Mi Libro Gramatica marissa wetz 2

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Published on May 8, 2014

Author: Wetzler

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Mi Libro Gramatica : Marisa Wetzler Mi Libro Gramatica Table of Contents: Imperfect Preterite Por vs. Para Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns Los Mandatos Present Subjunctive Subjunctive with Verbs of Will and Influence Commands Subjunctive Unas expresiones para el subjunctivo Subjunctive with verbs of emotion Common verbs of expression and emotion Subjunctive with doubt/disbelief/ uncertainity Subjunctive with conjunctions Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses Tu Commands Nosotros Commands Past Participles used as Adjectives Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Tense Conditional Tense Past Subjunctivve Table of Contents Imperfect: Give background events in a story Habitual or repeated actions Age Time/ date Interrupted activity Mental or emotional states Descriptions or feelings Physical characteristics No definite beginning or end Event or action in progress Imperfect Irregular Verbs Ir : iba , ibas , iba , ibamos , ibais , iban Ser : era, eras, era, eramos , erais , eran Ver : veia , veias , veia , veiamos , veiais , veian Triggers Todas los dias A menudo Frecuentamente Cada dia Siempre / nunca Los lunes Generalmente Mientra Muchas veces A veces Da vez en cuando Rara vez Preterite: Definite beginning and end * Empezó a nevar a las ocho de la mañana . ( It began to snow at eight in the morning .) One time action * Ellos llegaron a las ocho . ( They arrived at eight o'clock .) Narration * Fui a la escuela , hice tarea , y regrese a casa. (I went to school, did my homework, and returned home) Interupting action * Mi hermana lavaba la ropa cuando llego papa. ( My sister was washing clothes when dad arrived.) Preterite Fui Fuimos Fuiste Fuisteis Fue Fueron Di Dimos Diste Disteis Dio Dieron Ir / ser Dar i -y verbs * caer , creer , oir Lei Leimos Leiste Leisteis Leyo Leyeron Pedi Pedimos Pediste Pedisteis Pidio Pidierin Snakey Verbs Buscar Yo busque Jugar Yo jugue Almorzar Yo almorce Snakey - ir Dormi Dormimos Dormiste Dormisteis Dumio Dumieron Car,gar,zar PowerPoint Presentation: Por When given an exact time, de is used instead of por before la manana , la tarde , and la noche . Found in several idiomatic expressions por aqui ( around here ) por ejemplo ( for example ) por eso ( that’s why, therefore ) por fin ( finally ) Motion or general location, duration of an action, object of a search, means by which something is done, exchange or substitution, or unit of measure Para Destination, deadline or a specific time in future, purpose or goal plus infinitive, purpose plus noun or verb, the recipient of something, comparisons or opinions, employment Camine por el parque . ( I walked through the park. ) Camine para el parque . ( I walked towards the park.) PowerPoint Presentation:  Adjectives Short Mi (s) Nuestro (a/as/ os ) Tu(s) Vuestro (a/as/ os ) Su(s) Su(s) Long Form Mio(a) Nuestro (a) Tuyo (a) Vuestro (a) Suyo (a) Suyo (a) Mios (as) Nuestros (as) Tuyos (as) Vuestros (as) Suyos (as) Suyos (as) Plural Singular Pronouns To form a possessive pronoun, use the long form of the possessive adjective, then add: el, la, los, or las based on the gender and number of the noun. Attach the pronoun to a reflexive when using a reflexive in the infinitive form. Present Subjunctive: For most verbs, the present subjunctive is formed by following these three steps: Start with the yo form of the present indicitive Then drop the –o ending Then add the these endings: - ar verbs: -e, - es , -e, - emos , - éis , en - er and - ir verbs: -a, -as, -a, - amos , - áis , -an Present Subjunctive Only difference from Ud . and Uds . commands is tu form PowerPoint Presentation: Verbs of will & influence Commands: Used to give orders or advice. “ usted ” and “ ustedes ” form used Commands How to form commands: Convert to “ yo ” form Drop the –o For – ar ending verbs add -e ( usted ) or –en ( ustedes form) For – er /- ir ending verbs add –a ( usted ) or –an ( ustedes