Microsoft Innovative Teacher Conference--Keynote

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Information about Microsoft Innovative Teacher Conference--Keynote

Published on May 31, 2008

Author: rvaneck

Source: slideshare.net

Description

This is my keynote presentation for the Microsoft Innovative Teachers Conference held in Winnipeg, Manitoba, CA

Games as Innovative Teaching What You Should Know About Play, Games, and Learning Richard Van Eck, Associate Professor Instructional Design & Technology University of North Dakota [email_address] idt.und.edu Copyright Richard Van Eck, 2008. This work is the intellectual property of the author. Permission is granted for this material to be shared for non-commercial, educational purposes, provided that this copyright statement appears on the reproduced materials and notice is given that the copying is by permission of the author. To disseminate otherwise or to republish requires written permission from the author. Keynote Presentation, Microsoft Innovative Teachers’ Conference May 28, 2008

Pick the Commencement Caption Option A: “ Man, am I going to miss school; those twelve years went by SO FAST!” Option B: “ No more teachers, no more books; no more teacher’s dirty looks!”

12th Graders’ Views of School 1983–2000 Source: The Condition of Education 2002 , National Center for Education Statistics Percent School work is meaningful Courses are interesting School will be important in later life 40 31 36 28 35 29 24 21 51 41 47 39 1983 1990 1995 2000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 * Thanks to Mark Beno, Apple Computer, for sharing this slide

Why Do They Feel This Way? Pianta et al., March 30, 2007 (Science, 315) Learning in grades 1, 3, and 5 1000 students recruited at birth 10 cities 2500 classroom 1000 elementary schools 400 districts

Pianta et al., March 30, 2007 (Science, 315)

Learning in grades 1, 3, and 5

1000 students recruited at birth

10 cities

2500 classroom

1000 elementary schools

400 districts

Content Basic skills vs. problem solving 5:1 for fifth; 10:1 for first & third 7% math PS; 11% science Technology: 2% Richness of methods 92% whole-group/independent 52% chalk and talk 38% working on own Conceptually focused instruction “minimally characteristic” One mode of teaching observed Why Do They Feel This Way?

Content

Basic skills vs. problem solving

5:1 for fifth; 10:1 for first & third

7% math PS; 11% science

Technology: 2%

Richness of methods

92% whole-group/independent

52% chalk and talk

38% working on own

Conceptually focused instruction “minimally characteristic”

One mode of teaching observed

Their Technology Use Technology is what became available AFTER you were a teenager For many born in the 20s and 30s, radio and the telephone were technology For many born in the 40s and 50s, television was technology For many born in the 60s and 70s, computers and cell phones are technology For many born in the 80s, computer games, the Internet, and iPods are technology For those born in the 90s and beyond... NOTHING is technology yet This includes IM-ing, Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, Wikis, blogs, RSS feeds, alternate reality gaming...

Technology is what became available AFTER you were a teenager

For many born in the 20s and 30s,

radio and the telephone were technology

For many born in the 40s and 50s,

television was technology

For many born in the 60s and 70s,

computers and cell phones are technology

For many born in the 80s,

computer games, the Internet, and iPods are technology

For those born in the 90s and beyond...

NOTHING is technology yet

This includes IM-ing, Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, Wikis, blogs, RSS feeds, alternate reality gaming...

From Diane K. Danielson, Welcome to the Matrix, Pink Magazine, August/September 2006, page 80 Based on Pew Internet & American Life Project, Generation Online, December 2005, Susannah Fox and Mary Madden. Generational Differences in Online Activities Activity Online Teens (12-17 yrs.) Gen Y (18-28 yrs.) Gen X (29-40 yrs.) Trailing Boomers (41-50 yrs.) Leading Boomers (51-59 yrs.) Online Gaming 81% 54% 37% 29% 25% Instant Messaging 75 66 52 38 42 Text Messaging 38 60 44 29 15 Downloading Music 51 45 28 16 14 Reading Blogs 38 41 30 20 21 Downloading Video 31 27 22 14 8 Creating Blogs 19 20 9 3 9

How Does this Change Them? Flynn effect Documented increase in IQ scores across all cultures that do standardized testing Cannot easily be attributed to education, nutrition, or other factors Cognitive complexity of mass entertainment like video games may be responsible (Johnson, 2005)

Flynn effect

Documented increase in IQ scores across all cultures that do standardized testing

Cannot easily be attributed to education, nutrition, or other factors

Cognitive complexity of mass entertainment like video games may be responsible (Johnson, 2005)

30% Which of the following is the current U.S. high school dropout rate? 5% 7% 10% 13% 20% UNLESS you are Black, Hispanic, or Native American, in which case it is 50% 30% How Does this Affect Learning?

