microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices

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Information about microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices

Published on June 5, 2007

Author: deg511

Source: slideshare.net

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Module 3 of Creative Modeling for Tech Visionaries.

Creative Modeling for Technology Visionaries Qualitative & Simplified Quantitative Modeling for Product Creation Module 3: μ Creativity: History, Processes & Practices David E. Goldberg University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois 61801 [email_address]

Views of Creativity Variety of perspectives useful: Creativity as individual thought. Creativity as group activity. Creativity as complex, social psychology. Be warned about seeking the answer because of creativity’s complexity. Be warned against linguistic rigidity. What other perspectives useful & can we extract & apply key principles?

Variety of perspectives useful:

Creativity as individual thought.

Creativity as group activity.

Creativity as complex, social psychology.

Be warned about seeking the answer because of creativity’s complexity.

Be warned against linguistic rigidity.

What other perspectives useful & can we extract & apply key principles?

Roadmap Other views: C as history. C as generative vision. C as heuristic inventive process. C as eliminating resistance/blocks. Brainstorming as a structured process. Ricestorming as a shortcut when little time.

Other views:

C as history.

C as generative vision.

C as heuristic inventive process.

C as eliminating resistance/blocks.

Brainstorming as a structured process.

Ricestorming as a shortcut when little time.

Creativity as History See history as creative spirit or force reflecting larger collective. Read some history of technology. Particular effective account is Burke’s The Pinball Effect. One darn invention enabling (bumping into) another. One opportunity opens up another. G. W. F Hegel (1770-1831)

See history as creative spirit or force reflecting larger collective.

Read some history of technology.

Particular effective account is Burke’s The Pinball Effect.

One darn invention enabling (bumping into) another.

One opportunity opens up another.

From Perms to the Gold Rush Contingency and dependency of technological advance. 1911: Charles Nessler created permanent with curlers & borax paste. Borax dirt cheap because of deposits in Death Valley, CA. Yankee Clippers brought goods to East Coast & UK from California. Brought immigrants to California that resulted in the 1849 Gold Rush.

Contingency and dependency of technological advance.

1911: Charles Nessler created permanent with curlers & borax paste.

Borax dirt cheap because of deposits in Death Valley, CA.

Yankee Clippers brought goods to East Coast & UK from California.

Brought immigrants to California that resulted in the 1849 Gold Rush.

Creativity as Generative Vision Ferguson, E. S. (1992). Engineering and the mind’s eye. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Engineers produce set of drawings and specs: Produce the object itself Precision of drawings hides informal choices and inarticulate judgments. Artisan v. Engineering: No drawings v. drawings.

Ferguson, E. S. (1992). Engineering and the mind’s eye. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Engineers produce set of drawings and specs:

Produce the object itself

Precision of drawings hides informal choices and inarticulate judgments.

Artisan v. Engineering: No drawings v. drawings.

Origins of Modern Engineering Strength of profession in breadth & depth of its foundation. Hi-tech gets the buzz, but 80 percent around for decades or centuries or more. Renaissance notebooks. Duke of Savoy’s engineer, Francesco Paciotto da Urbino (1504-1576): fortress design. No chicken or egg: Engineering starts with drawings not equations.

Strength of profession in breadth & depth of its foundation.

Hi-tech gets the buzz, but 80 percent around for decades or centuries or more.

Renaissance notebooks.

Duke of Savoy’s engineer, Francesco Paciotto da Urbino (1504-1576): fortress design.

No chicken or egg: Engineering starts with drawings not equations.

Tools: Perspective Linear perspective: invention of the renaissance. Alberti’s window.

Linear perspective: invention of the renaissance.

Alberti’s window.

Orthographic Projection Durer’s use in 1525 for art. Gaspard Monge introduced in textbook late 1700s, but examples exist before then. Other types of projections. Sketches: Thinking sketch: clarifying to self Prescriptive sketch: directing the drafter Talking sketch: napkin talk between engineers When we remove drawing from engineering do we remove creativity? http://www.engr.uvic.ca/~engr150/Graphics/Lab2/ortho_movie.gif

Durer’s use in 1525 for art.

Gaspard Monge introduced in textbook late 1700s, but examples exist before then.

Other types of projections.