form) Irregular and Stem changes Verbs with irregular “ yo ” forms stay the same Ex: conducir – conduzco – conduzca Stem changing verbs keep their stem changes in te “ yo ” form Ex: dormir – duermo – duerma Car  que = sacar - saque Gar  gu = jugar - juegue Zar c = almorzar - almuerce Irregular Formal Commands Infinitive Usted Ustedes dar dé den estar esté estén ir vaya vayan saber sepa sepan ser sea sean Negative commands To make a negative command place “no” before the verb. In affirmative commands, reflexive and object pronouns are attached to the end. When a verb that has TWO OR MORE SYLLABLES, an accent mark is added to the third syllable from the end. In negative commands the pronoun precede the verb. No ponga / Póngase / No se ponga Subjunctive: Subjunctive mood expresses the speakers attitude toward events, actions or states the speakers views as uncertain. Used to express: will and influence emotion doubt, disbelief and denial indefiniteness Subjunctive Used in sentences that have a main clause and subordinate clause. Main clause triggers the use of subjunctive in the subordinate clause. The word “ que ” connects the clauses. IRREGULAR Verbs with irregular “ yo ” form have the same irregularity. dar dé den estar esté estén ir vaya vayan saber sepa sepan ser sea sean Subjunctive follows the same rules for – ar /- er /- ir endings in command form : - ar and – er stem changing verbs have the same stem changes. Nosotros Changes The unstressed “e” chnages to “ i ” and the unstressed “o” changes to “u”. Dormir  durmamos Sentir  sintamos Pedir  pidamos Es importante que vayas a la escuela . PowerPoint Presentation: Unas expresiones para el subjunctivo Es malo que … Es necesario que … Es urgente que … Es importante que … Es mejor que … Es bueno que … Es triste que … Subjunctive with verbs of emotion: When the verb in the main clause expresses a feeling such as hope, fear, joy, pity, or surprise the subjunctive is required in the subordinate clause. Ex : Siento que tú no puedes venir mañana . If the verb follows right after the feeling of emotion or expression and there’s no change in subject, the INFINITIVE FORM is used. Ex: Temo - llegar tarde . (Infinitive form is used because there’s no change in subject). If there’s a change in subject the following verb will be conjugated in the subjunctive form. Ex: Temo que – mis padres lleguen tarde . (The following verb changes because there’s a change in subject) Ojalá ( que ) is always followed by the subjunctive. It is also optional to use “ que ”. Subjunctive with verbs of emotion PowerPoint Presentation: alegrarse – to be happy Common Verbs and Expression of Emotion molestar - to bother esperar - to hope; to wish gustar - to be pleasing; to like sorprender - to surprise es extraño - it’s strange tener miedo - to be afraid temer - to be worried, concerned sentir ( e:ie )- to be sorry; to regret Es terrible- it’s terrible Es ridículo - it’s ridiculous Ojalá – I hope, I wish Es triste - it’s sad Es una lástima - it’s a shame Subjunctive with doubt, disbelief, y uncertainty: Subjunctive with doubt, disbelief, y uncertainty The sunjunctive is used in the subordinate clause when there’s a change in subject and the expression in the main clause implies negation or uncertainty. The expressions “ qu í zas ” and “ tal vez ” are followed by subjunctive form because the express doubt. In affirmative sentences the expression is followed by an indicative. In negative sentences the expression is followed by the subjunctive. The indicative is used in the subordinate clause when there’s no doubt or uncertainty in the main clause. Word & Expressions of Doubt dudar – to doubt negar (e:ie) – to deny es improbable – it’s improbable no es cierto – it’s not true no es seguro – it’s not certain no es verdad – it’s not true Expressions of certainity no dudar – not to doubt no negar (e:1e) – not to deny estar seguro – to be certain es cierto – it’s true es seguro – it’s certain es verdad – it’s true es obvio – it’s obvious Subjunctive with conjunctions: Subjunctive with conjunctions Conjunctions are words or phrases that connect other words or