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Information about Microbiology

Published on February 24, 2014

Author: regan444

Source: authorstream.com

Microbiology: Microbiology Pre-AP Bacteria and Viruses Objectives: Objectives Determine how the two groups of prokaryotes differ Understand the techniques used to identify different prokaryotes. Know the importance of bacteria in day to day life. Bacteria and Viruses: Bacteria and Viruses ____________ is the Latin word for poison. Dutch scientist ___________________ named the particles that caused Tobacco Mosaic Disease as a virus in 1892. In 1935, _______________ first isolated the true nature of viruses. He was trying to purify extracts of what caused the Tobacco Mosaic Disease. The extract did not behave like a bacteria but formed crystals. Viruses are _______________ and are composed of strands of _________________ and ______________. Virus Martinus Beijernick Wendell Stanley not alive RNA protein Bacteria and Viruses: Bacteria and Viruses Virus:_______________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ Capsid :______________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ Viruses range in size from 17 nm to 100 nm (1 nm = 10 -9 meters). A piece of DNA, RNA, or protein that infects the host’s cells A protein coat that surrounds the genetic material of a virus. Bacteria and Viruses: Bacteria and Viruses Envelope: ____________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ Is made of glycoproteins (sugar and proteins) and surrounds the capsid providing protection for the virus. Bacteria and Viruses: Bacteria and Viruses Most viruses have _______________ or _______________ shapes. The shape is dependent on the ____________________. helical polyhedral Type of proteins in the coat Bacteria and Viruses: Bacteria and Viruses Viruses are __________________________ ___________________________________ Two ways a virus can infect a cell: Lytic Infection: __________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ Lysogenic Infection: ______________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ Not considered to be alive since they are not composed of cells Virus infects the host cell, injects genetic material, causes host to become a virus factory Virus attacks host cell, injects genetic material, material fuses with cell DNA, cell becomes time bomb. Bacteria and viruses: Bacteria and viruses Prophage : ____________________________ _____________________________ Viruses are considered _____________ because they cause disease. Antibiotics are ________________ because viruses are not alive. They have no biological functions to interrupt. Viral DNA or RNA embedded into a host cell’s DNA pathogens not effective for viruses Bacteria and Viruses: Bacteria and Viruses Common Types of Viruses: ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ Common Cold (Rhino) Polio Warts influenza Small Pox Measles Mumps Chicken Pox Hepatitis West Nile Rabies Ebola Bacteria and Viruses: Bacteria and Viruses Bacteria and Viruses: Bacteria and Viruses ______________ used by some bacteria to move. ___________ is the genetic material for bacterium. ____________ makes protein for bacteria. ____________ are short appendages that help the bacteria attach to host cells and may be used to exchange genetic information. ____________ forms the inner lining of the bacterium and allows materials to move into and out of the cell. ____________ forms a jelly-like layer on the outside of the cell to keep the bacteria from drying out during harsh environmental changes. Flagellum DNA Ribosomes Pilli Cell membrane Envelope Bacteria and Viruses: Bacteria and Viruses ______________ was the first individual to determine that bacteria cause disease. ______________ determined that bacteria can be killed by a mold called Penicillin. ______________ was the first individual to successfully develop a vaccine. Jenner used the pus from Cow Pox to prevent Small Pox. _______________ helps prevent the contraction of a disease by causing the immune system to produce antibodies and memory cells. Memory cells produce antibodies any time the body is exposed to the same pathogen. Louis Pasteur Alexander Fleming Edward Jenner Immunization Bacteria and Viruses: Bacteria and Viruses Two types of Vaccine: ___________: the disease causing genes have been removed from the pathogen’s genetic code. ___________: the disease causing pathogen has been killed and the dead organisms injected into the body. Pathogens cause disease by two methods: _______________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ Attenuated live Heat killed Using cells for food – destroys the host cells Releasing toxins as waste product. Toxins are poisonous to the cell and elicit an immune response. Bacteria and Viruses: Bacteria and Viruses Controlling Bacteria: _______________ using heat. ______________ using heat to kill bacteria in food. ___________________ like hand sanitizers and bleaches. Preservation of food by ____________________ _________________________________________ Sterilization Pasteurization Antibacterial products Freezing, Canning Storing food in a refrigerated environment, salting Bacteria and Viruses: Bacteria and Viruses Antibiotics will not kill viruses. Prevention is the best method for combating viral disease. Washing hands, sanitizing, covering the mouth and nose when sneezing and refraining from touching the face and mouth. Virus-like agents called prions and viroids may also infect plants and animals. Viroids are bits of RNA without a capsid that cause disease in plants. Prions are bits of proteins that cause disease in animals. A prion is responsible for Creutzfeldt-Jakob (Mad Cow) disease in animals and humans. Bacteria and Viruses: Bacteria and Viruses Divisions of Eubacteria _________________: photosynthetic and have chloroplasts. _________________: derives energy from gasses like methane and ammonia. Important for Nitrogen fixation. _________________: cause enteric disease such as salmonella, and cholera. _________________: have flagella, live in the soil, and cause plant diseases. _________________: spiral cells that cause Lyme’s disease and Syphilis. _________________: filamentous bacteria associated with tooth decay, leprosy, and tuberculosis. Cyanobacteria Chemoautotroph Enterobacteria Pseudomonas Spirochetes Actinomycetes Bacteria and Viruses: Bacteria and Viruses Divisions of Eubacteria continued. _________________: responsible for Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever _________________: bacteria used in the making of yogurt, cheese, and sour-dough bread. __________________ Uncommon in nature. Live in extreme environments Cell membrane contains lipopolysaccharides (fats with many sugars) DNA is similar to many eukaryotes. Rickettsias Lactobacillus Archaebacteria Bacteria and Viruses: Bacteria and Viruses Divisions of Archaebacteria ______________: anaerobic bacteria that use methane for energy, produces methane as a by-product, and is generally found in swamps and the soil. _________________: inhabits very hot (thermal vents of underwater volcanoes and geysers) or acidic environments. ______________: live in very salty environments. Methanogens Thermoacidophiles Halophiles

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