Sketches:

Thinking sketch: clarifying to self

Prescriptive sketch: directing the drafter

Talking sketch: napkin talk between engineers

When we remove drawing from engineering do we remove creativity?

C as Inventive Heuristic Process Koen, B. (2003). Discussion of the method: Conducting the engineer’s approach to problem solving. New York: Oxford University Press. Weber, R. J. (1992). Forks, phonographs, and hot-Air balloons: A field guide to inventive thinking. New York: Oxford University Press. Goldberg, D. E. (2002). The design of innovation: Lessons from and for competent genetic algorithms. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Various works on TRIZ: Russian system of invention due to Genrich Altshuller: www.altriz.org .

Koen, B. (2003). Discussion of the method: Conducting the engineer’s approach to problem solving. New York: Oxford University Press.

Weber, R. J. (1992). Forks, phonographs, and hot-Air balloons: A field guide to inventive thinking. New York: Oxford University Press.

Goldberg, D. E. (2002). The design of innovation: Lessons from and for competent genetic algorithms. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Various works on TRIZ: Russian system of invention due to Genrich Altshuller: www.altriz.org .

Process of Selection & Variation Like natural selection and genetics. Choose the good designs following applying heuristic operators that may yield improvement. For example, selection + recombination or crossover. Literary descriptions versus computational-mathematical.

Like natural selection and genetics.

Choose the good designs following applying heuristic operators that may yield improvement.

For example, selection + recombination or crossover.

Literary descriptions versus computational-mathematical.

Types of Heuristics Addition of variables Change of variables Tweak variables Recombine combinations of variables Transform variables Change by analogy to another field/domain. Heuristics associated with physical laws.

Addition of variables

Change of variables

Tweak variables

Recombine combinations of variables

Transform variables

Change by analogy to another field/domain.

Heuristics associated with physical laws.

Possibilities w/ Billions of Variables http :// www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/114068026/ABSTRACT?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0

C as Removing Blocks Other approaches positively prescriptive. Approaches that remove negativity or obstacles fairly common: Adams, J. L. (1986). Conceptual blockbusting: A guide to better ideas (3rd ed.). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Pressfield, S. (2002). The war of art. New York: Rugged Land.

Other approaches positively prescriptive.

Approaches that remove negativity or obstacles fairly common:

Adams, J. L. (1986). Conceptual blockbusting: A guide to better ideas (3rd ed.). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Pressfield, S. (2002). The war of art. New York: Rugged Land.

What Steven Pressfield Knows Writing isn’t hard. Sitting down to write is hard. Resistance prevents us from sitting down to write (or design, or start a company, or invent, or ???).

Writing isn’t hard.

Sitting down to write is hard.

Resistance prevents us from sitting down to write (or design, or start a company, or invent, or ???).

The Unlived Life vs. the Life We Live What Pressfield knows: Writing isn’t hard. Sitting down to write is hard. Resistance prevents us from sitting down to write (or design, or start a company, or invent, or ???). Resistance is the distance between the two. Ever Quit a diet? Stop exercising? Give up on a dream? The “what if I got cancer tomorrow?” test.

What Pressfield knows:

Writing isn’t hard.

Sitting down to write is hard.

Resistance prevents us from sitting down to write (or design, or start a company, or invent, or ???).

Resistance is the distance between the two.

Ever

Quit a diet?

Stop exercising?

Give up on a dream?

The “what if I got cancer tomorrow?” test.

Resistance’s Greatest Hits Writing, painting, dance, music. Entrepreneurial activity. Diet or health regime. Program of spiritual advancement. Program to overcome addiction. Education. Act of moral or political courage. Commitments of the heart.

Writing, painting, dance, music.

Entrepreneurial activity.

Diet or health regime.

Program of spiritual advancement.

Program to overcome addiction.

Education.

Act of moral or political courage.

Commitments of the heart.

Resistance is Insidious: it lies. Implacable: like Jaws. Impersonal: Just business. Infallible: More important, more resistance. Universal: Happens to all. Fueled by fear: Like Star Trek episode. More powerful at the finish line:

Insidious: it lies.

Implacable: like Jaws.

Impersonal: Just business.

Infallible: More important, more resistance.

Universal: Happens to all.

Fueled by fear: Like Star Trek episode.

