Microlearning - *Concepts, Examples, Critical Issues and Questions

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Information about Microlearning - *Concepts, Examples, Critical Issues and Questions
Technology

Published on December 17, 2009

Author: c60357

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Paper presented by Theo Hug at the WLE/LMLG workshop at the Alpine Rendez-Vous 2009 on "Technology-enhanced learning in the context of technological, societal and cultural transformation," November 30 to December 1 in Garmisch-Partenkirchen

Microlearning – Concepts, Examples, Critical Issues and Questions Theo Hug, Innsbruck (Austria)

Overview Points of Departure Understandings of Microlearning Mobile Examples Towards a Microlearning Agenda Conclusion

Points of Departure

Understandings of Microlearning

Mobile Examples

Towards a Microlearning Agenda

Conclusion

Some Points of Departure Variety of Society-Descriptions Educational lags Techno-promises & Techno Trance? From e-promises zu m-promises? And now microlearning promises? http://www.elektronik-technik.com/html/internettechnik__internettechn.html Wenn Sie einen zuverlässigen Partner suchen, Hund und Ehepartner aus dem Haus sind, dann legen Sie sich doch ein Internet zu.

Variety of Society-Descriptions

Educational lags

Techno-promises & Techno Trance?

From e-promises zu m-promises?

And now microlearning promises?

Microlearning deals with relatively small learning units and short-term learning activities relational concept depending on frames and domains of reference metaphorical characteristics - it works with a variety of learning concepts and models learning environments, arrangements, settings, design patterns, didactical orientations, models and concepts e-learning 1.x, e-learning 2.7, m-learning 0.9, m-learning 1.4, etc. also: distributed education, networked learning, distance learning Microlearning as a new paradigmatic perspective on learning processes in mediated environments on micro levels ?

deals with relatively small learning units and short-term learning activities

relational concept depending on frames and domains of reference

metaphorical characteristics - it works with

a variety of learning concepts and models

learning environments, arrangements, settings, design patterns, didactical orientations, models and concepts

e-learning 1.x, e-learning 2.7, m-learning 0.9, m-learning 1.4, etc. also: distributed education, networked learning, distance learning

Microlearning as a new paradigmatic perspective on learning processes in mediated environments on micro levels ?

Understandings of Microlearning

Mobile Examples (1) – „Frequency 1550“ Waag Society, a knowledge institute in Amsterdam – it “wishes to make a contribution to the design of the information society. In this it doesn't let itself be lead by technology but instead looks at the possibilities of people, their creativity and culture. The interplay of technology and culture is the driving force of all Waag Society's activities” (www.waag.org) „ Frequency 1550“, a pilot (2005) together with the Amsterdam Montessori School mobile game experience which “fits with the traditional curriculum” (ibd.). Learning results (J. Raessens, 2007) URL: URLs: http://freq1550.waag.org http://www.frequentie1550.nl/ http://www.waag.org/project/frequentie Frequency 1550, February 10 2005

Waag Society, a knowledge institute in Amsterdam – it “wishes to make a contribution to the design of the information society. In this it doesn't let itself be lead by technology but instead looks at the possibilities of people, their creativity and culture. The interplay of technology and culture is the driving force of all Waag Society's activities” (www.waag.org)

„ Frequency 1550“, a pilot (2005) together with the Amsterdam Montessori School

mobile game experience which “fits with the traditional curriculum” (ibd.).

Learning results (J. Raessens, 2007)

URL: URLs: http://freq1550.waag.org http://www.frequentie1550.nl/ http://www.waag.org/project/frequentie

Mobile Examples (2) – „Flocabulary“ Bringing hip-hop music into high school classrooms to teach SAT vocabulary and history (B. Harrison, A. Rappaport, et al.) Rhythm and mnemonic rhymes URL: www.flocabulary.com

Bringing hip-hop music into high school classrooms to teach SAT vocabulary and history (B. Harrison, A. Rappaport, et al.)

