Microbial Fuel Cell

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Information about Microbial Fuel Cell
Education

Published on March 11, 2014

Author: VinayDivakar5

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are cells that can generate electricity from organic matter or organic wastes.

A Geobacteria species oxidize organic waste and the by product electrons is transferred to the electrode.

It is similar to conventional fuel cells. But are electrochemical devices which undergo chemical reaction to power electronic devices.

Lot of R&D is going on to improve the efficiency of such cells. Since their output voltage generated is very low .

A type of MFC is the Benthic Unattended Generator also known as BUG.

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 1 Vinay Divakar CWB0912001, FT2012 M. Sc. (Engg.) in Electronic System Design Proposed Academic Guides : Mr. sreekrishna . Power Point Presentation Microbial Fuel Cell For Electricity Generation

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Overview . 2 Below are the topics to be discussed, they are as follows:  Introduction  Need for MFC or BUG  Principle of operation of MFC or BUG  Boosted MFC or BUG  Merits, Demerits and Applications of MFC  Summary  References

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Introduction 3  Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are cells that can generate electricity from organic matter or organic wastes.  A Geobacteria species oxidize organic waste and the by product electrons is transferred to the electrode.  It is similar to conventional fuel cells. But are electrochemical devices which undergo chemical reaction to power electronic devices.  Lot of R&D is going on to improve the efficiency of such cells. Since their output voltage generated is very low .  A type of MFC is the Benthic Unattended Generator also known as BUG.

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Need For BUG or MFC 4 .  BUG’s are used for powering electronic devices in Remote locations MFC’s are needed because the fossil fuels are getting depleted and it may lead to energy crisis in the future.  Nearly 86 percent of the power generated is by the combustion of fossil fuels, leading to an increased concentration of carbon di oxide and has become a major concern in the society  Presently this method has become a need in America for waste water treatment process producing electricity and thus reduces energy expenditure by 4.5 percent.

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Principle of operation of BUG  Anaerobic-- +ve (Anode)  Aerobic -ve (Cathode)  At anode, Bacteria breaks down organic matter to generate H+ (hydrogen ions) and e- (electrons)  Electrons flow from anode to cathode through the wire producing a low voltage o/p or current.  The hydrogen ions or H+ flows to the cathode through the membrane  At the cathode, H+ ions reacts with oxygen to liberate pure water. 5

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies BOOSTED MFC OR BUG  BUG output (Vmfc) boosted by the boost converter , battery is charged.  series of battery e.g. 12V+12V = 24V, drives the electronic device.  Q1 (off), diode=on ,stored L1 current charges C1 and flows to the load or batteries.  Q1 (on), diode off, L1 extracts charge from MFC and stored while c1 discharges  Two 12Volts sealed lead acid or lithium ion batteries 6

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies MERITS, DEMERITS AND APPLICATIONS OF MFC  MERITS 1. Portability is easy due to its compact size 2. Better alternative way of producing electricity than combustion methods 3. Using MFC’s will lead to conservation of energy for future 4. Long term investment, does not run out off life and so need not be replaced ever  DEMERITS 1. Certain conditions are required for the survival of the micro organisms 2. Presently the current density is not enough to run the heavy machinery 3. Most of the available mediators or semi permeable membrane are expensive .  APPLICATIONS 1. Used in the plants roots to generates power 2. Used to power pace maker in medical science field 3. Can supply power for long durations for devices in deep ocean or sea 7 .

8 SUMMARY  MFC’s is an eco-friendly way of generating electricity  Geobactria’s are responsible for breaking down organic matter to liberate electrons  Benthic unattended generator (BUG) is a type of MFC , which is designed to generate a voltage of 0.4V/meter sq of the electrode  Two electrodes and micro organisms is required for the operation of the MFC’s.  A DC/DC boost converter is used to amplify the output voltage of the MFC to charge the batteries for driving the device  More number of batteries connected in parallel can increase the efficiency  Used in medical science field, Discoveries inside deep ocean, NAVY or ministry of defense, for deep water monitoring.

9 Reference’s 1. Abdul Majeed Khan (2009) ‘ Electricity Generation by Microbial fuel cells’USA. 2. Jiexun Huang & Baolin Sun & Xiaobo Zhang (2009) ‘ Electricity generation at high ionic strength in microbial fuelcell by a newly isolated Shewanella marisflavi EP1’ September 30. 3. Jae-Do Park (2008) ‘Efficient Energy Harvester for Microbial Fuel Cells using DC/DC Converters’University of Colorado Denver, USA. 4. Robert Tyce, Jeffrey W. Book (2010) ‘Low Power Control Systems for Microbial Fuel Cell Batteries’US Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center, MS and Washington, D.C. 5. Nadeera Jayasinghe (2011) ‘ Metabolic Modeling of Spatial Heterogeneity of Biofilms in Microbial Fuel Cells’University of Toronto , Canada.

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies THANK YOU By – Vinay Divakar 10

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