More powerful at the finish line:

Combating Resistance Turning Pro: Sit down regularly to do what’s necessary. Difference between urgent and important. Do the important. Pro’s already: At our jobs. Show up everyday. Show up no matter what. Don’t over-identify with Stay all day. Learn technique Committed for long haul. Have sense of humor. Stakes high and real. Accept remuneration. Accept praise or blame in the real world.

Turning Pro: Sit down regularly to do what’s necessary.

Difference between urgent and important.

Do the important.

Pro’s already: At our jobs.

Show up everyday.

Show up no matter what. Don’t over-identify with

Stay all day. Learn technique

Committed for long haul. Have sense of humor.

Stakes high and real. Accept remuneration.

Accept praise or blame in the real world.

Why Brainstorming is Useful Trying to solve a problem, what happens? Some makes a suggestion. Someone else says why that can’t be done. Go to step 1. Leader announces his/her solution. Problems: Inadequate discussion of facets of the problem. Premature criticism of partial solutions. Mixed discussion of criteria, solutions, and objectives. Inhibition of full exploration by leader-follower dynamic.

Trying to solve a problem, what happens?

Some makes a suggestion.

Someone else says why that can’t be done.

Go to step 1.

Leader announces his/her solution.

Problems:

Inadequate discussion of facets of the problem.

Premature criticism of partial solutions.

Mixed discussion of criteria, solutions, and objectives.

Inhibition of full exploration by leader-follower dynamic.

Structured Brainstorming Overcomes these problems through meeting process design. Osborn (1953) developed brainstorming technique. Many variants, but principle is sound. Create first, criticize later. Need props, roles, and process.

Overcomes these problems through meeting process design.

Osborn (1953) developed brainstorming technique.

Many variants, but principle is sound.

Create first, criticize later.

Need props, roles, and process.

Props & Roles Props Large flip charts: for recording transactions. Adhesive tape: for posting flip charts around. Large, felt-tip marker: for writing on flip charts. Roles: Scribe: not a leader; records transactions, w/ little interpretation. Participants: scribe can hand off marker to participate.

Props

Large flip charts: for recording transactions.

Adhesive tape: for posting flip charts around.

Large, felt-tip marker: for writing on flip charts.

Roles:

Scribe: not a leader; records transactions, w/ little interpretation.

Participants: scribe can hand off marker to participate.

Process Discuss the mess. Define the problem. Generate solution alternatives. Generate and select solution criteria. Rate alternatives according to criteria. Select proposed solution or solutions.

Discuss the mess.

Define the problem.

Generate solution alternatives.

Generate and select solution criteria.

Rate alternatives according to criteria.

Select proposed solution or solutions.

Hints and Kinks No war stories: Make your point. No arguing merits during mess, idea generation, or criteria generation. Absolutely do criteria after idea generation (avoids filtering of novelty). Can shortcut rating with sticker voting.

No war stories: Make your point.

No arguing merits during mess, idea generation, or criteria generation.

Absolutely do criteria after idea generation (avoids filtering of novelty).

Can shortcut rating with sticker voting.

Ricestorm: From Thinkertoys Michalko, M. (1991). Thinkertoys: A Handbook of Business Creativity. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press. Steps (for problem understanding or solution): Leader expresses area of concern. Each person writes facts (one per card) on cards related to concern. Redistribute cards. Leader picks and reads one card. Others select related facts. Give grouping a name. Continue until all words in name sets.

Michalko, M. (1991). Thinkertoys: A Handbook of Business Creativity. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press.

Steps (for problem understanding or solution):

Leader expresses area of concern.

Each person writes facts (one per card) on cards related to concern.

Redistribute cards.

Leader picks and reads one card.

Others select related facts.

Give grouping a name.

Continue until all words in name sets.

Bottom Line Creativity treated as mystery. Not explained by differential equations. Do know something about it. Key point is conflict between critical thinking and creative thought. Create first, criticize later. Can draw from many sources for creative inspiration, solutions, & overcoming resistance.

Creativity treated as mystery.

Not explained by differential equations.

Do know something about it.

Key point is conflict between critical thinking and creative thought.

Create first, criticize later.

Can draw from many sources for creative inspiration, solutions, & overcoming resistance.

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