Rhythm and mnemonic rhymes

URL: www.flocabulary.com

Mobile Examples (3): Mobile Training Solutions Data being processed by a special learning-algorithm supporting the learning process mTrainer - new develompents by www.yocomo.at future perspectives

Data being processed by a special learning-algorithm supporting the learning process

mTrainer - new develompents by www.yocomo.at

future perspectives

Further Examples: remix, modding, mashups Examples of Game Modding in Education: „Revolution“ (Klopfer et al: Education Arcade), „Replaying History“ (K. Squire) “ The Sims Teach German” ( Purushotma 2005) „ If we examine previous attempts at 'edutainment', one clear theme emerges: there must be a strong match between the educational content to be delivered and the content or mechanics of the entertainment media being harnessed -- similar to the way the Chitrageet researchers were able to transform literacy into an integral tool that facilitated understanding of lyrics and actually improve the entertainment process.“ ( Purushotma 2007, http://www.lingualgamers.com/thesis/) Chitrageet with subtitles http://www.langwidge.com/simsfiles.html

Examples of Game Modding in Education: „Revolution“ (Klopfer et al: Education Arcade), „Replaying History“ (K. Squire)

“ The Sims Teach German” ( Purushotma 2005)

„ If we examine previous attempts at 'edutainment', one clear theme emerges: there must be a strong match between the educational content to be delivered and the content or mechanics of the entertainment media being harnessed -- similar to the way the Chitrageet researchers were able to transform literacy into an integral tool that facilitated understanding of lyrics and actually improve the entertainment process.“ ( Purushotma 2007, http://www.lingualgamers.com/thesis/)

Outline of a Microlearning Agenda I Historical aspects: “Learning by small units in small steps has a tradition, which reaches beyond the documented development of civilization.” (Hierdeis 2007, p. 48) Systematical aspects: Towards a relational concept of microlearning, mesolearning and macrolearning Example 1 Linguistics Example 2 Course structure Example 3 Sociology micro level single letters learning objects individualized learning meso level words, letter-figure combinations, sentences topics, lessons group learning or organizational learning macro level texts, conversation, linguistic communication courses, curricular structures learning of generations, learning of societies

Historical aspects: “Learning by small units in small steps has a tradition, which reaches beyond the documented development of civilization.” (Hierdeis 2007, p. 48)

Systematical aspects: Towards a relational concept of microlearning, mesolearning and macrolearning

Outline of a Microlearning Agenda II Diversity of microlearning didactics according to various traditions Didactical models (German-speaking traditions) structured and discovery approaches in instructional design Topography of microlearning; Further ways of conceptualizing, analyzing and designing didactics referring to Aggregation models Conglomeration models Emergence models single-/multiple-loop designs Framing concepts A Typical Instructional Design Model Group didactics (theme-centered interaction)

Diversity of microlearning didactics according to various traditions

Didactical models (German-speaking traditions)

structured and discovery approaches in instructional design

Topography of microlearning; Further ways of conceptualizing, analyzing and designing didactics referring to

Aggregation models

Conglomeration models

Emergence models

single-/multiple-loop designs

Framing concepts

Outline of a Microlearning Agenda III: Linking Microcontent In the multicomponent model micro aspects or contents are combined more or less systematically in sequences, linear, recursive and/or branching, relating to each other as separate components. In the aggregation model microlearning elements that are fundamentally similar are bundled or combined as a relatively unstructured entity or homogenous mass (“aggregate”). In the conglomerate model diverse micro elements are arrayed as a kind of assortment or “bouquet” of learning products and processes. In the emergence model ne w phenomena, coherent structures and qualities evolve from and between microlearning elements themselves.

In the multicomponent model micro aspects or contents are combined more or less systematically in sequences, linear, recursive and/or branching, relating to each other as separate components.

In the aggregation model microlearning elements that are fundamentally similar are bundled or combined as a relatively unstructured entity or homogenous mass (“aggregate”).

In the conglomerate model diverse micro elements are arrayed as a kind of assortment or “bouquet” of learning products and processes.

In the emergence model ne w phenomena, coherent structures and qualities evolve from and between microlearning elements themselves.

