MGT 358 F08 Ch 02 Foundations of Individ

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Information about MGT 358 F08 Ch 02 Foundations of Individ
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Published on November 26, 2008

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Ch. 2: Foundations of Individual Behavior : Ch. 2: Foundations of Individual Behavior MARS Model of Individual Behavior : Individual Behavior and Results Values Personality Perceptions Emotions Attitudes Stress MARS Model of Individual Behavior Source: McShane & VonGlinow, 2005 Employee Motivation : M A R S BAR Employee Motivation Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntary choice of behavior direction intensity persistence Source: McShane & VonGlinow, 2005 Employee Ability : M A R S BAR Employee Ability Natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task An individual’s capacity to perform a task competencies  personal characteristics that lead to superior performance person  job matching select qualified people develop employeeabilities through training redesign job to fit person's existing abilities Source: McShane & VonGlinow, 2005 Employee Ability : Employee Ability Ability varies across individuals Three types of ability Physical (strength) Emotional (EI) Intellectual (IQ) Abilities and dependent variables? Person-job fit is a contingency variable in these relationships Types of Ability : Types of Ability Emotional Intelligence Non-cognitive skills in coping with interpersonal demands and pressures Five dimensions Self-awareness: ability to recognize what you’re feeling Self-management: ability to manage own emotions and impulses Self-motivation: ability to persist in face of failure Empathy: ability to sense how others are feeling Social skills: ability to handle the emotions of others Types of Ability : Types of Ability Physical ability Strength factors Dynamic strength Trunk strength Static strength Explosive strength Flexibility factors Extent flexibility Dynamic flexibility Other factors Body coordination Balance Stamina Types of Ability : Types of Ability Physical abilities and dependent variables? Emotional intelligence and dependent variables? Person-job fit is a contingency variable in these relationships Person-job Fit : Person-job Fit The person… brings abilities has needs The job… makes demands offers “supplies” Person-job Fit : Person-job Fit Need-supply fit strong predictor of certain dependent variables Absenteeism Turnover Job satisfaction Ability-demand fit better predictor of other dependent variables Performance Employee Role Perceptions :  M A R S BAR Employee Role Perceptions Beliefs about what behavior is required to achieve the desired results: understanding what tasks to perform understanding relative importance of tasks understanding preferredbehaviors to accomplish tasks Source: McShane & VonGlinow, 2005 Situational Factors : M A R S BAR Situational Factors Environmental conditions beyond the individual’s short-term control that constrain or facilitate behavior time people budget work facilities Source: McShane & VonGlinow, 2005 Biographical Characteristics : Biographical Characteristics Basic dependent variables Productivity Absenteeism Turnover Job satisfaction Organizational Citizenship Behavior Biographical characteristics more visible and more easily measured Biographical Characteristics : Biographical Characteristics Basic dependent variables Productivity Absenteeism Turnover Job satisfaction Organizational Citizenship Behavior Biographical characteristics more visible and more easily measured Biographical Characteristics : Biographical Characteristics Age Workforce demographics Legislation Perceptions and stereotypes Positive: experience, judgment, strong work ethic, commitment Negative: lack flexibility, resistant to new technology, productivity erodes over time Biographical Characteristics : Biographical Characteristics Age and job performance? Research shows no relationship, virtually all jobs Age and absenteeism? Older employees have higher total number of absences Older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence Older employees have higher rates of unavoidable absence Biographical Characteristics : Biographical Characteristics Age and absenteeism? “Avoidability” is a contingency variable Biographical Characteristics : Biographical Characteristics Age and turnover? Older employees are less likely to quit Age and job satisfaction? Evidence is mixed Some studies show older employees being more satisfied Other studies show professionalism as a contingency variable: professionals grow in satisfaction as they age non-professionals decrease in satisfaction until middle age, then increase Biographical Characteristics : Biographical Characteristics Sex (male or female) and performance? Research shows no consistent differences between men and women in problem-solving ability, analytical skills, competitive drive, motivation, sociability, or learning ability Some minor differences Women are more conforming to authority Men are more aggressive and have greater expectations of success Biographical Characteristics : Biographical Characteristics Sex and absenteeism? Women have higher rates of absenteeism Women more likely to prefer flexible work schedule (e.g., part-time, telecommute) Sex and turnover? Research evidence is mixed Sex and job satisfaction? No evidence of differences between men and women Biographical Characteristics : Biographical Characteristics Marital status and performance? Not enough studies to draw conclusion Marital status and absenteeism? Married people are absent less Marital status and turnover? Married people undergo less turnover Marital status and job satisfaction? Married people are more satisfied Causation is unclear Biographical Characteristics : Biographical Characteristics Tenure (time in job) and performance? More senior employees more productive Tenure and absenteeism? More senior employees absent less Tenure and turnover? More senior employees turnover less Tenure and job satisfaction? More senior employees are more satisfied Theories of Learning : Theories of Learning Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) Unconditioned stimulus Scent of meat Unconditioned response Dog salivates Conditioned stimulus Ring bell Conditioned response Dog salivates + Theories of Learning : Theories of Learning Operant Conditioning (Skinner) Positive Stimuli (add, remove) Negative Stimuli (add, remove) Increase Desired Behavior Decrease Undesired Behavior Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Extinction Punishment Schedules of Reinforcement : Schedules of Reinforcement Source: Robbins, 2003 Theories of Learning : Theories of Learning Social Learning Influence of models is key Influence depends on Attention: people only learn when they pay attention Retention: people can only learn if they can retain modeled behavior after model is gone Motor reproduction: the watching must be converted to doing Reinforcement: modeled behavior must be rewarded “Learning” occurs for relatively simple tasks; self-efficacy (motivation) increased for even complex tasks Basic Measurement Issues : Basic Measurement Issues Measurement of many human characteristics and interpersonal processes is imperfect Examples Leadership Stress Motivation Strict research methodologies have been developed to ensure the best measurement possible Large, random samples Measurement instruments refined through multiple trials Basic Measurement Issues : Basic Measurement Issues Two essential criteria for good measurement Reliability “Repeatability” Consistent results of measurement Validity “Accuracy” Construct validity: Are we measuring what we want to measure? Predictive validity: Does what we are measuring predict what we expect it to predict? Basic Measurement Issues : Basic Measurement Issues Reliable and Valid Valid but not Reliable Reliable but not Valid Neither Reliable nor Valid X Basic Measurement Issues : Basic Measurement Issues “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal…” The level of many human characteristics, including ability, vary widely across individuals Basic Measurement Issues : Basic Measurement Issues Source: www.sunderland.ac.uk/ ~ds0ine/normal.htm Intellectual Ability : Intellectual Ability General Cognitive Ability (IQ) is perhaps the most studied psychometric property It is one of the most reliable measures we have It is among the most content valid measures in use today It exhibits exceptionally high predictive validity Intellectual Ability : Intellectual Ability Content validity Number aptitude Verbal comprehension Perceptual speed Inductive reasoning Deductive reasoning Spatial visualization Memory General intelligence is “multi-faceted” Predictive validity Specific ability tests will be good predictors of performance on specific tasks Job performance is “multi-faceted” General intelligence is our best predictor of general job performance in most, if not all, jobs Intellectual Ability : Intellectual Ability The topic of differences in IQ is “taboo” Test validity is questioned Validity is not a question among scientists Other forms of intelligence are advanced Importance of IQ is not diminished by, nor diminishes importance of, other forms of intelligence Adverse impact and unequal opportunity arguments are made Enormous scrutiny and review has failed to reveal test bias Multiple test procedures confirm similar results Acknowledgement of differences invites charges of elitism and racism Intellectual Ability : Intellectual Ability Differences in physical abilities and many other human characteristics exist across groups Differences confirmed in numerous studies using numerous approaches Note: This figure is for discussion purposes only and is not meant to portray the actual distributions nor the true magnitude of differences. Management Issues Related to Intellectual Ability : Management Issues Related to Intellectual Ability Understand legal restrictions on using IQ for employment purposes NEVER treat an individual as a group Discriminatory and illegal Foolish gamble IQ Score Frequency Low High Hire a person because their group average (1) is higher, and you might get this person (2). And, you stand a chance of missing this person (3), this person (4), and this person (5). 1 2 3 4 5 Note: This figure is for discussion purposes only and is not meant to portray the actual distributions nor the true magnitude of differences. Management Issues Related to Intellectual Ability : Management Issues Related to Intellectual Ability From the perspective of effective management practices, group differences in IQ are essentially irrelevant, because good managers… Assess job requirements Select the best person for the job, based on individual characteristics (NOT group characteristics) Doing this results in good person-job fit

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