Information about Microprocessor-based Systems 48/32bit Division Algorithm

Thiese are the slides used for presenting the Microprocessor-Based Systems 48/32-bit division program by Vittorio Giovara and Alberto Grand.

Formulation of the problem Our goal is to find an algorithm that is able to compute the residual of the division between a 48-bit dividend and a 32-bit divisor using an 8086 machine. Input numbers are expressed according to the module and sign representation.

Invariance property (I) The invariance property holds true when dividing two real numbers. In general, given a, b ∈ R, the result of the division a / b will not change if we multiply or divide both the dividend and the divisor by a given number k other than 0. Example: 84 / 6 = (84 / 3) / (6 / 3) = 28 / 2 = 12

Invariance property (II) How can this property be useful to the solution of our problem? Since the 8086 processor has built-in capabilities for handling 32-bit/16-bit divisions, we may choose k = 216 , so as to reduce the length of the operands A and B to respectively 32 and 16 bits. Note that the division by a power of 2 can efficiently be implemented through a right shift.

Invariance property (III) A A / 216 = = B B / 216 Is this result correct? Are the two operations still equivalent?

Invariance property (IV) In general, the answer is no. This is because, by performing a right shift, we are discarding all the least significant bits of the operands. Nonetheless, the result we obtain is still close to the true quotient. Example: 184 / 21 = 8, R = 16 (184 / 10) / (21/10) ≅ 18 / 2 = 9

Approximation of the quotient The result obtained by dividing the MS 32 bits of A by the MS 16 bits of B may thus be used as an initial approximation of the true quotient.

The algorithm (I) The division between A47…16 and B31…16 is initially performed, regardless of the sign of the operands. The approximated quotient Q is then multiplied by the divisor B, in order to obtain A* . A* is subsequently compared with A.

The algorithm (II) If A > A*, then we check if their difference is larger than B, i.e. we check whether B fits one more time in A. ◦ If this is the case, A* is incremented by B and we go back to the initial test. ◦ Otherwise, the difference is the sought residual. If A > A*, then A* is decremented by B and we go back to the initial test. Otherwise, A = A*, so the sought residual is 0.

Handling of signed values (I) The sign of the operands is stored in a register (which is then pushed onto the stack) and later retrieved to adjust the result. This is achieved by means of an AND operation between the 8 MSBs of the two operands and the bitmask 80H.

Handling of signed values (II) Both operands are then made positive by forcing a 0 in their MSB, by means of an AND operation between the 8 MSBs and the bitmask 7FH. The algorithm therefore treats the operands as if they were positive.

Adjustment of the residual (I) Note that: 17 / 4 = 4, R = 1 = R* BUT (-17) / 4 = -5, R = 3 = 4 – R* 17 / (-4) = -4, R = 1 (-17) / (-4) = 5, R = 3 = 4 – R*

Adjustment of the residual (II) We can infer the rule from the previous example: ◦ If the dividend is positive, the residual is the computed one ◦ If the dividend is negative, the residual is the complement to the divisor of the computed one. The residual is therefore adjusted if the dividend is negative. The original sign of the operands is finally restored.

…that’s all, folks! …that’s all, folks!

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