachings of early leaders Emphasize: Community decides leader Conformity Social stability After Muhammad’s death, the question of who to lead:

Some wanted Ali (cousin & brother-in-law) with blood tie to Muhammad

Shi’a means “party of Ali”

Minority in Islam (globally)

Believe Imams are infallable

Reject supplementary narratives

Perceive themselves as persecuted and martyrs

Emphasize

Equity

Social justice

Dignity of individual

Leader selected from bloodline

Majority wanted Abu Bakr--No blood tie

Sunni means “one who follows in the tradition of Muhammad

Most Muslims world wide are Sunni

Imams are fallible

Refer to supplementary teachings of early leaders

Emphasize:

Community decides leader

Conformity

Social stability

Distribution of Sunni & Shi´a Muslims

Distribution of Religion in the Middle East

Distribution of Religion (detail)

Ethnicity in the Middle East For larger map 

Before the 20 th Century Who’s controlled the Middle East (ME)? Arabs arrived with Islam in 7 th century Tribal groups until… Rise of Ottoman Empire 1500s Ottoman Empire declines (18 th century) Finally falls apart and is taken apart by European powers

Who’s controlled the Middle East (ME)?

Arabs arrived with Islam in 7 th century

Tribal groups until…

Rise of Ottoman Empire 1500s

Ottoman Empire declines (18 th century)

Finally falls apart and is taken apart by European powers

Decline of the Ottoman Empire

Post WWI: British & French Mandates

Oil British take Palestine, Transjordan, & Iraq Along with: Kuwait Coast of Saudi Arabia France took: Syria Lebanon Why are the British & French interested in the ME ?

Oil

British take Palestine, Transjordan, & Iraq

Along with:

Kuwait

Coast of Saudi Arabia

France took:

Syria

Lebanon

Middle East in 1930

Nationalism vs. Regionalism Will all Arabs unite or will they be divided in to smaller states that their different histories and local cultures?

Pan-Arabism Pan-Arabism: Movement based in the belief that all Arabs should be free of occupying powers and should move towards a unified and autonomous Middle East.

Pan-Arabism: Movement based in the belief that all Arabs should be free of occupying powers and should move towards a unified and autonomous Middle East.

Rewind to WWI

During WWI British court both Jews and Palestinian Arabs To Arabs : Britain will help form a country if you find against the Turks To Jews : Britain will help form a “national home” for a many possible reasons T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia)

British court both Jews and Palestinian Arabs

To Arabs : Britain will help form a country if you find against the Turks

To Jews : Britain will help form a “national home” for a many possible reasons

Balfour Agreement

Zionism International nationalist movement to establish a state in Palestine 1200 BCE Jews have a kingdom in present-day Israel Founded in late 19 th century by Theodor Hertzl Largely European/Russian movement of secular Jews Response to Anti-Semitic actions/sentiment in Europe/Russia Encouraged immigration to the “Promise Land”

International nationalist movement to establish a state in Palestine

1200 BCE Jews have a kingdom in present-day Israel

Founded in late 19 th century by Theodor Hertzl

Largely European/Russian movement of secular Jews

Response to Anti-Semitic actions/sentiment in Europe/Russia

Encouraged immigration to the “Promise Land”

 

 

Demographics Source: American Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee, 2002 Palestinians Jews

In the 20s & 30s Increasing tension between Jews Palestinian Arabs British Arab revolts 1936-1939 Britain quells Arab up-risings by force

Increasing tension between

Jews

Palestinian Arabs

British

Arab revolts 1936-1939

Britain quells Arab up-risings by force

Holocaust 1933-1945 Est. 6,000,000 Jews killed Genocide: Actions to systematically eliminate an ethic group International support for Zionist mov’t after war

Est. 6,000,000 Jews killed

Genocide: Actions to systematically eliminate an ethic group

International support for Zionist mov’t after war

After WWII Britain is bankrupt Britain turns the question of Palestine over to the United Nations US seeks to fill the vacuum before the USSR, becomes most important western power Keeping oil available to the West becomes issue in the emerging Cold War

Britain is bankrupt

Britain turns the question of Palestine over to the United Nations

US seeks to fill the vacuum before the USSR, becomes most important western power

Keeping oil available to the West becomes issue in the emerging Cold War

UN suggests division of Palestine into two independent states (1 Israeli, 1 Arab)

Population Breakdown of UN Partition Plan

“ War of Independence” “Nakba” (Catastrophe) Conflict intensifies after Partition is announced (Nov. 1947) Arab states vow to prohibit the establishment of Israel Increases as British leave 2 Phases: Civil War & Invasion

Conflict intensifies after Partition is announced (Nov. 1947)

Arab states vow to prohibit the establishment of Israel

Increases as British leave

2 Phases: Civil War & Invasion

Civil War Arabs + reputation (mighty Arab warrior) + initial advantage (i.e. more troops) Jews Reputation of being easily controlled Initial disadvantage (i.e. couldn’t import arms, ppl) + Israel was better organized (communication, taxes) + Benefited from British evacuation (less taxes) + “Fighting for their lives”

Arabs

+ reputation (mighty Arab warrior)

+ initial advantage (i.e. more troops)

Jews

Reputation of being easily controlled

Initial disadvantage (i.e. couldn’t import arms, ppl)

+ Israel was better organized (communication, taxes)

+ Benefited from British evacuation (less taxes)

+ “Fighting for their lives”

Palestinians Flee 100,000 Palestinian Arabs (mainly upper-class) leave early in conflict 150,000 more fled by May 1948, either because of eviction or voluntarily Believed would return after Arab invasion

100,000 Palestinian Arabs (mainly upper-class) leave early in conflict

150,000 more fled by May 1948, either because of eviction or voluntarily

Believed would return after Arab invasion

State of Israel May 14, 1948 Israel declares itself independent US & Soviet Union immediately recognize the new state

May 14, 1948 Israel declares itself independent

US & Soviet Union immediately recognize the new state

Invasion Arab troops from Egypt, TransJordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq invade Arabs are poorly organized, trained, have weak supply routes. Israel receives much needed arms from Czechoslovakia (despite a UN embargo)

Arab troops from Egypt, TransJordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq invade

Arabs are poorly organized, trained, have weak supply routes.

Israel receives much needed arms from Czechoslovakia (despite a UN embargo)

Transjordan annexs West Bank Egypt controls Gaza strip

 

Palestinian Refugee Camps, 1948

Where do Palestinian Refugees Go?

Six Day War an‑Naksah ( The Setback ) Israel preemptive attack Responding to mounting pressure from Egypt Suez Canal Egyptian troops moved to Israeli southern border Israel occupies West Bank (from Jordan) Gaza and Sinai (from Egypt) Golan Heights (from Syria)

Israel preemptive attack

Responding to mounting pressure from Egypt

Suez Canal

Egyptian troops moved to Israeli southern border

Israel occupies

West Bank (from Jordan)

Gaza and Sinai (from Egypt)

Golan Heights (from Syria)

Independence

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