Which of the following was the number ONE reason they cited for dropping out? Boredom Had to get a job Had to take care of family Gangs Unplanned pregnancy Boredom How Does this Affect Learning?

They Are Not Slackers* These were kids who had the grades to graduate 90% had passing grades when they dropped out 75% percent placed primary or only blame for dropout on themselves 70% are confident they could have graduated if they had been more challenged and engaged Why aren’t we reaching them? These are 2.0 learners They’re all about interaction & engagement, and schools are all about passive reception. * Gates Foundation Civic Enterprises study

These were kids who had the grades to graduate

90% had passing grades when they dropped out

75% percent placed primary or only blame for dropout on themselves

70% are confident they could have graduated if they had been more challenged and engaged

Why aren’t we reaching them?

These are 2.0 learners

They’re all about interaction & engagement,

and schools are all about passive reception.

What Should We Do? Nothing new Innovation means doing something DIFFERENT Lots of different things we can do that are not new

Nothing new

Innovation means doing something DIFFERENT

Lots of different things we can do that are not new

Something Old... Experiential Learning & Play, 400 B.C.* Experiential Learning & Play, 400 B.C.* Latin Otium (all leisure activities) Includes ludus Ludus Games in the arena Sports & competition Olympic games School Greek Word for otium = skole (school) Skole includes paideia (education) Play, games, leisure, & education all related * Thanks to Luca Botturi, University of Lugano, for the use of this information

Latin

Otium (all leisure activities)

Includes ludus

Ludus

Games in the arena

Sports & competition

Olympic games

School

Greek

Word for otium = skole (school)

Skole includes paideia (education)

Play, games, leisure, & education all related

Renaissance philosophers Knowledge derived through interaction with the world All knowledge connected & interrelated Master and apprentice Learning by doing Experiential learning Something Old... Experiential Learning & Play in the Middle Ages

Renaissance philosophers

Knowledge derived through interaction with the world

All knowledge connected & interrelated

Master and apprentice

Learning by doing

Experiential learning

Industrial Revolution Mass production in industry leads to economies of scale Economies of scale lead to ‘widgetizing’ of education & training Mass production model of learning Something Old... Experiential Learning & Play in the 18th Century

Industrial Revolution

Mass production in industry leads to economies of scale

Economies of scale lead to ‘widgetizing’ of education & training

Mass production model of learning

Experiential Learning Today Recess is being cut out to make time for NCLB mandated testing* Testing is driving curriculum What’s next? * Along with science, social studies, art, & physical education: Center on Educational Policy, Feb 20, 2008, http://tinyurl.com/yumcz8

Recess is being cut out to make time for NCLB mandated testing*

Testing is driving curriculum

What’s next?

...Something New (Different)... “Everything I ever really needed to know... “ Everything I ever really needed to know... ...I learned from playing games” Games teach me how to solve problems Games teach me how to work with others and lead Games teach me to be organized and detail-oriented

...I learned from playing games”

Games teach me how to solve problems

Games teach me how to work with others and lead

Games teach me to be organized and detail-oriented

Gabriel Knight 2 ...Something Borrowed... Problem Based Learning (PBL) in Games

EverQuest II ...Something Borrowed... Socialization & Community in Games

Teamwork, Leadership, Community Work with others Partition attention, divide tasks Coordinate efforts Communicate via variety of technologies and media Establish shared goals

Work with others

Partition attention, divide tasks

Coordinate efforts

Communicate via variety of technologies and media

Establish shared goals

Lost Planet ...Something Blue. Organization, Multi-tasking, Detail Orientation in Games

Organization, Multi-tasking, Detail Orientation Attend to multiple channels audio-visual input & feedback Spoken text Written text Graphic information displays Integrate information to make decisions Prioritize incoming data according to goals

Attend to multiple channels

audio-visual input & feedback

Spoken text

Written text

Graphic information displays

Integrate information to make decisions

Prioritize incoming data according to goals

How many channels in typical classroom?

A Belated Introduction Born in 1964 Gen X; outside range of digital native Digital Immigrant with DSL issues, but... Father a systems analyst Heathkit H8 running CPM A gamer First game was Cave/Adventure in 1976 Disaffected student Last 11 yrs. technology in education/ID An advocate and a voice of caution Must understand how & why games work

Born in 1964

Gen X; outside range of digital native

Digital Immigrant with DSL issues, but...