Outline of a Microlearning Agenda IV Institutional and corporate applications, centralized systems, constrained and standardized forms of communication and learning Personal learning environments, individualized sets of connections and socio-technical developments, learners control the tools and services and integrate them into their personal workflows “ Individual Setting ” (cf. Fiedler & Kieslinger, 2006, p. 81) “ Institutional Setting ” (cf. Fiedler & Kieslinger, 2006, p. 80)

Institutional and corporate applications, centralized systems, constrained and standardized forms of communication and learning

Personal learning environments, individualized sets of connections and socio-technical developments, learners control the tools and services and integrate them into their personal workflows

Critical Issues and Questions Underestimation of dimensions, power relations, efforts of "education towards truth" (cf. Hug 2008), and organized practices through which subjects are governed (cf. Weber & Maurer 2006)? Looking at the relation and relevance of institutional and personal aspects of learning environments, how can meaningful learning be promoted? Isn't it all about bits and pieces loosely joined (D. Weinberger)? Isn't microlearning the problem considered itself to be the solution? Isn't microlearning mainly about computer literacy or digital fluency? Which literacy modes have to be considered if we want to avoid technology fallacies? Along with that: If we think of microlearning other than in the sense of formal or informal modes of "flickering minds" (Oppenheimer 2003), how can we conceptualize educational claims and their relation to microlearning, literacy modes, as well to learning in formal, non-formal and informal contexts?

Underestimation of dimensions, power relations, efforts of "education towards truth" (cf. Hug 2008), and organized practices through which subjects are governed (cf. Weber & Maurer 2006)?

Looking at the relation and relevance of institutional and personal aspects of learning environments, how can meaningful learning be promoted?

Isn't it all about bits and pieces loosely joined (D. Weinberger)? Isn't microlearning the problem considered itself to be the solution?

Isn't microlearning mainly about computer literacy or digital fluency? Which literacy modes have to be considered if we want to avoid technology fallacies?

Along with that: If we think of microlearning other than in the sense of formal or informal modes of "flickering minds" (Oppenheimer 2003), how can we conceptualize educational claims and their relation to microlearning, literacy modes, as well to learning in formal, non-formal and informal contexts?

Conclusions Motto „Making use of the use of media for educational purposes“ Allow for episodic structures of learning processes Sound out limits of utilization of game based approaches and playful elements in the context of intentional didactical purposes and political goals in terms of democracy Need of fruitful perspectives of bridging popular culture and school environment, lifeworld and technology, learning in informal and formal contexts Is there a “tertium datur” in view of the opposition of reliable long-term knowledge and harmonious ideals of education vs. technologically driven “digital fluency” or the production of ”Flickering Minds” ( Oppenheimer 2003)? Education as Bricolage

Motto „Making use of the use of media for educational purposes“

Allow for episodic structures of learning processes

Sound out limits of utilization of game based approaches and playful elements in the context of intentional didactical purposes and political goals in terms of democracy

Need of fruitful perspectives of bridging popular culture and school environment, lifeworld and technology, learning in informal and formal contexts

Is there a “tertium datur” in view of the opposition of reliable long-term knowledge and harmonious ideals of education vs. technologically driven “digital fluency” or the production of ”Flickering Minds” ( Oppenheimer 2003)?

Education as Bricolage

Education based on Principles of Bricolage (cf. Hug 1996, 2008) Education as the competence of plurality Education as reflective ability to learn Education as “ antagonistic Education ” Explanation transversal competence, qualification to sensibly deal with and intervene in plural situations qualification to reflect processes of learning from several perspectives overcoming discursive constraints, abdication of harmonising ideals Thematic relevance dealing with lifeworlds as mediated worlds, metaphorical competence (re-)organisation of learning processes, media, affect and attention management reference modalities, modularisation and modalization of the experience of reality therefore Education as media education – education with media instead of against them Education in learning cultures of deliberation Education as the ability and qualification to manage differences

Thank you! P.S.: Want to learn more? Hug, Theo (Ed.): Didactics of Microlearning. Münster et al: Waxmann, 2007

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