clauses in sentences. The describe how, why, when and where an action takes place. Prepositions that are followed by verbs in the infinitive antes de – before para - so sin – without Example : Te llamamos antes de salir de la casa. Certain conjunctions can be followed by the subjunctive or the indicative depending on the circumstances. cuando – when despu és de que – after en cuanto – as soon as hasta que – until tan pronto como – as soon as Use the subjunctive if the main clause expresses a future action or command. Use the indicative if the main clause expresses a past or habitual action. Conjunctions that require the subjunctive a menos que – unless antes de que – before con tal de que – provided that en caso de que – in case (that) para que – so that sin que – without Subjunctive in Adjective Clause : Adjective clauses are subordinate clauses that modify a noun or pronoun in the main clause of a sentence. That noun or pronoun is called the antecedent. The subjunctive is used in an adjective clause that refers to an antecedent that is a person, place, thing, or idea that either does not exist or whose existence is uncertain or indefinite. When the adjective clause refers to a person, place, thing, or idea that is clearly known, the indicative is used. Main clause > conjunction > subordinate clause ( verb in the subjunctive ) Main clause > que > subordinate clause ( verb in the subjunctive ) Subjunctive in Adjective Clause Verbs with Adjective Clauses in the Subjunctive Necesitar Encontrar Querer Conocer Buscar Haber Tu Commands : Used when you want to give an order or advice to someone you normally address Hablar > habla Volver > vuelve Imprimir > imprime Ir and ver share ve Negative: put in yo form and change to opposite vowel, add an s Affirmative: simply drop the s Tu Commands Irregulars for Affirmative decir > di hacer > haz ir > ve poner > pon salir > sal ser > se tener > ten venir > ven Irregulars for Negative TVDISHES Nosotros Commands : Affirmative: put in yo form and then change to the opposite vowel Negative: same T tener : tengamos V venir : vengamos D dar : demos; decir : digamos I ir : vayamos S ser : seamos H hacer : hagamos ; haber : hayamos E estar : estemos S saber : sepamos Nosotros Commands Irregulars TVDISHES Past Participles used as Adjectives : - ar goes to – ado - er /- ir goes to – ido Past Participles used as Adjectives Present Perfect : Used to talk about what someone has done Present tense of haber + past participle he, has, ha, hemos , han Yo he adelgazado mucho. (I have lost a lot of weight.) Past participle does not change in form when it is part of the present perfect tense. Present Perfect Past Perfect : Used to talk about what someone had done or what had occurred before another past action, event, or state. Often used with the word ya (which means already) Cannot be placed between haber and past participle Julia ya se habia acostado . (Julia had already gone to bed.) Imperfect tense of haber + past participle Habia hecho Habia occurrido Past Perfect Future Tense : Future Tense Inifnitive + ar , er , ir e as a emos eis an Future of probability: use the same as above. Maybe, could be, probably, etc. Decir Dir - Hacer Har - Poner Pondr - Salir Saldr - Tener Tendr - Venir Vendr - Poder Podr - Querer Querr - Saber Sabr - Los Irregulares Conditional Tense: Expresses would/could/should Formed like the future tense Conditional Tense ia iamos ias iais ia an All endings are the same for er , ir , and ar. Inifnitive + ending Decir Dir - Hacer Har - Poner Pondr - Salir Saldr - Tener Tendr - Venir Vendr - Poder Podr - Querer Querr - Saber Sabr - Past Subjunctive : Also called the imperfect subjunctive Used mainly in multiple clause sentences which express states and conditions- will, influence, emotions, commands, indefiniteness, and nonexistence. The nosotros / nosotras form of past subjunctive always has written accent Past Subjunctive Drop the - ron ending from third person plural preterite form of verb - ra - ras - ra - ramos -ran *endings are the same for all verbs Imperfect subjunctive

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