Father a systems analyst

Heathkit H8 running CPM

A gamer

First game was Cave/Adventure in 1976

Disaffected student

Last 11 yrs. technology in education/ID

An advocate and a voice of caution

Must understand how & why games work

Principle One : Games Rely on Play to Generate Cycles of Learning & Engagement Play requires interaction and participation Can’t be passive, constant cycle of action/reaction Leads to engagement (engagement ≠ entertainment) Promotes learning events Teaching & learning should, too

Play requires interaction and participation

Can’t be passive, constant cycle of action/reaction

Leads to engagement (engagement ≠ entertainment)

Promotes learning events

Teaching & learning should, too

Principle Two: Games Employ Problem-Based Learning Benefits of PBL PS is highest level of learning (Gagne, 2005) Subsumes all lower intellectual skills Vehicle for teaching all content and promotes transfer Two critical attributes of any problem (Jonassen, 2002) The unknown (goal requires generation of new knowledge) A value to learner in solving the problem Games are problem solving

Benefits of PBL

PS is highest level of learning (Gagne, 2005)

Subsumes all lower intellectual skills

Vehicle for teaching all content and promotes transfer

Two critical attributes of any problem (Jonassen, 2002)

The unknown (goal requires generation of new knowledge)

A value to learner in solving the problem

Games are problem solving

Problem Solving = Engagement

Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989 Congruence of learning & performance contexts Relevance and “anchoring” of knowledge in authentic contexts Improves learning (Anderson, 1995; Bower, 1981 & 1987); Clark, Milberg, & Ross, 1983; Smith, Glenberg, & Bjork, 1978) All learning in games is situated Goal (unknown) drives everything Everything learned is relevant and applied Principle Three: Games Support Situated Cognition & Learning

Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989

Congruence of learning & performance contexts

Relevance and “anchoring” of knowledge in authentic contexts

Improves learning (Anderson, 1995; Bower, 1981 & 1987); Clark, Milberg, & Ross, 1983; Smith, Glenberg, & Bjork, 1978)

All learning in games is situated

Goal (unknown) drives everything

Everything learned is relevant and applied

Principle Four : Questioning, Cognitive Disequilibrium, Scaffolding Question asking Improves learning (e.g., Graesser & Person, 1994; Otero & Graesser, 2001; Graesser et al., 1999) Games, as PBL, promote question-asking Cognitive Disequilibrium (Piaget) Problem solving and question-asking triggered by CD Games thrive on cycles of CD & resolution ( = engagement) Vygotsky’s “Zone of Proximal Development” Players want to be challenged, want only minimal hints, NOT the answer Games keep players in the ZPD

Question asking

Improves learning (e.g., Graesser & Person, 1994; Otero & Graesser, 2001; Graesser et al., 1999)

Games, as PBL, promote question-asking

Cognitive Disequilibrium (Piaget)

Problem solving and question-asking triggered by CD

Games thrive on cycles of CD & resolution ( = engagement)

Vygotsky’s “Zone of Proximal Development”

Players want to be challenged, want only minimal hints, NOT the answer

Games keep players in the ZPD

GBL: PART of the Solution Games can help, but NOT because they are new ways of learning, they are fun, we have to entertain our students. Games CAN help because: they are interactive, they are engaging, they support problem-based learning they encompass proven instructional strategies, they promote 21st century skills.

Games can help, but NOT because

they are new ways of learning,

they are fun,

we have to entertain our students.

Games CAN help because:

they are interactive,

they are engaging,

they support problem-based learning

they encompass proven instructional strategies,

they promote 21st century skills.

Final Thoughts Use GBL when, where, and with whom it is appropriate Problem-based learning, multi-dimensional, multi-disciplinary Technical support is sufficient Game & lesson are aligned with curriculum, standards Time to plan, design, and implement is sufficient Bang for the buck justifies the effort More to the story verbal information, fluency, automaticity COTS GBL vs. Game Design vs. Serious Games Remember all this AND GBL is “Not for entertainment , not for all learners , not for all content , & not all the time”

Use GBL when, where, and with whom it is appropriate

Problem-based learning, multi-dimensional, multi-disciplinary

Technical support is sufficient

Game & lesson are aligned with curriculum, standards

Time to plan, design, and implement is sufficient

Bang for the buck justifies the effort

More to the story

verbal information, fluency, automaticity

COTS GBL vs. Game Design vs. Serious Games

Remember all this AND

GBL is “Not for entertainment , not for all learners , not for all content , & not all the time”

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