Middle East, Part 1

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Information about Middle East, Part 1

Published on May 30, 2008

Author: dmcdowell

Source: slideshare.net

Formation of the Modern Middle East The Middle East from The Great War to the Cold War

Pre-WWI: Ottoman Empire “ Sick Man of Europe” Sided with Germans/Central Powers in WWI

“ Sick Man of Europe”

Sided with Germans/Central Powers in WWI

The Middle East in WWI: The Ottoman Empire Wanted to challenge British control of the Suez canal & their colonies Regain territory lost to Nationalist groups in the Balkans

Wanted to challenge British control of the Suez canal & their colonies

Regain territory lost to Nationalist groups in the Balkans

Ottoman Empire-Collapse 1919-1922 Great Britain, and other Arabs eventually defeat the Ottomans Empire is dissolved by British/French at end of war Ottoman Empire NOT mentioned in V.T. but Great Britain gets jurisdiction over the territory. Lands are partitioned (divided) Nationalist Groups want independence (those that were friendly to England were put in charge.) Turkey gains independence

Great Britain, and other Arabs eventually defeat the Ottomans

Empire is dissolved by British/French at end of war

Ottoman Empire NOT mentioned in V.T. but Great Britain gets jurisdiction over the territory.

Lands are partitioned (divided)

Nationalist Groups want independence (those that were friendly to England were put in charge.)

Turkey gains independence

Middle East as of 1922 British divide Ottoman Empire

Problems with the division of the Middle East Many Nationalist groups not granted independence Boundaries are drawn indiscriminately *No attention paid to tribal lands* Result: Arabs are distrustful of European powers especially the British British rule over all aspects of the Middle East France meanwhile maintains its colonies in Africa.

Many Nationalist groups not granted independence

Boundaries are drawn indiscriminately

*No attention paid to tribal lands*

Result: Arabs are distrustful of European powers especially the British

British rule over all aspects of the Middle East

France meanwhile maintains its colonies in Africa.

Oil and the Middle East First discovered on Masjid-I Suleiman in Persia (Iran) in 1908. Turkish-Petroleum Co. [TPC] founded in 1911 - drill for oil in Mosul, Mesopotamia (Iraq). Britain signed a secret agreement with the sheikh of Kuwait who, while outwardly pledging allegiance to the Ottoman Sultan in Istanbul, promised exclusive oil rights to the British. Kuwait became a British protectorate in November, 1914. In 1927, oil was struck in Kirkuk, Iraq, and the Iraq Petroleum Co. [IPC] was created.

First discovered on Masjid-I Suleiman in Persia (Iran) in 1908.

Turkish-Petroleum Co. [TPC] founded in 1911 - drill for oil in Mosul, Mesopotamia (Iraq).

Britain signed a secret agreement with the sheikh of Kuwait who, while outwardly pledging allegiance to the Ottoman Sultan in Istanbul, promised exclusive oil rights to the British.

Kuwait became a British protectorate in November, 1914.

In 1927, oil was struck in Kirkuk, Iraq, and the Iraq Petroleum Co. [IPC] was created.

Oil and the Middle East American oil companies [Texaco & Chevron], gain oil concessions in Bahrain in 1929. In 1933, American oil companies win an oil concession in Saudi Arabia. ARAMCO [Arab-American Oil Co,] is created in 1939.

American oil companies [Texaco & Chevron], gain oil concessions in Bahrain in 1929.

In 1933, American oil companies win an oil concession in Saudi Arabia.

ARAMCO [Arab-American Oil Co,] is created in 1939.

The Middle East between the Wars

Middle East during WW2 Germans wanted North African colonies in order to get to the Suez Canal and gain access to Arabian oil fields beyond. Germans offered full independence to Middle Eastern and African states if they supported Axis cause. Some political and religious leaders supported Germans in order to attain independence from British, French

Germans wanted North African colonies in order to get to the Suez Canal and gain access to Arabian oil fields beyond.

Germans offered full independence to Middle Eastern and African states if they supported Axis cause.

Some political and religious leaders supported Germans in order to attain independence from British, French

 

Middle East Post WW2 Independence is granted to many states -same issues arise as in Africa -tribal loyalties etc. Cold War begins and both sides lobby for power and influence in the region. The state of Israel is formed by a British mandate (with support of the UN & US) in 1948. (impact of Holocaust) -large Jewish populations of Europe leave to go back to their biblical homeland.

Independence is granted to many states

-same issues arise as in Africa -tribal loyalties etc.

Cold War begins and both sides lobby for power and influence in the region.

The state of Israel is formed by a British mandate (with support of the UN & US) in 1948. (impact of Holocaust)

-large Jewish populations of Europe leave to go back to their biblical homeland.

 

Arab Reaction & the Cold War US and Western powers support Israel USSR tries to influence Arab countries Several Regional conflicts break out: Arab Israel War of 1948 1967 Six day war 1968-72 War of Attrition 1981 attacked Iraq 1982 Lebanon Israel holds its independence to this day (extreme Anti-Israeli stance in many Middle East countries)

US and Western powers support Israel

USSR tries to influence Arab countries

Several Regional conflicts break out:

Arab Israel War of 1948

1967 Six day war

1968-72 War of Attrition

1981 attacked Iraq

1982 Lebanon

Israel holds its independence to this day (extreme Anti-Israeli stance in many Middle East countries)

Elsewhere Iran: 1950s saw US-backed installation of a Shah 1970s: Shah forced from throne by Fundamentalist Islamic Clerics, led by Ayatollah Khomeini

Iran:

1950s saw US-backed installation of a Shah

1970s: Shah forced from throne by Fundamentalist Islamic Clerics, led by Ayatollah Khomeini

Elsewhere Iraq: -Set up as a Monarchy after WW2 (friendly to Britain) -Then replaced by a “Republic” (was actually a bloody military coup) -1960s Baath party takes control of Iraq -Secular Government established -Late 1970s: Saddam Hussein takes control westernizes the country

Iraq:

-Set up as a Monarchy after WW2

(friendly to Britain)

-Then replaced by a “Republic”

(was actually a bloody military coup)

-1960s Baath party takes control of Iraq

-Secular Government established

-Late 1970s: Saddam Hussein takes control westernizes the country

Elsewhere Afghanistan: 1970s- invaded by Soviet Union US-backed muhajideen against Soviets After Soviet Collapse, establishment of Taliban Government

Afghanistan:

1970s- invaded by Soviet Union

US-backed muhajideen against Soviets

After Soviet Collapse, establishment of Taliban Government

Elsewhere Saudi Arabia: people enjoy decent standards of living financial benefits from government Strong ties to US and Europe ($ & oil) Little- to no social reforms Women can’t drive Limited ability to criticize govt

Saudi Arabia:

people enjoy decent standards of living financial benefits from government

Strong ties to US and Europe ($ & oil)

Little- to no social reforms

Women can’t drive

Limited ability to criticize govt

RESULTS: US is last major super power left after 1991 with a great interest in the Middle East (no one else left to blame) Middle Eastern countries have been pawns of the western powers since the early 20th century. Anti-American, Anti- Western, and Anti-Israeli thought common in many countries and organizations.

US is last major super power left after 1991 with a great interest in the Middle East (no one else left to blame)

Middle Eastern countries have been pawns of the western powers since the early 20th century.

Anti-American, Anti- Western, and Anti-Israeli thought common in many countries and organizations.

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